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Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.

Neck Exam

JoVE 10180

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

Examination of the neck can be a challenge because of the many bones, joints, and ligaments that make up the underlying cervical spine. The cervical spine is composed of seven vertebrae stacked in gentle C-shaped curve. The anterior part of each vertebra is made up of the thick bony body, which is linked to the body above and below by intervertebral discs. These discs help provide stability and shock absorption to the cervical spine. The posterior elements of the vertebra, which include the laminae, transverse, and spinous processes and the facet joints, form a protective canal for the cervical spinal cord and its nerve roots. The cervical spine supports the head and protects the neural elements as they come from the brain and from the spinal cord. Therefore, injuries or disorders affecting the neck can also affect the underlying spinal cord and have potentially catastrophic consequences. The significant motion that occurs in the neck places the cervical spine at increased risk for injury and degenerative changes. The cervical spine is also a common source of radicular pain in the shoulder. For this reason, the neck should be evaluated as a routine part of every shoulder exam.


 Physical Examinations III

Safe Handling of Mineral Acids

JoVE 10370

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Taslima A. Zaman, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is defined as a water-soluble acid derived from inorganic minerals by chemical reaction as opposed to organic acids (e.g. acetic acid, formic acid). Examples of mineral acids include: • Boric acid (CAS No.10043-35-3) • Chromic acid (CAS No.1333-82-0) • Hydrochloric acid (CAS No.7647-01-0) • Hydrofluoric acid (CAS No. 7664-39-3) • Nitric acid (CAS No. 7697-37-2) • Perchloric acid (CAS No. 7601-90-3) • Phosphoric acid (CAS No.7664-38-2) • Sulfuric acid (CAS No.7664-93-9) Mineral acids are commonly found in research laboratories and their corrosive nature makes them a significant safety risk. Since they are important reagents in the research laboratory and often do not have substitutes, it is important that they are handled properly and with care. Some acids are even shock sensitive and under certain conditions may cause explosions (i.e., salts of perchloric acid).


 Lab Safety

Guidelines in Case of an Laboratory Emergency

JoVE 10379

Robert M. Rioux & Zhifeng Chen, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

The most common laboratory emergencies include chemical spills, fire or explosion, electric shock, and personnel injuries. Most laboratory accidents occur due to poor planning or lack of attention. Therefore, it's always better to prevent accidents (being proactive) than having to take any actions during an emergency (being reactive). For example, always wear proper personal protective equipment (PPE) in the laboratory. Regular laboratory inspection and equipment maintenance is beneficial to prevent laboratory accidents. However, once the emergency occurs, it's also essential to know what to do. Ensure your personal safety first and then call local emergency responders, when and if necessary. The extent of your response will depend on the seriousness of the incident and documented laboratory protocols for dealing with such incidents. Stay calm and take proper actions according to the type and level of emergency.


 Lab Safety

Working with Hot and Cold Sources

JoVE 10366

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Suprita Jharimune, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

Working with extreme temperatures, both high and low, is an integral part of many laboratory operations. For many, mentioning a laboratory instantly evokes the mental picture of a Bunsen burner. Bunsen burners and hot plates are used extensively in small and large operations in research laboratories and industries, thus making it necessary for all users to be aware of their safe handling procedures. Hot plates and Bunsen burners are high temperature heat sources, while low temperatures are obtained using dry ice and cryogenic liquids, such as liquid nitrogen. Both dry ice and liquid nitrogen can pose significant hazards to the user if not handled carefully.


 Lab Safety

Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures

1Integrated Research Facility at Frederick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2Environmental Health and Safety, Biological and Chemical Safety Program, University of Texas Medical Branch

JoVE 52317


 Immunology and Infection

Emergency Eyewash and Shower Stations

JoVE 10373

Robert M. Rioux, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) mandates that an emergency eyewash and shower station be easily accessible in all workplaces in which a person could be exposed to injurious and/or corrosive substances. Emergency eyewash and shower stations should be used in the case of a laboratory or workplace accident that involves the spilling of a harmful, possibly corrosive chemical onto the body or the splashing of such a chemical into the eyes. Eyewash and shower stations are not, however, a replacement for proper protective equipment (PPE), including laboratory coats and protective eyewear, which should always be worn when handling hazardous chemicals. For proper selection of PPE, refer to your organization's Environmental Health & Safety (EHS) office.


 Lab Safety

Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging

1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 2The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, 3National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5William Fremd High School, 6University of Virginia, 7Duke University, 8Yale University, 9University of Notre Dame, 10Washington University in St. Louis, 11Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology

JoVE 2770


 Immunology and Infection

General Approach to the Physical Exam

JoVE 10043

Source: Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

The examination of the body is fundamental to the practice of medicine. Since the Roman Empire, physicians have described the connection between alterations in function of specific parts of the body and specific disease states and have sought to further scientific understanding to improve bedside diagnosis. However, in this modern age of increasing technology within medical diagnostics, it is important to consider the role that physical examination plays today. It is misguided to believe that physical examination holds all the answers, and much has been written about the questionable utility of certain maneuvers previously held in high regard. It is equally misguided to suggest that physical examination plays little role in the modern patient encounter. Physical examination remains a valuable diagnostic tool; there are many diagnoses that can only be made by physical examination. A diagnosis made by labs or imaging is rarely done in the absence of findings detectable at the bedside. As the provider conducts a history and physical, they are actively generating and testing hypotheses to explain the patient's condition. The information one gathers may not replace the need


 Physical Examinations I

Chemical Storage: Categories, Hazards And Compatibilities

JoVE 10380

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Taslima A. Zaman, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

While the use of various chemicals in experimental research is essential, it is also important to safely store and maintain them as a part of the Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) program. The properties of chemicals and their reactivity vary broadly and if chemicals are not managed, stored, and labeled properly, they can have harmful or even destructive consequences such as toxic fume production, fire or explosion, which may result in human fatality, property damage or environmental hazards. Therefore, an appropriate chemical label should identify the material and list the associated hazards, and users should have knowledge of how to read chemical labels and safety data sheets (SDS). Proper chemical storage must meet OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Association) standards and this can prevent most chemical reactivity hazards.


 Lab Safety

Aseptic Technique in Environmental Science

JoVE 10040

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner

Aseptic technique is a fundamental skill widely practiced in the field of environmental microbiology that requires a balance of mindfulness and practice in the laboratory. Proper use of this technique reduces the likelihood of bacterial or fungal contamination of reagents, culture media, and environmental samples. Aseptic technique is also vital to ensure data integrity and maintain the purity of culture libraries that may be comprised of very rare and difficult to culture isolates. Sources of contamination in the laboratory environment include airborne microorganisms (including those adhering to dust and lint particles), microbes present on the laboratory bench workspace or on unsterilized glassware or equipment, and microbes transferred from the body and hair of the researcher. The use of aseptic technique is also a safety measure that lowers the potential for the transmission of microorganisms to researchers, which is particularly important when working with pathogens.


 Environmental Microbiology

Quantitation of Protein Expression and Co-localization Using Multiplexed Immuno-histochemical Staining and Multispectral Imaging

1Division of Urologic Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, 2Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 4O’Brien Urology Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

JoVE 53837


 Biology

Functionalization and Dispersion of Carbon Nanomaterials Using an Environmentally Friendly Ultrasonicated Ozonolysis Process

1Aerospace Division, Defence Science and Technology Group, 2Maritime Division, Defence Science and Technology Group, 3Department of Chemistry and Physics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, 5Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 6Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware

JoVE 55614


 Environment

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