In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (102)

Articles by Anoop Kumar in JoVE

Other articles by Anoop Kumar on PubMed

Plasticity and Reprogramming of Differentiated Cells in Amphibian Regeneration

Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. Aug, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12154368

Adult urodele amphibians, such as the newt, can regenerate their limbs and various other structures. This is the result of the plasticity and reprogramming of residual differentiated cells, rather than the existence of a 'reserve-cell' mechanism. The recent demonstrations of plasticity in mouse myotubes should facilitate comparative studies of the pathways that underlie the regenerative response, as well as proposing new approaches to promote mammalian regeneration.

The Regenerative Plasticity of Isolated Urodele Myofibers and Its Dependence on MSX1

PLoS Biology. Aug, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15314647

The conversion of multinucleate postmitotic muscle fibers to dividing mononucleate progeny cells (cellularisation) occurs during limb regeneration in salamanders, but the cellular events and molecular regulation underlying this remarkable process are not understood. The homeobox gene Msx1 has been studied as an antagonist of muscle differentiation, and its expression in cultured mouse myotubes induces about 5% of the cells to undergo cellularisation and viable fragmentation, but its relevance for the endogenous programme of salamander regeneration is unknown. We dissociated muscle fibers from the limb of larval salamanders and plated them in culture. Most of the fibers were activated by dissociation to mobilise their nuclei and undergo cellularisation or breakage into viable multinucleate fragments. This was followed by microinjection of a lineage tracer into single fibers and analysis of the labelled progeny cells, as well as by time-lapse microscopy. The fibers showing morphological plasticity selectively expressed Msx1 mRNA and protein. The uptake of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides directed to Msx1 led to a specific decrease in expression of Msx1 protein in myonuclei and marked inhibition of cellularisation and fragmentation. Myofibers of the salamander respond to dissociation by activation of an endogenous programme of cellularisation and fragmentation. Lineage tracing demonstrates that cycling mononucleate progeny cells are derived from a single myofiber. The induction of Msx1 expression is required to activate this programme. Our understanding of the regulation of plasticity in postmitotic salamander cells should inform strategies to promote regeneration in other contexts.

Newts

Current Biology : CB. Jan, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15668151

A Single-cell Analysis of Myogenic Dedifferentiation Induced by Small Molecules

Chemistry & Biology. Oct, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16242654

An important direction in chemical biology is the derivation of compounds that affect cellular differentiation or its reversal. The fragmentation of multinucleate myofibers into viable mononucleates (called cellularization) occurs during limb regeneration in urodele amphibians, and the isolation of myoseverin, a trisubstituted purine that could apparently activate this pathway of myogenic dedifferentiation in mammalian cells, generated considerable interest. We have explored the mechanism and outcome of cellularization at a single-cell level, and we report findings that significantly extend the previous work with myoseverin. Using a panel of compounds, including a triazine compound with structural similarity and comparable activity to myoseverin, we have identified microtubule disruption as critical for activation of the response. Time-lapse microscopy has enabled us to analyze the fate of identified mononucleate progeny, and directly assess the extent of dedifferentiation.

Appendage Regeneration in Adult Vertebrates and Implications for Regenerative Medicine

Science (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16373567

The regeneration of complex structures in adult salamanders depends on mechanisms that offer pointers for regenerative medicine. These include the plasticity of differentiated cells and the retention in regenerative cells of local cues such as positional identity. Limb regeneration proceeds by the local formation of a blastema, a growth zone of mesenchymal stem cells on the stump. The blastema can regenerate autonomously as a self-organizing system over variable linear dimensions. Here we consider the prospects for limb regeneration in mammals from this viewpoint.

Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination of Ground Water in the City of Hyderabad

Environment International. Feb, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16183122

Organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitous and persistent organic pollutants used widely throughout the world. Due to the extensive use in agriculture, organic environmental contaminants such as HCH, DDT along with other organochlorine pesticides are distributed globally by transport through air and water. The main aim of present study is to determine contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides in the ground water of Hyderabad City. Water samples were collected from 28 domestic well supplies of the city. For this study, random sampling technique was applied, all the samples were collected in high purity glass bottles and refrigerated at 4 degrees C until analysis. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) is used for the extraction of organochlorine pesticide residues in water sample. The collected water samples were pre-filtered through a 0.45 microg glass fiber filter (Wattman GF/F) to remove particulate matter and were acidified with hydrochloric acid (6N) to pH 2.5. Methanol modifier (BDH, for pesticide residue analysis, 10 mL) was added to water sample for better extraction. SPE using pre-packed reversed phase octadecyl (C-18 bonded silica) contained in cartridges was used for sample preparation. Prior to the extraction, the C-18 bonded phase, which contains 500 mg of bonded phase, was washed with 20 mL methanol. The sample was mixed well and allowed to percolate through the cartridges with flow rate of 10-15 mL/min under vacuum. After sample extraction, suction continued for 15 min to dry the packing material and pesticides trapped in the C-18 bonded phases were eluted by passing 10 mL hexane and fraction was evaporated in a gentle steam of Nitrogen. In all samples pesticide residues were analyzed by GC (Chemito-8510) with Ni63 ECD detector. Helium was used as carrier gas and nitrogen was used as make up gas. The injection technique was split/split less. All the samples analyzed were found to be contaminated with four pesticides i.e. DDT, beta-Endosulfan, alpha-Endosulfan and Lindane. DDT was found to range between 0.15 and 0.19 microg L(-1), beta-Endosulfan ranges between 0.21 and 0.87 microg L(-1), alpha-Endosulfan ranges between 1.34 and 2.14 microg L(-1) and Lindane ranges between 0.68 and 1.38 microg L(-1) respectively. These concentrations of pesticides in the water samples were found to be above their respective Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values for Humans.

DDT and HCH Residue Load in Mother's Breast Milk: a Survey of Lactating Mother's from Remote Villages in Agra Region

Environment International. Feb, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16199087

Breast milk is the natural and optimal food for the infants. In addition to meeting the nutritional needs, breast milk provides numerous immunological, developmental, psychological, ecological and practical advantages. The levels of the DDT and HCH residues in human milk collected from remote rural part of Agra were analysed. Beta and gamma isomers of HCH accounts for the major residue of total HCH excreted in breast milk. Delta-HCH was not detected in the samples. 95% of the samples were found to be contaminated with DDT and its metabolites. DDD was found in 88% of the samples analyzed. The total concentration of DDT and HCH were found lower than the previous studies carried out in India. The study shows the decreasing levels of these organochlorine pesticides from the environment. Total concentration of total DDT is higher than total HCH.

Telomerase Targeted Anticancer Bioactive Prodrug by Antisense-based Approach

Cancer Letters. Apr, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 16950563

A deoxy 11-mer oligonucleotide 5'-GTTAGGGTTAG-3', complementary to a repeat sequence of human telomerase RNA template has been linked through phosphate and a C-2 linker to a bioactive tetraglycine conjugate of curcumin, a well-known antitumor herbal spice component of turmeric. This molecule has been transfected into KB and HeLa cell lines and found to affect cell growth in the former. This DNA-curcumin-tetraglycine acts as a prodrug being targeted by antisense mechanism to telomerase.

Persistence and Dissipation Kinetics of Spiromesifen in Chili and Cotton

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Sep, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17171254

In a field study carried out at three different locations, the dissipation of spiromesifen on cotton and chili was studied and its DT50, and DT99 were estimated at each location. Spiromesifen was sprayed on chili at 96 and 192 g a.i. ha(-1) and cotton at 120 and 240 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of chili fruits were drawn at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 21, 30 days after treatment and that of cotton seed and lint at first picking and harvest. Soil samples were drawn 30 days after treatment from 0 to 15 and 15 to 30 cm layer. Quantification of residues was done on GC-MS in Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode in mass range 271-274 m/z. The LOQ of this method was found 0.033 microg g(-1), LOD being 0.01 microg g(-1). The DT50 of spiromesifen when applied at recommended doses in chili fruits was found to be 2.18-2.40 days. Ninety-nine percent degradation was found to occur within 14.5-16.3 days after application. Residues of spiromesifen were not detected in cotton seed and lint samples at the first picking. In soil, no residues of spiromesifen were detectable 15 days after treatment.

