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الفصل 34
مقدمة في التنوع النباتي
From Water to Land Kingdom Plantae first appeared about 410 million years ago as green algae transitioned from water to land. This land was a…
نباتات لاوعائية خالية من البذور
The diverse plant life on Earth—consisting of nearly 400,000 species—can be divided into three broad categories based on biological…
نباتات وعائية خالية من البذور
Seedless Vascular Plants Were the First Tall Plants on Earth Today, seedless vascular plants are represented by monilophytes and lycophytes.…
مقدمة في نباتات البذور
Most plants are seed plants—characterized by seeds, pollen, and reduced gametophytes. Seed plants include gymnosperms and…
تشريح النبات الأساسي: الجذور والسيقان والأوراق
The primary organs of vascular plants are roots, stems, and leaves, but these structures can be highly variable, adapted for the specific needs and…
الخلايا والأنسجة النباتية
Plant tissues are collections of similar cells performing related functions. Different plant tissues will have their own specialized roles and can be…
النسج الإنشائية ونمو النبات
Plants grow throughout their lives; this is called indeterminate growth, and it distinguishes plants from most animals. Although certain parts of…
النمو الأولي والثانوي في الجذور والبراعم
Vascular plants, which account for over 90% of the Earth’s vegetation, all undergo primary growth—which lengthens roots and shoots. Many…
التشكل الحيوي
Plant morphogenesis—the development of a plant’s form and structure—involves several overlapping developmental processes, including…
الحصول على الضوء
In order to produce glucose, plants need to capture sufficient light energy. Many modern plants have evolved leaves specialized for light…
الحصول على الماء والمعادن
Specialized tissues in plant roots have evolved to capture water, minerals, and some ions from the soil. Roots exhibit a variety of branching…
نقل الموارد لمسافات قصيرة
Short-distance transport refers to transport that occurs over a distance of just 2-3 cells, crossing the plasma membrane in the process. Small…
النسيج الوعائي الخشبي ونقل الموارد بالنتح
The xylem of vascular plants distributes water and dissolved minerals that are taken up by the roots to the rest of the plant. The cells that…
تنظيم النتح بالمسامات
During photosynthesis, plants acquire the necessary carbon dioxide and release the produced oxygen back into the atmosphere. Openings in the…
التكيفات التي تقلل من فقدان المياه
Though evaporation from plant leaves drives transpiration, it also results in loss of water. Because water is critical for photosynthetic reactions…
نقل اللحاء والسكر
Like many living organisms, plants have tissues that specialize in specific plant functions. For example, shoots are well adapted to rapid growth,…
نظام التربة البيئي
Plants obtain inorganic minerals and water from the soil, which acts as a natural medium for land plants. The composition and quality of soil depend…
العناصر الأساسية لتغذية النبات
Like all living organisms, plants require organic and inorganic nutrients to survive, reproduce, grow and maintain homeostasis. To identify nutrients…
أدوار البكتيريا والفطريات في تغذية النبات
Plants have the impressive ability to create their own food through photosynthesis. However, plants often require assistance from organisms in the…
النباتات الهوائية والطفيليات وآكلات اللحوم
Plants often form mutualistic relationships with soil-dwelling fungi or bacteria to enhance their roots’ nutrient uptake ability.…
الممر الخلوي الغشائي والممر البلازمي الغشائي
Plant growth depends on its ability to take up water and dissolved minerals from the soil. The root system of every plant is equipped with the…

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