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Human Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.

Development and Reproduction of the Laboratory Mouse

JoVE 5159

Successful breeding of the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) is critical to the establishment and maintenance of a productive animal colony. Additionally, mouse embryos are frequently studied to answer questions about developmental processes. A wide variety of genetic tools now exist for regulating gene expression during mouse embryonic and postnatal development, which can help…

 Biology II

Zebrafish Reproduction and Development

JoVE 5151

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a popular model for studying genetics and developmental biology. The transparency of these animals at early developmental stages permits the direct visualization of tissue morphogenesis at the cellular level. Furthermore, zebrafish are amenable to genetic manipulation, allowing researchers to determine the effect of gene expression on the…

 Biology II

An Introduction to Drosophila melanogaster

JoVE 5082

Drosophila melanogaster, also known as the fruit fly, is a powerful model organism widely used in biological research that has made significant contributions to the greater scientific community over the last century. First, this video introduces the fruit fly as an organism, including its physical characteristics, life cycle, environment, and diet. Next, the reasons why fruit flies…

 Biology I

Threats to Biodiversity

JoVE 10951

There have been five major extinction events throughout geological history, resulting in the elimination of biodiversity, followed by a rebound of species that adapted to the new conditions. In the current geological epoch, the Holocene, there is a sixth extinction event in progress. This mass extinction has been attributed to human activities and is thus provisionally called the Anthropocene. In 2019 the human population reached 7.7 billion people and is projected to comprise 10 billion by 2060. Indicative of our impact, by biomass (the actual mass of a particular species), humans make up 36% of Earth’s mammals, livestock 60%, and wild mammals only 4%. Approximately 70% of all birds are poultry, so only 30% are wild. To minimize human impact on biodiversity and climate, we have to understand which of our activities are problematic and balance the needs of human civilization and progress with a sustainable plan for future generations. Some of the major threats to biodiversity include habitat loss due to human development, over-farming, and increased carbon dioxide emissions from factories and vehicles. A case study in human impact on the weather can be found in the 1930s event known as the Dust Bowl. In the 1920s and 30s, a large number of farmers moved to the Great Plains and clear cut the land, removing the native ground covering plants in order to

 Core: Biological Diversity

An Introduction to the Laboratory Mouse: Mus musculus

JoVE 5129

Mice (Mus musculus) are an important research tool for modeling human disease progression and development in the lab. Despite differences in their size and appearance, mice share a distinct genetic similarity to humans, and their ability to reproduce and mature quickly make them efficient and economical candidate mammals for scientific study.


This video provides a brief…

 Biology II

Gastrulation

JoVE 10909

Gastrulation establishes the three primary tissues of an embryo: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. This developmental process relies on a series of intricate cellular movements, which in humans transforms a flat, “bilaminar disc” composed of two cell sheets into a three-tiered structure. In the resulting embryo, the endoderm serves as the bottom layer, and stacked directly above it is the intermediate mesoderm, and then the uppermost ectoderm. Respectively, these tissue strata will form components of the gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and nervous systems, among other derivatives. Depending on the species, gastrulation is achieved in different ways. For example, early mouse embryos are uniquely shaped and appear as “funnels” rather than flat discs. Gastrulation thus produces a conical embryo, arranged with an inner ectoderm layer, outer endoderm, and the mesoderm sandwiched in between (similar to the layers of a sundae cone). Due to this distinct morphological feature of mice, some researchers study other models, like rabbit or chicken—both of which develop as flat structures—to gain insights into human development. One of the main morphological features of avian and mammalian gastrulation is the primitive streak, a groove that appears down the vertical center of the embryo, and through which cells migrate t

 Core: Reproduction and Development

Gene Silencing with Morpholinos

JoVE 5326

Morpholino-mediated gene silencing is a common technique used to study roles of specific genes during development. Morpholinos inhibit gene expression by hybridizing to complementary mRNAs. Due to their unique chemistry, morpholinos are easy to produce and store, which makes them remarkably cost effective compared to other gene silencing methods.


This video reviews proper…

 Developmental Biology

An Introduction to Caenorhabditis elegans

JoVE 5103

Caenorhabditis elegans is a microscopic, soil-dwelling roundworm that has been powerfully used as a model organism since the early 1970’s. It was initially proposed as a model for developmental biology because of its invariant body plan, ease of genetic manipulation and low cost of maintenance. Since then C. elegans has rapidly grown in popularity and is now utilized…

 Biology I

Habituation: Studying Infants Before They Can Talk

JoVE 10068

Source: Laboratories of Nicholaus Noles, Judith Danovitch, and Cara Cashon—University of Louisville


Infants are one of the purest sources of information about human thinking and learning, because they’ve had very few life experiences. Thus, researchers are interested in gathering data from infants, but as participants in…

 Developmental Psychology

Embryonic Stem Cells

JoVE 10811

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are undifferentiated pluripotent cells, meaning they can produce any cell type in the body. This gives them tremendous potential in science and medicine since they can generate specific cell types for use in research or to replace body cells lost due to damage or disease.