Dissipation Kinetics of Spiromesifen on Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Under Tropical Conditions

Chemosphere. Jun, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17307225

Spiromesifen (Oberon) is a new insecticide and miticide of chemical class ketoenol active against white flies (Bemisia spp., Trialeuroides spp.) and spider mites (Tetranychus and Panonychus spp.). Due to its potential significance in insect resistance management, it is important to establish its behaviour on crop and environment. In the present study, the degradation/dissipation of spiromesifen on tea crop under tropical environmental conditions was studied and its DT(50) (t(1/2)), and DT(90) (time to reduce to 90% of the initial value) were estimated. Spiromesifen was sprayed on tea crop after first rain flush at four different locations @ 96 and 192ga.i.ha(-1). Samples of tea leaves were drawn at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 21 and 30 days after treatment and that of soil at 10 days after treatment and at harvest from 0 to 15 and 15 to 30cm layers. After crude extraction of tea leaves for spiromesifen residues with acetone:water, the contents were partitioned with cyclohexane:ethyl acetate and cleaned up on Florosil column. Soil residues were also extracted similarly. Quantification of residues was done on GC-MS in Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode in mass range 271-274m/z. The LOQ of this method was found to be 0.05microgg(-1) while LOD being 0.015microgg(-1). The DT(50) of spiromesifen when applied at recommended doses in tea leaves was found to be 5.0-8.5 days. Ninety-nine percent degradation was found to occur within 33-57 days after application. In soil, no residues of spiromesifen were detectable 10 days after treatment.

Preparation of Cultured Myofibers from Larval Salamander Limbs for Cellular Plasticity Studies

Nature Protocols. 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17446893

Identification of the mechanisms underlying cellular plasticity in salamander cells is important because these may give pointers to the restricted regenerative ability of mammals. The myofibers from salamanders are remarkable for their ability to undergo cellularization and cell-cycle re-entry during regeneration. Here, we describe a detailed method for the isolation and culture of larval salamander myofibers in numbers suitable for cellular plasticity studies. The basic protocol for isolation and purification of cells can be completed in 4 h.

Positional Identity of Adult Stem Cells in Salamander Limb Regeneration

Comptes Rendus Biologies. Jun-Jul, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17631442

Limb regeneration in larval and adult salamanders proceeds from a mound of mesenchymal stem cells called the limb blastema. The blastema gives rise just to those structures distal to its level of origin, and this property of positional identity is reset to more proximal values by treatment with retinoic acid. We have identified a cell surface protein, called Prod1/CD59, which appears to be a determinant of proximodistal identity. Prod1 is expressed in an exponential gradient in an adult limb as determined by detection of both mRNA and immunoreactive protein. Prod1 protein is up-regulated after treatment of distal blastemas with RA and this is particularly marked in cells of the dermis. These cells have previously been implicated in pattern formation during limb regeneration.

Molecular Basis for the Nerve Dependence of Limb Regeneration in an Adult Vertebrate

Science (New York, N.Y.). Nov, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17975060

The limb blastemal cells of an adult salamander regenerate the structures distal to the level of amputation, and the surface protein Prod 1 is a critical determinant of their proximodistal identity. The anterior gradient protein family member nAG is a secreted ligand for Prod 1 and a growth factor for cultured newt blastemal cells. nAG is sequentially expressed after amputation in the regenerating nerve and the wound epidermis-the key tissues of the stem cell niche-and its expression in both locations is abrogated by denervation. The local expression of nAG after electroporation is sufficient to rescue a denervated blastema and regenerate the distal structures. Our analysis brings together the positional identity of the blastema and the classical nerve dependence of limb regeneration.

Effects of Drop Acceleration and Deceleration on Particle Capture in a Cross-flow Gravity Tower at Intermediate Drop Reynolds Numbers

Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering. Apr, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 18476411

Cross-flow gravity towers are particle scrubbing devices in which water is sprayed from the top into particle-laden flow moving horizontally. Models for predicting particle capture assume drops traveling at terminal velocity and potential flow (ReD > 1000) around it, however, Reynolds numbers in the intermediate range of 1 to 1000 are common in gravity towers. Drops are usually injected at velocities greater than their terminal velocities (as in nozzles) or from near rest (perforated tray) and they accelerate/decelerate to their terminal velocity in the tower. Also, the effects of intermediate drop Reynolds number on capture efficiency have been simulated for (a) drops at their terminal velocity and (b) drops accelerating/decelerating to their terminal velocity. Tower efficiency based on potential flow about the drop is 40%-50% greater than for 200 mm drops traveling at their terminal velocity. The corresponding values for 500 mm drops are about 10%-20%. The drop injection velocity is important operating parameter. Increase in tower efficiency by about 40% for particles smaller than 5 mm is observed for increase in injection velocity from 0 to 20 m/s for 200 and 500mm drops.

Persistence and Vertical Distribution of Termiticide Fipronil in Modified Ground Board Test

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Feb, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17503207

Fipronil termiticide belongs to phenyl-pyrazole class of chemical compounds. It has broad-spectrum activity particularly against house hold pests such as cockroaches, mosquitoes, locusts, ticks, and fleas at both larval and adult stages. At high dosage it can be used to control subterranean termites in building foundations. To evaluate long term efficacy against termites the persistence and vertical distribution of fipronil was studied under natural weather conditions of Dehradun, India. Fipronil was applied at four concentrations i.e. 0.05, 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% a.i ha(-1) by drenching 17 x 17 in.(2) plot prepared as per modified ground board test. Soil samples were collected after 22, 38 and 56 months of treatment up to the depth of 75 cm. The soil core was cut into five distinct sections i.e. 0-15, 15-30, 30-45, 45-60 and 60-75 cm depth. The residues were extracted by shaking 20 g soil sample with acetone. The acetone extract was concentrated and cleaned-up over florisil column. Fipronil residues were estimated on GLC at 220, 260, and 300 degrees C oven, injector and detector temperature respectively. Fipronil was found to persist beyond 56 months after application. Two metabolites viz. desulfinyl and sulfide-fipronil were detected in sampling after 22 months of application that also dissipated with time. Fipronil residues were found up to 60 cm depth. The residues in deeper layers dissipate slowly with time and after 56 months of treatment residues were detected only up to 30 cm depth.

Removal of Atrazine from Water by Low Cost Adsorbents Derived from Agricultural and Industrial Wastes

Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. May, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18357400

In the present study six adsorbents viz. wood charcoal, fly ash, coconut charcoal, saw dust, coconut fiber and baggasse charcoal were studied for their capacity to remove atrazine from water. The removal efficiency of different adsorbents varied from 76.5% to 97.7% at 0.05 ppm concentration and 78.5% to 95.5% at 0.1 ppm concentration of atrazine solution, which was less than removal efficiency of activated charcoal reported as 98% for atrazine (Adams and Watson, J Environ Eng ASCE 39:327-330, 1996). Wood charcoal was a cheap (Rs 15 kg(-1)) and easily available material in house holds. Since wood charcoal was granular in nature, it could be used for the removal of atrazine from water to the extent of 95.5%-97.7%. Fly ash is a waste product of thermal plant containing 40%-50% silica, 20%-35% alumina, 12%-30% carbon and unburnt minerals having a high pH of 9-10. It is very cheap and abundant material and has comparatively good adsorption capacity. It was found that fly ash effectively removed about 84.1%-88.5% atrazine from water at 0.05 and 0.1 ppm levels. Coconut shell is also waste product. Therefore, both are inexpensive. The removal efficiency of atrazine from water was 92.4%-95.2% by coconut shell charcoal and 85.9%-86.3% by coconut fiber. Sawdust is generally used as domestic fuel and found everywhere. It is also very cheap (Re. 1 kg(-1)). Baggasse charcoal is a waste product of sugar mill and abundant material. Its cost is due to transport expense, which depends upon distance from the sugar mill. The removal efficiency of sawdust and baggasse charcoal was found 78.5-80.5 and 76.5-84.6, respectively. The efficacy of chemically treated adsorbents for the removal of atrazine from water is in the order: wood charcoal > coconut shell charcoal > fly ash > coconut fiber charcoal > baggasse charcoal > sawdust.

