1Department of Bioengineering, Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 3Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 4Department of Orthopedics, Gates Center for Regenerative Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
1Developmental Biology, The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS, The University of Edinburgh
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University College of Dentistry
1School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol
1Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, 4Department of Engineering Technology, University of Memphis
Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner
The quality of water destined for use in agricultural, recreational, and domestic settings is of great importance due to the potential for outbreaks of waterborne disease. Microbial agents implicated in such events include parasites, bacteria, and viruses that are shed in high numbers in the feces of infected people and animals. Transmission to new and susceptible hosts may then occur via the fecal-oral route upon ingestion of contaminated water. Therefore, the ability to monitor water sources for the presence of pathogenic microorganisms is significant in order to ensure public health.
Due to the sheer number and variety of potential fecal-oral pathogens that may be present in water and their variable concentrations, it is impractical and expensive to assay directly for each one of them on a regular basis. Therefore, the microbiological assays for water quality monitoring employ coliform indicator bacteria. Coliforms comprise, in part, the normal intestinal microflora of warm-blooded mammals, are non-pathogenic, and are consistently excreted in the feces. Therefore, the detection of coliform bacteria in water means that a fecal release occurred, and that harmful pathogenic m…
1Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto
1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University Medical Center
1Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Proteomics Platform, Broad Institute
1Laboratory of Cell and Tissue Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 2Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine
Source: Julianna Jung, MD, FACEP, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA
For unstable patients requiring urgent administration of medications, fluids, or blood products, establishing vascular access quickly is essential. However, there are many factors that can complicate placement of a peripheral intravenous cannula (PIV), and it is extremely common for PIV attempts to fail. PIV placement may be technically challenging in small children, injection drug users, obese people, people with chronic illnesses necessitating frequent vascular access, and in those with burns and other skin conditions. Furthermore, for patients in shock, blood is shunted away from the periphery in order to compensate for impaired perfusion of vital organs, making peripheral vessels difficult to find and
Emergency Medicine and Critical Care
To dissect genetic processes or create organisms with novel suites of traits, scientists can perform genetic crosses, or the purposeful mating of two organisms. The recombination of parental genetic material in the offspring allows researchers to deduce the functions, interactions, and locations of genes.
This video will examine how genetic crosses were influential in developing Mendel's three laws of inheritance, which form the basis of our understanding of genetics. One genetic crossing technique that was first developed for single-celled organisms such as yeast, known as tetrad analysis, will then be presented in detail, followed by some examples of how this classical tool is used in genetic studies today.