Ultrasonography of the Adult Male Urinary Tract for Urinary Functional Testing

* These authors contributed equally
This article has been accepted and is currently in production


The incidence of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is increasing due to the aging population, resulting in a significant economic and quality of life burden. Transgenic and other mouse models have been developed to recreate various aspects of this multifactorial disease; however, methods to accurately quantitate urinary dysfunction and the effectiveness of new therapeutic options are lacking. Here, we describe a method that can be used to measure bladder volume and detrusor wall thickness, urinary velocity, void volume and void duration, and urethral diameter. This would allow for the evaluation of disease progression and treatment efficacy over time. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and the bladder was visualized by ultrasound. For non-contrast imaging, a 3D image was taken of the bladder to calculate volume and evaluate shape; the bladder wall thickness was measured from this image. For contrast-enhanced imaging, a catheter was placed through the dome of the bladder using a 27-gauge needle connected to a syringe by PE50 tubing. A bolus of 0.5 mL of contrast was infused into the bladder until a urination event occurred. Urethral diameter was determined at the point of the Doppler velocity sample window during the first voiding event. Velocity was measured for each subsequent event yielding a flow rate. In conclusion, high frequency ultrasound proved to be an effective method for assessing bladder and urethral measurements during urinary function in mice. This technique may be useful in the assessment of novel therapies for BPH/LUTS in an experimental setting.