Comparative Aspects of Animal Regeneration

Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18598212

Most but not all phyla include examples of species that are able to regenerate large sections of the body plan. The mechanisms underlying regeneration on this scale are currently being studied in a variety of contexts in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Regeneration generally involves the formation of a wound epithelium after transection or injury, followed by the generation of regenerative progenitor cells and morphogenesis to give the regenerate. Common mechanisms may exist in relation to each of these aspects. For example, the initial proliferation of progenitor cells often depends on the nerve supply, whereas morphogenesis reflects the generation of positional disparity between adjacent cells-the principle of intercalation. These mechanisms are reviewed here across a range of contexts. We also consider the evolutionary origins of regeneration and how regeneration may relate to both agametic reproduction and to ontogeny.

Augmented Training of Hidden Markov Models to Recognize Remote Homologs Via Simulated Evolution

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). Jul, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19389731

While profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) are successful and powerful methods to recognize homologous proteins, they can break down when homology becomes too distant due to lack of sufficient training data. We show that we can improve the performance of HMMs in this domain by using a simple simulated model of evolution to create an augmented training set.

New Isocyanate-specific Albumin Adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI) in Rats

Chemical Research in Toxicology. Dec, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19928878

4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important of the isocyanates used as intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main types of damage after exposure to low levels of MDI are lung sensitization and asthma. Albumin adducts of MDI might be involved in the etiology of sensitization reactions. It is, therefore, necessary to have sensitive and specific methods for monitoring the isocyanate exposure of workers. To date, urinary metabolites or protein adducts have been used as biomarkers in workers exposed to MDI. However, with these methods it is not possible to determine whether the biomarkers result from exposure to MDI or to the parent aromatic amine 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA). This work presents a procedure for the determination of isocyanate-specific albumin adducts. In a long-term experiment, designed to determine the carcinogenic and toxic effects of MDI, rats were exposed chronically for 3 months, to 0.0 (control), 0.26, 0.70, and 2.06 mg MDI/m(3) as aerosols. Albumin was isolated from plasma, digested with Pronase E, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. MDI formed adducts with lysine: N(6)-[({4-[4-aminobenzyl]phenyl}amino)carbonyl]lysine (MDI-Lys) and N(6)-[({4-[4-(acetylamino)benzyl]phenyl}amino)carbonyl] lysine (AcMDI-Lys). For the quantitation of the adducts in vivo, isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure the adducts in 2 mg of albumin. The adducts found in vivo (MDI-Lys and AcMDI-Lys) and the corresponding isotope labeled compounds (MDI-[(13)C(6)(15)N(2)]Lys and Ac[(2)H(4)]MDI-Lys) were synthesized and used for quantitation. The MDI-Lys levels increased from 0-24.8 pmol/mg albumin, and the AcMDI-Lys levels increased from 0-1.85 pmol/mg albumin. The mean ratio of MDI-Lys/AcMDI-Lys for each dose level was greater than >20. The albumin adducts correlate with other biomarkers measured in the same rats in the past: urinary metabolites and hemoglobin adducts released after mild base hydrolysis. This method will enable one to measure isocyanate-specific albumin adducts in workers. This new biomonitoring procedure will allow for the assessment of suspected exposure sources and may contribute to the identification of individuals who are particularly vulnerable for developing bronchial asthma and other respiratory diseases after exposure to isocyanates. In addition, it will help to improve the production of antigens for the analysis of antibodies in exposed workers.

New Biomarkers for Monitoring the Levels of Isothiocyanates in Humans

Chemical Research in Toxicology. Apr, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20131755

Isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in cruciferous vegetables have demonstrated cancer preventive activity in animals, and increased dietary intake of ITCs has been shown to be associated with a reduced cancer risk in humans. ITCs exert their cancer chemopreventive action by multiple mechanisms, for example, by modulating the activities of phase I and phase II drug metabolism enzymes, by inhibiting the cell cycle and histone deacetylase, and by causing apoptotic cell death. In cells, protein adducts account for most of total cellular ITC uptake at 4 h after treatment. The time course of this protein binding correlates well with the inhibition of proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Animal studies have shown that glutathione conjugates are the major products of ITCs. The major urinary excretion products of ITCs in human are N-acetyl cysteine conjugates. Urinary metabolites might provide the exposure history of the last 24 h, if the urine of the full next day is collected. However, this is not feasible in large epidemiological studies. Furthermore, the mercapturic acids of ITC are not stable. Therefore, stable biomarkers are needed that reflect a larger time span of the ITC exposure history. We developed a method to determine stable (not cysteine adducts) reaction products of ITCs with albumin and hemoglobin in humans and mice. We reacted albumin with the ITCs: benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), sulforaphane (SFN), and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). After enzymatic digestion, we found one major product with lysine using LC-MS/MS. The identity of the adducts was confirmed by comparing the analyses with synthetic standards: N(6)-[(benzylamino)carbonothioyl]lysine (BITC-Lys), N(6)-{[(2-phenylethyl)amino]carbonothioyl}lysine (PEITC-Lys), N(6)-({[3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl]amino}carbonothioyl)lysine (SFN-Lys), and N(6)-[(allylamino]carbonothioyl]lysine (AITC-Lys). The adduct levels were quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using the corresponding new ITC-[(13)C(6)(15)N(2)]lysines as internal standards. The applicability of the method was tested for biological samples obtained from different experiments. In humans consuming garden cress, watercress, and broccoli and/or in mice exposed chronically to N-acetyl-S-{[(2-phenylethyl)amino]carbonothioyl}-l-cysteine, albumin and hemoglobin adducts were found. BITC-Lys, PEITC-Lys, and SFN-Lys released after enzymatic digestion of the proteins were quantified with LC-MS/MS. This new method will enable quantification of ITC adducts in blood proteins from large prospective studies about diet and cancer. Protein adducts are involved in the chemopreventive effects of ITCs. Therefore, blood protein adducts are a potential surrogate marker for the effects of ITCs at the cellular level. This new technique will improve the assessment of ITC exposure and the power of studies on the relationship between ITC intake and cancer.

Preparation and Culture of Limb Blastema Stem Cells from Regenerating Larval and Adult Salamanders

Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. Jan, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20150126

A Comparative Study of Gland Cells Implicated in the Nerve Dependence of Salamander Limb Regeneration

Journal of Anatomy. Jul, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20456522

Limb regeneration in salamanders proceeds by formation of the blastema, a mound of proliferating mesenchymal cells surrounded by a wound epithelium. Regeneration by the blastema depends on the presence of regenerating nerves and in earlier work it was shown that axons upregulate the expression of newt anterior gradient (nAG) protein first in Schwann cells of the nerve sheath and second in dermal glands underlying the wound epidermis. The expression of nAG protein after plasmid electroporation was shown to rescue a denervated newt blastema and allow regeneration to the digit stage. We have examined the dermal glands by scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with immunogold labelling of the nAG protein. It is expressed in secretory granules of ductless glands, which apparently discharge by a holocrine mechanism. No external ducts were observed in the wound epithelium of the newt and axolotl. The larval skin of the axolotl has dermal glands but these are absent under the wound epithelium. The nerve sheath was stained post-amputation in innervated but not denervated blastemas with an antibody to axolotl anterior gradient protein. This antibody reacted with axolotl Leydig cells in the wound epithelium and normal epidermis. Staining was markedly decreased in the wound epithelium after denervation but not in the epidermis. Therefore, in both newt and axolotl the regenerating axons induce nAG protein in the nerve sheath and subsequently the protein is expressed by gland cells, under (newt) or within (axolotl) the wound epithelium, which discharge by a holocrine mechanism. These findings serve to unify the nerve dependence of limb regeneration.