ES cells are present in the inner cell mass of an embryo at the blastocyst stage, which occurs at about 3–5 days after fertilization in humans before the embryo is implanted in the uterus. Human ES cells are usually derived from donated embryos left over from the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process. The cells are collected and grown in culture, where they can divide indefinitely—creating ES cell lines. Under certain conditions, ES cells can differentiate—either spontaneously into a variety of cell types, or in a directed fashion to produce desired cell types. Scientists can control which cell types are generated by manipulating the culture conditions—such as changing the surface of the culture dish or adding specific growth factors to the culture medium—as well as by genetically modifying the cells. Through these methods, researchers have been able to generate many specific cell types from ES cells, including blood, nerve, heart, bone, liver, and pancreas cells. Regenerative medicine concerns the creation of living, functio

 Core: Biotechnology

Stress-Strain Characteristics of Steels

JoVE 10361

Source: Roberto Leon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA


The importance of materials to human development is clearly captured by the early classifications of world history into periods such as the Stone Age, Iron Age, and the Bronze Age. The introduction of the Siemens and Bessemer…

 Structural Engineering

Ostracism: Effects of Being Ignored Over the Internet

JoVE 10336

Source: Peter Mende-Siedlecki & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


Social ostracism is defined as being ignored and excluded in the presence of others. This experience is a pervasive and powerful social phenomenon, observed in both animals and humans, throughout all stages of human development, and across all manner of dyadic…

 Social Psychology

Ex Vivo Infection of Human Lymphoid Tissue and Female Genital Mucosa with Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 and Histoculture

1Department of Medicine Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, 2Section of Intercellular Interactions, Eunice Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health

JoVE 57013

 Immunology and Infection

Navigating MARRVEL, a Web-Based Tool that Integrates Human Genomics and Model Organism Genetics Information

1Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Medical Scientist Training Program, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 4Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital, 5Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, 6Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, 7Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 59542

 Genetics

Rapid Detection of Neurodevelopmental Phenotypes in Human Neural Precursor Cells (NPCs)

1Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 3The Child Health Institute of NJ, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Services, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 4The Child Health Institute of NJ, Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 5Department of Genetics, Rutgers University

JoVE 56628

 Developmental Biology

Patterning the Geometry of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Colonies on Compliant Substrates to Control Tissue-Level Mechanics

1Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California San Francisco and University of California Berkeley, 2Center for Bioengineering and Tissue Regeneration, Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, 4Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, 5UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, Helen Diller Family Cancer Research Center, University of California San Francisco, 6Department of Anatomy, Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco

JoVE 60334

 Bioengineering

RNA-based Reprogramming of Human Primary Fibroblasts into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Charles C. Gates Center for Regenerative Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, 3Stem Cell Biobank and Disease Modeling Core, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus

JoVE 58687

 Developmental Biology

Generation of Scaffold-free, Three-dimensional Insulin Expressing Pancreatoids from Mouse Pancreatic Progenitors In Vitro

1Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Texas Children's Hospital, and Houston Methodist Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Molecular and Cellular Biology Department, Baylor College of Medicine, 4Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center, Baylor College of Medicine, 5McNair Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 57599

 Developmental Biology

Use of a Piglet Model for the Study of Anesthetic-induced Developmental Neurotoxicity (AIDN): A Translational Neuroscience Approach

1Department of Anesthesiology, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 3Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Anatomic Pathology, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, 5Department of Pathology and Anatomy, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 6Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital

JoVE 55193

 Medicine

Identification of Mediators of T-cell Receptor Signaling via the Screening of Chemical Inhibitor Libraries

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 2Singapore Immunology Network, A*STAR, 3Curiox Biosystems, 4Department of Immunobiology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit (KU) Leuven

JoVE 58946

 Immunology and Infection

Analyzing Dendritic Morphology in Columns and Layers

1Section on Neuronal Connectivity, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health (NIH), 3Biomedical Imaging Research Services Section, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health (NIH)

JoVE 55410

 Neuroscience

A Controlled Mouse Model for Neonatal Polymicrobial Sepsis

1Department of Experimental Medicine, University of British Columbia, 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of British Columbia, 3Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, 4Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida

JoVE 58574

 Immunology and Infection

A Rapidly Incremented Tethered-Swimming Maximal Protocol for Cardiorespiratory Assessment of Swimmers

1Department of Physical Education, São Paulo State University (UNESP) at Bauru, 2Institute of Bioscience, Graduate Program in Human Development and Technology, São Paulo State University (UNESP) at Rio Claro, 3Ciper, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, 4Department of Science and Technology, School of Education, Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, 5CDP2T - Center for Product Development and Technology Transfer, Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, 6Universidade Europeia, 7Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 8Department of Biobehavioral Sciences, Teachers College, Columbia University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60630

 JoVE In-Press

Precision Implementation of Minimal Erythema Dose (MED) Testing to Assess Individual Variation in Human Inflammatory Response

1Department of Psychology, Virginia Tech, 2Graduate Program in Translational Biology, Medicine and Health, Virginia Tech, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, 4Department of Human Development and Family Science, Virginia Tech, 5Wellness Center, Virginia Tech, 6Department of Statistics, Virginia Tech, 7Department of Basic Science Education, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine

JoVE 59813

 Medicine

Establishment and Analysis of Three-Dimensional (3D) Organoids Derived from Patient Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis Specimens and their Xenografts

1Department of Urology, University of California, San Diego, 2Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 3Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of California, San Diego

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60367

 JoVE In-Press
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