Recognition of Beta-structural Motifs Using Hidden Markov Models Trained with Simulated Evolution

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). Jun, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20529918

One of the most successful methods to date for recognizing protein sequences that are evolutionarily related, has been profile hidden Markov models. However, these models do not capture pairwise statistical preferences of residues that are hydrogen bonded in beta-sheets. We thus explore methods for incorporating pairwise dependencies into these models.

Determination of a New Biomarker in Subjects Exposed to 4,4'-methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate

Biomarkers : Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals. Sep, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20553091

4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important of the isocyanates used as intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main types of damage after exposure to low levels of MDI are lung sensitization and asthma. Albumin adducts of MDI might be involved in the etiology of sensitization reactions. This work presents a liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) procedure for determination of isocyanate-specific albumin adducts in humans. MDI formed adducts with lysine of albumin: MDI-Lys and AcMDI-Lys. The MDI-Lys levels, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th percentile, were 0, 65.2, 134, 244 fmol mg(-1) and 0, 30.5, 57.4, 95.8 fmol mg(-1) in the exposed construction and factory workers, respectively. This new biomonitoring procedure will allow assessment of suspected exposure sources and may contribute to the identification of individuals who are particularly vulnerable for developing bronchial asthma and other respiratory diseases after exposure to isocyanates.

The Probiotic Lactobacillus Plantarum Counteracts TNF-{alpha}-induced Downregulation of SMCT1 Expression and Function

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20671196

The major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is produced in the colonic lumen by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Butyrate serves as primary fuel for the colonocytes and also ameliorates mucosal inflammation. Disturbed energy homeostasis seen in inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease patients has been attributed to impaired absorption of butyrate. Since sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SMCT1, SLC5A8) has recently been shown to play a role in Na(+)-coupled transport of monocarboxylates, including SCFA, such as luminal butyrate, we examined the effects of proinflammatory TNF-α on SMCT1 expression and function and potential anti-inflammatory role of probiotic Lactobacillus species in counteracting the TNF-α effects. Rat intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-6 or human intestinal Caco-2 cells were treated with TNF-α in the presence or absence of Lactobacilli culture supernatants (CS). TNF-α treatments for 24 h dose-dependently inhibited SMCT1-mediated, Na(+)-dependent butyrate uptake and SMCT1 mRNA expression in IEC-6 cells and SMCT1 promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. CS of L. plantarum (LP) stimulated Na(+)-dependent butyrate uptake (2.5-fold, P < 0.05), SMCT1 mRNA expression, and promoter activity. Furthermore, preincubating the cells with LP-CS followed by coincubation with TNF-α significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of TNF-α on SMCT1 function, expression, and promoter activity. In vivo, oral administration of live LP enhanced SMCT1 mRNA expression in the colonic and ileal tissues of C57BL/6 mice after 24 h. Efficacy of LP or their secreted soluble factors to stimulate SMCT1 expression and function and to counteract the inhibitory effects of TNF-α on butyrate absorption could have potential therapeutic value.

Determination of New Biomarkers to Monitor the Dietary Consumption of Isothiocyanates

Biomarkers : Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals. Dec, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 21039313

Isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in cruciferous vegetables have been associated with a reduced cancer risk in humans. We determined serum albumin adducts of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), phenylethylisothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN) in 85 healthy men from a dietary, randomized, controlled trial. After enzymatic digestion of albumin we determined the adducts of the ITCs with lysine (Lys) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. At the beginning of the study (and after 4 weeks) 4.7% (2.4%), 48.2% (35.3%), 5.9% (10.6%), and 24.7% (23.5%) of the samples were found positive for AITC-Lys, BITC-Lys, PEITC-Lys and SFN-Lys, respectively. This method enables the quantification of ITC adducts in albumin from large, prospective studies on diet and cancer.

Epidermal Growth Factor Upregulates Serotonin Transporter in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Via Transcriptional Mechanisms

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Apr, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21273531

Serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates extracellular availability of serotonin and is a potential pharmacological target for gastrointestinal disorders. A decrease in SERT has been implicated in intestinal inflammatory and diarrheal disorders. However, little is known regarding regulation of SERT in the intestine. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to influence intestinal electrolyte and nutrient transport processes and has protective effects on intestinal mucosa. Whether EGF regulates SERT in the human intestine is not known. The present studies examined the regulation of SERT by EGF, utilizing Caco-2 cells grown on Transwell inserts as an in vitro model. Treatment with EGF from the basolateral side (10 ng/ml, 24 h) significantly stimulated SERT activity (∼2-fold, P < 0.01) and mRNA levels compared with control. EGF increased the activities of the two alternate promoter constructs for human SERT gene: SERT promoter 1 (hSERTp1, upstream of exon 1a) and SERT promoter 2 (hSERTp2, upstream of exon 2). Inhibition of EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activity by PD168393 (1 nM) blocked the stimulatory effects of EGF on SERT promoters. Progressive deletions of the SERT promoter indicated that the putative EGF-responsive elements are present in the -672/-472 region of the hSERTp1 and regions spanning -1195/-738 and -152/+123 of hSERTp2. EGF markedly increased the binding of Caco-2 nuclear proteins to the potential AP-1 cis-elements present in EGF-responsive regions of hSERTp1 and p2. Overexpression of c-jun but not c-fos specifically transactivated hSERTp2, with no effects on hSERTp1. Our findings define novel mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of SERT by EGF via EGFR at the promoter level that may contribute to the beneficial effects of EGF in gut disorders.

Ace in the Hole!

Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases. 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21576925

The Aneurogenic Limb Identifies Developmental Cell Interactions Underlying Vertebrate Limb Regeneration

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21825124

The removal of the neural tube in salamander embryos allows the development of nerve-free aneurogenic limbs. Limb regeneration is normally nerve-dependent, but the aneurogenic limb regenerates without nerves and becomes nerve-dependent after innervation. The molecular basis for these tissue interactions is unclear. Anterior Gradient (AG) protein, previously shown to rescue regeneration of denervated limbs and to act as a growth factor for cultured limb blastemal cells, is expressed throughout the larval limb epidermis and is down-regulated by innervation. In an aneurogenic limb, the level of AG protein remains high in the epidermis throughout development and regeneration, but decreases after innervation following transplantation to a normal host. Aneurogenic epidermis also shows a fivefold difference in secretory gland cells, which express AG protein. The persistently high expression of AG in the epithelial cells of an aneurogenic limb ensures that regeneration is independent of the nerve. These findings provide an explanation for this classical problem, and identify regulation of the epidermal niche by innervation as a distinctive developmental mechanism that initiates the nerve dependence of limb regeneration. The absence of this regulation during anuran limb development might suggest that it evolved in relation to limb regeneration.

Touring Protein Space with Matt

IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Jan-Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21464511

Using the Matt structure alignment program, we take a tour of protein space, producing a hierarchical clustering scheme that divides protein structural domains into clusters based on geometric dissimilarity. While it was known that purely structural, geometric, distance-based measures of structural similarity, such as Dali/FSSP, could largely replicate hand-curated schemes such as SCOP at the family level, it was an open question as to whether any such scheme could approximate SCOP at the more distant superfamily and fold levels. We partially answer this question in the affirmative, by designing a clustering scheme based on Matt that approximately matches SCOP at the superfamily level, and demonstrates qualitative differences in performance between Matt and DaliLite. Implications for the debate over the organization of protein fold space are discussed. Based on our clustering of protein space, we introduce the Mattbench benchmark set, a new collection of structural alignments useful for testing sequence aligners on more distantly homologous proteins.

Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Simple Risk Scoring Does Work

European Journal of Anaesthesiology. Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21826006

Mucoid Impaction in a 15-year-old with Bronchial Atresia

Respiratory Care. Mar, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22005670

LPA Stimulates Intestinal DRA Gene Transcription Via LPA2 Receptor, PI3K/AKT, and C-Fos-dependent Pathway

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22159277

DRA (downregulated in adenoma) or SLC26A3 is the major apical anion exchanger mediating Cl(-) absorption in intestinal epithelial cells. Disturbances in DRA function and expression have been implicated in diarrheal conditions such as congenital chloride diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. Previous studies have shown that DRA is subject to regulation by short-term and transcriptional mechanisms. In this regard, we have recently shown that short-term treatment by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an important bioactive phospholipid, stimulates Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-)(OH(-)) exchange activity via an increase in DRA surface levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. However, the long-term effects of LPA on DRA at the level of gene transcription have not been examined. The present studies were aimed at investigating the effects of LPA on DRA function and expression as well as elucidating the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation. Long-term LPA treatment increased the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity in Caco-2 cells. LPA treatment (50-100 μM) of Caco-2 cells significantly stimulated DRA mRNA levels and DRA promoter activity (-1183/+114). This increase in DRA promoter activity involved the LPA2 receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways. Progressive deletions from -1183/+114 to -790/+114 abrogated the stimulatory effects of LPA, indicating that the -1183/-790 promoter region harbors LPA response elements. Utilizing EMSA and mutational studies, our results showed that LPA induced the DRA promoter activity in a c-Fos-dependent manner. LPA also increased the protein expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos but not c-Jun enhanced the DRA promoter activity. This increase in DRA transcription in response to LPA indicates that LPA may act as an antidiarrheal agent and could be exploited for the treatment of diarrhea associated with inflammatory or infectious diseases of the gut.

Prolongation of Carrageenan-induced Inflammation in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells by Activation of an NFκB-BCL10 Loop

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Aug, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22579587

Carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide that is widely used as a food additive, induces inflammatory responses in animal models and human cells. The carrageenan-induced inflammatory cascades involve toll-like receptor (TLR)4- and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma (BCL)10-dependent activation of NF-κB, leading to increased IL-8 production. Translocations involving BCL10 in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are associated with constitutive activation of NF-κB. This report presents a mechanism by which carrageenan exposure leads to prolonged activation of both BCL10 and NF-κB in human colonic epithelial cells. Study findings demonstrate that nuclear RelA and RelB bind to an NF-κB binding motif in the BCL10 promoter in human colonic epithelial NCM460 and HT-29 cells. In vitro oligonucleotide binding assay, non-radioactive gel shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) indicate binding of RelA and RelB to the BCL10 promoter. Prolonged inflammation follows activation of the BCL10-NFκB inflammatory loop in response to carrageenan, shown by increased BCL10, RelA, and IL-8 for 36 to 48h and increased RelB for 24h following withdrawal of carrageenan after 12h. In contrast, exposure to dextran sulfate sodium, which does not cause inflammation through TLR4 and BCL10 in the colonic epithelial cells, did not provoke prolonged activation of inflammation. The carrageenan-enhanced BCL10 promoter activity was blocked by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and MB-132 which inhibit NF-κB activation. These results indicate that NF-κB binding to the BCL10 promoter can lead to prolonged activation of the carrageenan-induced inflammatory cascade by a transcriptional mechanism involving an NF-κB-BCL10 loop.

A Novel Nutrient Sensing Mechanism Underlies Substrate-induced Regulation of Monocarboxylate Transporter-1

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22982338

Monocarboxylate transporter isoform-1 (MCT1) plays an important role in the absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon. Butyrate, a major SCFA, serves as the primary energy source for the colonic mucosa, maintains epithelial integrity, and ameliorates intestinal inflammation. Previous studies have shown substrate (butyrate)-induced upregulation of MCT1 expression and function via transcriptional mechanisms. The present studies provide evidence that short-term MCT1 regulation by substrates could be mediated via a novel nutrient sensing mechanism. Short-term regulation of MCT1 by butyrate was examined in vitro in human intestinal C2BBe1 and rat intestinal IEC-6 cells and ex vivo in rat intestinal mucosa. Effects of pectin feeding on MCT1, in vivo, were determined in rat model. Butyrate treatment (30-120 min) of C2BBe1 cells increased MCT1 function {p-(chloromercuri) benzene sulfonate (PCMBS)-sensitive [(14)C]butyrate uptake} in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The effects were associated with decreased intracellular cAMP levels, increased V(max) of butyrate uptake, and GPR109A-dependent increase in apical membrane MCT1 level. Nicotinic acid, an agonist for the SCFA receptor GPR109A, also increased MCT1 function and decreased intracellular cAMP. Pectin feeding increased apical membrane MCT1 levels and nicotinate-induced transepithelial butyrate flux in rat colon. Our data provide strong evidence for substrate-induced enhancement of MCT1 surface expression and function via a novel nutrient sensing mechanism involving GPR109A as a SCFA sensor.

Nerve Dependence in Tissue, Organ, and Appendage Regeneration

Trends in Neurosciences. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22989534

Many regeneration contexts require the presence of regenerating nerves as a transient component of the progenitor cell niche. Here we review nerve involvement in regeneration of various structures in vertebrates and invertebrates. Nerves are also implicated as persistent determinants in the niche of certain stem cells in mammals, as well as in Drosophila. We consider our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying nerve dependence, including evidence of critical interactions with glia and non-neural cell types. The example of the salamander aneurogenic limb illustrates that developmental interactions between the limb bud and its innervation can be determinative for adult regeneration. These phenomena provide a different perspective on nerve cells to that based on chemical and electrical excitability.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Upregulates Intestinal NHE3 Expression and Function

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23086913

A major mechanism of electroneutral NaCl absorption in the human ileum and colon involves coupling of Na(+)/H(+) and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers. Disturbances in these mechanisms have been implicated in diarrheal conditions. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus have been indicated to be beneficial in the management of gastrointestinal disorders, including diarrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying antidiarrheal effects of probiotics have not been fully understood. We have previously demonstrated Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) to stimulate Cl(-)/HCO3- exchange activity via an increase in the surface levels and expression of the Cl(-)/HCO3- exchanger DRA in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of LA on NHE3, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger involved in the coupled electroneutral NaCl absorption, are not known. Current studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the effects of LA on the function and expression of NHE3 and to determine the mechanisms involved. Treatment of Caco2 cells with LA or its conditioned culture supernatant (CS) for 8-24 h resulted in a significant increase in Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity, mRNA, and protein levels of NHE3. LA-CS upregulation of NHE3 function and expression was also observed in SK-CO15 cells, a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line. Additionally, LA treatment increased NHE3 promoter activity, suggesting involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. In vivo, mice gavaged with live LA showed significant increase in NHE3 mRNA and protein expression in the ileum and colonic regions. In conclusion, LA-induced increase in NHE3 expression may contribute to the upregulation of intestinal electrolyte absorption and might underlie the potential antidiarrheal effects of probiotics.

Synthetic Approaches to Obtain Amino Acid Adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate

Chemical Research in Toxicology. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23181454

4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important isocyanate used in the chemical industry. Lung sensitization and asthma are the main types of damage after exposure to MDI. Albumin adducts of MDI might be involved in the etiology of sensitization reactions. It is therefore necessary to have sensitive and specific biomarkers such as blood protein adducts to monitor people exposed to isocyanates. For the discovery of new isocyanate adducts with blood proteins present in vivo, new synthetic standards are needed. To achieve this, we developed five methods to obtain amino acid adducts of MDI. We synthesized and isolated MDI adducts of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine, and valine. The new adducts were characterized by LC-MS/MS and NMR. We synthesized the corresponding isotope-labeled MDI adducts to develop analytical methods using LC-MS/MS. Glutathione adducts of isocyanates are an important way of transportation of the reactive isocyanates to distant sites from the original site of exposure. Therefore, we used N-acetyl-cysteine adducts of MDI as reactants: N-acetyl-S-[[4-(4-aminobenzyl)phenyl]carbamoyl]-cysteine (MDI-AcCys) and N-acetyl-S-[[4-(4-acetylaminobenzyl)phenyl]carbamoyl]-cysteine (AcMDI-AcCys). MDI-AcCys or AcMDI-AcCys formed adducts with albumin, N(α)-acetyl lysine, and valine. Isotope-labeled albumin adducts (= d(4)-MDI-albumin) were synthesized from d(4)-MDI-AcCys and albumin. d(4)-MDI-albumin can be used as an internal standard to analyze biological samples. Such an internal standard will not correct only for the extraction recovery of the adducts but also for the potential variation of the enzymatic digestions used in the procedure to analyze albumin adducts of MDI. The synthetic procedures described in this manuscript will be applicable to the synthesis of amino acid adducts from other isocyanates.

Influence of Maternal Periodontal Disease As a Risk Factor for Low Birth Weight Infants in Indian Population

The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. Sep, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23250174

Low birth weight is a known problem worldwide and appears to be more pronounced in developing countries. In view of the implication of periodontal infection as one of the risk factors for low birth weight and considering the fact that in India only very few studies are conducted in this regard, the present study was conducted to determine whether maternal periodontal disease can act as a risk factor for low birth weight babies.

Regulation of Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Expression Via Epigenetic Mechanisms: Role of HDAC2

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23195070

The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) facilitates clearance of extracellular 5-HT by its uptake and internalization. Decreased expression of SERT and consequent high 5-HT levels have been implicated in various diarrheal disorders. Thus, appropriate regulation of SERT is critical for maintenance of 5-HT homeostasis in health and disease. Previous studies demonstrated that SERT is regulated via posttranslational and transcriptional mechanisms. However, the role of epigenetic mechanisms in SERT regulation is not known. Current studies investigated the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on SERT expression and delineated the mechanisms. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with the pan-HDAC inhibitors butyrate (5 mM) and trichostatin (TSA, 1 μM) decreased SERT mRNA and protein levels. Butyrate- or TSA-induced decrease in SERT was associated with decreased activity of human SERT (hSERT) promoter 1 (upstream of exon 1a), but not hSERT promoter 2 (upstream of exon 2). Butyrate + TSA did not show an additive effect on SERT expression, indicating that mechanisms involving histone hyperacetylation may be involved. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated enrichment of the hSERT promoter 1 (flanking nt -250/+2) with tetra-acetylated histone H3 or H4, which was increased (~3-fold) by butyrate. Interestingly, specific inhibition of HDAC2 (but not HDAC1) utilizing small interfering RNA decreased SERT mRNA and protein levels. The decrease in SERT expression by HDAC inhibition was recapitulated in an in vivo model. SERT mRNA levels were decreased in the ileum and colon of mice fed pectin (increased availability of butyrate) compared with controls fed a fiber-free diet (~50-60%). Our results identify a novel role of HDAC2 as a regulator of SERT gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells.

Analysis on Structural, SHG Efficiency, Optical and Mechanical Properties of KDP Single Crystals Influenced by Glycine Doping

Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23261614

Good quality single crystals of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KDP) were grown with different doping concentration of Glycine by conventional solution technique in aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction study has been carried out in order to see the effect of dopant on the structural parameters of KDP. There is no additional phase was observed which was further confirmed by Raman spectroscopic analysis. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by using Kurtz powder technique. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown crystals was found to be increased with doping concentration up to 2.5 mol%. Optical transmission study also revealed the same behaviour with enhancement up to 2.5 mol% concentration and later decreased but still higher than pure KDP. The mechanical strength was found to increase with increasing the doping concentration.

Keratinocyte Growth Factor-2 Stimulates P-glycoprotein Expression and Function in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23328208

Intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp/multidrug resistance 1), encoded by the ATP-binding cassette B1 gene, is primarily involved in the transepithelial efflux of toxic metabolites and xenobiotics from the mucosa into the gut lumen. Reduced Pgp function and expression has been shown to be associated with intestinal inflammatory disorders. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF2) has emerged as a potential target for modulation of intestinal inflammation and maintenance of gut mucosal integrity. Whether KGF2 directly regulates Pgp in the human intestine is not known. Therefore, the present studies were undertaken to determine the modulation of Pgp by KGF2 using Caco-2 cells. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with KGF2 (10 ng/ml, 1 h) increased Pgp activity (~2-fold, P < 0.05) as measured by verapamil-sensitive [(3)H]digoxin flux. This increase in Pgp function was associated with an increase in surface Pgp levels. The specific fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) antagonist PD-161570 blocked the KGF2-mediated increase in Pgp activity. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by PD-98059 attenuated the stimulatory effects of KGF2 on Pgp activity. Small-interfering RNA knockdown of Erk1/2 MAPK blocked the increase in surface Pgp levels by KGF2. Long-term treatment with KGF2 (10 ng/ml, 24 h) also significantly increased PgP activity, mRNA, protein expression, and promoter activity. The long-term effects of KGF2 on Pgp promoter activity were also blocked by the FGFR antagonist and mediated by the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our findings define the posttranslational and transcriptional mechanisms underlying stimulation of Pgp function and expression by KGF2 that may contribute to the beneficial effects of KGF2 in intestinal inflammatory disorders.

The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Region and TrnH-psbA [corrected] Are Suitable Candidate Loci for DNA Barcoding of Tropical Tree Species of India

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23460915

DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification has been successful in animals and other organisms, including certain groups of plants. The exploration of this new tool for species identification, particularly in tree species, is very scanty from biodiversity-rich countries like India. rbcL and matK are standard barcode loci while ITS, and trnH-psbA are considered as supplementary loci for plants.

Comparison of Urinary Protein: Creatinine Index and Dipsticks for Detection of Microproteinuria in Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR. Apr, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23730632

Proteinuria has been recognized as one of the earliest signs of renal function deterioration in Diabetes mellitus. Proteinuria occurs due to alterations in the glomerular permeability and later, due to a failure in the reabsorption of filtered protein by the tubular cells. Normally, most of the healthy adults excrete 20-150 mg of protein in urine over 24 hours.

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Buccal Mucosa

BMJ Case Reports. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23761566

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in the salivary glands of head and neck region. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumour include slow growth, perineural invasion and potential local recurrence. Up to 50% of these tumours occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. We present a case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right buccal mucosa. The peculiarity of the lesion and the approach we made is the key factor in the presentation.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Alleviates Platelet-activating Factor-induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24130731

Probiotics have been used as alternative prevention and therapy modalities in intestinal inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Pathophysiology of IBD and NEC includes the production of diverse lipid mediators, including platelet-activating factor (PAF) that mediate inflammatory responses in the disease. PAF is known to activate NF-κB, however, the mechanisms of PAF-induced inflammation are not fully defined. We have recently described a novel PAF-triggered pathway of NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), requiring the pivotal role of the adaptor protein Bcl10 and its interactions with CARMA3 and MALT1. The current studies examined the potential role of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in reversing the PAF-induced, Bcl10-dependent NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in IECs. PAF treatment (5 µM×24 h) of NCM460 and Caco-2 cells significantly increased nuclear p65 NF-κB levels and IL-8 secretion (2-3-fold, P<0.05), compared to control, which were blocked by pretreatment of the cells for 6 h with L. acidophilus (LA) or its culture supernatant (CS), followed by continued treatments with PAF for 24 h. LA-CS also attenuated PAF-induced increase in Bcl10 mRNA and protein levels and Bcl10 promoter activity. LA-CS did not alter PAF-induced interaction of Bcl10 with CARMA3, but attenuated Bcl10 interaction with MALT1 and also PAF-induced ubiquitination of IKKγ. Efficacy of bacteria-free CS of LA in counteracting PAF-induced inflammatory cascade suggests that soluble factor(s) in the CS of LA mediate these effects. These results define a novel mechanism by which probiotics counteract PAF-induced inflammation in IECs.

Extracellular Acidosis Stimulates NHE2 Expression Through Activation of Transcription Factor Egr-1 in the Intestinal Epithelial Cells

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24376510

Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) play important roles in regulating internal pH (pHi), cell volume and neutral Na(+) absorption in the human intestine. Earlier studies have shown that low extracellular pH (pHe) and metabolic acidosis increases the expression and function of NHE1-3 genes. However, transcriptional mechanisms involved remained unknown. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying acid-induced NHE2 expression in C2BBe1 and SK-CO15 intestinal epithelial cells. Assessing total RNA and protein by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, displayed significant increases in the NHE2 mRNA and protein levels in cells exposed to acidic media (pH 6.5 and 6.7) compared to normal medium. Acid treatment was also associated with a significant enhancement in NHE2 transport activity. Quantification of the heterogeneous nuclear RNA indicated that the rate of NHE2 transcription was increased in response to acid. Furthermore, acid caused a significant increase in NHE2 promoter activity confirming transcriptional upregulation. Through functional and mutational studies the acid-response element was mapped to a 15-nucleotide GC-rich sequence at bp -337 to -323 upstream from the transcription start site. We previously identified this element as an overlapping Egr-1/Sp1/Egr-1 motif that was essential for the NHE2 upregulation by mitogen-induced transcription factor Egr-1. Cells exposed to acid exhibited a temporal increase in Egr-1 mRNA and protein expression. These events were followed by Egr-1 nuclear accumulation, as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy, and potentiated its in vitro and in vivo interaction with the NHE2 promoter. Disruption of ESE motif and knockdown of Egr-1 expression by targeted small interfering RNA abrogated the acid-induced NHE2 transcriptional activity. These data indicate that the acid-dependent NHE2 stimulation is implemented by transcriptional upregulation of NHE2 via acid-induced Egr-1 in the intestinal epithelial cells.

The Effect of Geometric Variations in Posterior-stabilized Knee Designs on Motion Characteristics Measured in a Knee Loading Machine

Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 23917990

In different posterior-stabilized (PS) total knees, there are considerable variations in condylar surface radii and cam-post geometry. To what extent these variations affect kinematics is not known. Furthermore, there are no clearly defined ideal kinematics for a total knee.

Translational Repression of SLC26A3 by MiR-494 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24177028

SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] is a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. Altered DRA expression levels are associated with infectious and inflammatory diarrheal diseases. Therefore, it is critical to understand the regulation of DRA expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small RNAs that regulate protein expression via blocking the translation and/or promoting mRNA degradation. To investigate potential modulation of DRA expression by miRNA, five different in silico algorithms were used to predict the miRNAs that target DRA. Of these miRNAs, miR-494 was shown to have a highly conserved putative binding site in the DRA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) compared with other DRA-targeting miRNAs in vertebrates. Transfection with pmirGLO dual luciferase vector containing DRA 3'-UTR (pmirGLO-3'-UTR DRA) resulted in a significant decrease in relative luciferase activity compared with empty vector. Cotransfection of the DRA 3'-UTR luciferase vector with a miR-494 mimic further decreased luciferase activity compared with cells transfected with negative control. The transfection of a miR-494 mimic into Caco-2 and T-84 cells significantly increased the expression of miR-494 and concomitantly decreased the DRA protein expression. Mutation of the seed sequences for miR-494 in 3'-UTR of DRA abrogated the effect of miR-494 on 3'-UTR. These data demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism of DRA expression via miR-494 and indicate that targeting this microRNA may serve to be a potential therapeutic strategy for diarrheal diseases.

Deltamethrin Induced an Apoptogenic Signalling Pathway in Murine Thymocytes : Exploring the Molecular Mechanism

Journal of Applied Toxicology : JAT. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24217896

Deltamethrin (DLM) is a well-known pyrethroid insecticide; however, the immunotoxic effects of DLM on the mammalian system and its mechanism is still unclear. This study has been designed to first observe the binding affinity of DLM to immune cell receptors and its effects on the immune system. The docking score revealed that DLM has a strong binding affinity towards the CD4 and CD8 receptors. DLM induces apoptosis in murine thymocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. The ear\ly markers of apoptosis such as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-3 activation are evident as early as 1 h by 25 and 50 μM DLM. Glutathione (GSH) depletion has also been observed at 1 h by 50 μM DLM concentration. In cell-cycle studies using flow cytometry, the fraction of hypodiploid cells has gradually increased with all the concentrations of DLM at 18 h. The Annexin V binding assay measures the effect of DLM on apoptotic and necrotic cells. The apoptotic cells raised from 18.6% to 35.21% (10-50 μM DLM) at 18 h. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) effectively reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells which is increased by DLM. In contrast, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) caused an elevation in the percentage of apoptotic cells. These results demonstrate that caspase activation, ROS activation and GSH act as critical mediators in a DLM-induced apoptogenic signalling pathway in murine thymocytes. In the presence of caspase inhibitor, the percentage of apoptotic cells is partially decreased. Thus, there may be the possibility of some other caspase-independent pathways in DLM-induced apoptosis.

Mechanism of Immunotoxicological Effects of Tributyltin Chloride on Murine Thymocytes

Cell Biology and Toxicology. Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24573671

Tributyltin-chloride, a well-known organotin compound, is a widespread environmental toxicant. The immunotoxic effects of tributyltin-chloride on mammalian system and its mechanism is still unclear. This study is designed to explore the mode of action of tributyltin-induced apoptosis and other parallel apoptotic pathways in murine thymocytes. The earliest response in oxidative stress followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspase-3 activation has been observed. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl cysteine and buthionine sulfoximine effectively inhibited the tributyltin-induced apoptotic DNA and elevated the sub G1 population, respectively. Caspase inhibitors pretreatment prevent tributyltin-induced apoptosis. Western blot and flow cytometry indicate no translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G in the nuclear fraction from mitochondria. Intracellular Ca(2+) levels are significantly raised by tributyltin chloride. These results clearly demonstrate caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway and support the role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 activation, and calcium during tributyltin-chloride (TBTC)-induced thymic apoptosis.

Histochemical Analysis of Polarizing Colors of Collagen Using Picrosirius Red Staining in Oral Submucous Fibrosis

Journal of International Oral Health : JIOH. Feb, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24653600

Oral Submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a common potentially malignant disease, which is characterized by generalized fibrosis of the oral soft tissues. It is due to disproportion in the collagen deposition and degradation. The excess deposition of collagen results in juxta epithelial fibro elastic changes and epithelial atrophy. Neoplastic changes in the epithelium usually precede the changes in the connective tissue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in birefringence of collagen using picrosirius stain and compare with haematoxylin and eosin stained section.

Pharmacokinetic Characterization of Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) Fruit Extract Standardized to α-mangostin in C57BL/6 Mice

Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24774070

Previously, we have reported the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of α-mangostin in mice. For this study, we evaluated the PK profile of α-mangostin using a standardized mangosteen extract in C57BL/6 mice. The primary objective was to determine the PK properties of α-mangostin when administered as an extract. This experiment was designed to test our primary hypothesis that α-mangostin in an extract should achieve a desirable PK profile. This is especially relevant as dietary supplements of mangosteen fruit are regularly standardized to α-mangostin. Mice received 100 mg/kg of mangosteen fruit extract orally, equivalent to 36 mg/kg of α-mangostin, and plasma samples were analyzed over a 24-hour period. Concentrations of α-mangostin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, we evaluated the stability in the presence of phase I and phase II enzymes in liver and gastrointestinal microsomes. Furthermore, we identified evidence of phase II metabolism of α-mangostin. Further research will be required to determine if less abundant xanthones present in the mangosteen may modulate the PK parameters of α-mangostin.

Ultrasound Guided Rectus Sheath Blockade Compared to Peri-operative Local Anesthetic Infiltration in Infants Undergoing Supraumbilical Pyloromyotomy

Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia. Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24843338

Provision of appropriate analgesia for supraumbilical pyloromyotomy in infants is limited by concerns about sensitivity to opioids and other medication groups, due to immature metabolism. Local anesthetic infiltration and ultrasound guided rectus sheath blockade are two techniques commonly employed to provide perioperative analgesia. The aim of this review was to compare the quality of post-operative analgesia afforded by these two techniques.

Epigenetic Modulation of Intestinal Cholesterol Transporter Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) Gene Expression by DNA Methylation

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24904062

Intestinal NPC1L1 transporter is essential for cholesterol absorption and the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. NPC1L1 is differentially expressed along the gastrointestinal tract with very low levels in the colon as compared with the small intestine. This study was undertaken to examine whether DNA methylation was responsible for segment-specific expression of NPC1L1. Treatment of mice with 5-azacytidine (i.p.) resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in NPC1L1 mRNA expression in the colon. The lack of expression of NPC1L1 in the normal colon was associated with high levels of methylation in the area flanking the 3-kb fragment upstream of the initiation site of the mouse NPC1L1 gene in mouse colon as analyzed by EpiTYPER® MassARRAY®. The high level of methylation in the colon was observed in specific CpG dinucleotides and was significantly decreased in response to 5-azacytidine. Similar to mouse NPC1L1, 5-azacytidine treatment also increased the level of human NPC1L1 mRNA expression in the intestinal HuTu-80 cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Silencing the expression of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, -2, -3A, and -3B alone by siRNA did not affect NPC1L1 expression in HuTu-80 cells. However, the simultaneous attenuation of DNMT1 and -3B expression caused a significant increase in NPC1L1 mRNA expression as compared with control. Also, in vitro methylation of the human NPC1L1 promoter significantly decreased NPC1L1 promoter activity in human intestinal Caco2 cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrated for the first time that DNA methylation in the promoter region of the NPC1L1 gene appears to be a major mechanism underlying differential expression of NPC1L1 along the length of the gastrointestinal tract.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Attenuates Downregulation of DRA Function and Expression in Inflammatory Models

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25059823

Probiotics, including Lactobacilli, are commensal bacteria that have been used in clinical trials and experimental models for the prevention and treatment of diarrheal disorders. Our previous studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and its culture supernatant (CS) stimulated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity, acutely via an increase in the surface levels of downregulated in adenoma (DRA, SLC26A3) and in long-term treatments via increasing its expression involving transcriptional mechanisms. However, the role of LA in modulating DRA activity under inflammatory conditions is not known. Current in vitro studies using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells examined the efficacy of LA or its CS in counteracting the inhibitory effects of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) on Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity. Pretreatment of cells with LA or LA-CS for 1 h followed by coincubation with IFN-γ significantly alleviated the inhibitory effects of IFN-γ on Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity. In the in vivo model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis (3% in drinking water for 7 days) in C57BL/6J mice, administration of live LA (3 × 10(9) colony-forming units) via oral gavage attenuated colonic inflammation. LA administration also counteracted the colitis-induced decrease in DRA mRNA and protein levels. Efficacy of LA or its secreted soluble factors in alleviating inflammation and inflammation-associated dysregulation of DRA activity could justify their therapeutic potential in inflammatory diarrheal diseases.

Probiotic Bifidobacterium Species Stimulate Human SLC26A3 Gene Function and Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25143346

SLC26A3, or downregulated in adenoma (DRA), plays a major role in mediating Cl(-) absorption in the mammalian intestine. Disturbances in DRA function and expression have been implicated in intestinal disorders such as congenital Cl(-) diarrhea and gut inflammation. We previously showed that an increase in DRA function and expression by Lactobacillus acidophilus and its culture supernatant (CS) might underlie antidiarrheal effects of this probiotic strain. However, the effects of Bifidobacterium species, important inhabitants of the human colon, on intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity are not known. Our current results demonstrate that CS derived from Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium bifidum increased anion exchange activity in Caco-2 cells (∼1.8- to 2.4-fold). Consistent with the increase in DRA function, CS also increased the protein, as well as the mRNA, level of DRA (but not putative anion transporter 1). CS of all three Bifidobacterium sp. increased DRA promoter activity (-1,183/+114 bp) in Caco-2 cells (1.5- to 1.8-fold). Furthermore, the increase in DRA mRNA expression by CS of B. breve and B. infantis was blocked in the presence of the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (5 μM) and the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μM). Administration of live B. breve, B. infantis, and B. bifidum by oral gavage to mice for 24 h increased DRA mRNA and protein levels in the colon. These data demonstrate an upregulation of DRA via activation of the ERK1/2 pathway that may underlie potential antidiarrheal effects of Bifidobacterium sp.

Guava Leaf Extract Inhibits Quorum-sensing and Chromobacterium Violaceum Induced Lysis of Human Hepatoma Cells: Whole Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Differential Gene Expression

PloS One. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25229331

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process mediated via small molecules termed autoinducers (AI) that allow bacteria to respond and adjust according to the cell population density by altering the expression of multitudinous genes. Since QS governs numerous bioprocesses in bacteria, including virulence, its inhibition promises to be an ideal target for the development of novel therapeutics. We found that the aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava (GLE) exhibited anti-QS properties as evidenced by inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum and swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The gram-negative bacterium, C. violaceum is a rare pathogen with high mortality rate. In this study, perhaps for the first time, we identified the target genes of GLE in C. violaceum MTCC 2656 by whole transcriptome analysis on Ion Torrent. Our data revealed that GLE significantly down-regulated 816 genes at least three fold, with p value ≤ 0.01, which comprises 19% of the C. violaceum MTCC 2656 genome. These genes were distributed throughout the genome and were associated with virulence, motility and other cellular processes, many of which have been described as quorum regulated in C. violaceum and other gram negative bacteria. Interestingly, GLE did not affect the growth of the bacteria. However, consistent with the gene expression pattern, GLE treated C. violaceum cells were restrained from causing lysis of human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, indicating a positive relationship between the QS-regulated genes and pathogenicity. Overall, our study proposes GLE as a QS inhibitor (QSI) with the ability to attenuate virulence without affecting growth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which provides with a plausible set of candidate genes regulated by the QS system in the neglected pathogen C. violaceum.

Denervation Impairs Regeneration of Amputated Zebrafish Fins

BMC Developmental Biology. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25551555

Zebrafish are able to regenerate many of its tissues and organs after damage. In amphibians this process is regulated by nerve fibres present at the site of injury, which have been proposed to release factors into the amputated limbs/fins, promoting and sustaining the proliferation of blastemal cells. Although some candidate factors have been proposed to mediate the nerve dependency of regeneration, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear.

Association of IL-10 GTC Haplotype with Serum Level and HPV Infection in the Development of Cervical Carcinoma

Tumour Biology : the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. Apr, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25412954

Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in the developing countries like India. In addition to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, host genetic factors play an important role in viral persistence and neoplastic growth. IL-10, a multifunctional cytokine, plays an active role to promote tumor growth in the presence of HPV. The present study aims to find out the impact of IL-10 promoter polymorphisms at -1082A/G (rs1800896), -819C/T (rs1800872), and -592C/A (rs1800871) sites along with IL-10 production and HPV infection in the progression of cervical cancer.

Immunomodulatory Role of Piperine in Deltamethrin Induced Thymic Apoptosis and Altered Immune Functions

Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. Mar, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25682002

Deltamethrin (DLM), a well-known pyrethroid insecticide, is a potent immunotoxicant. In rodents, it is primarily characterized by marked thymic apoptosis. Mechanism of DLM induced thymic apoptosis in primary murine thymocytes has been recently explored. Oxidative stress and activation of caspase dependent pathways appear to be involved in the DLM induced thymic injury. Thus, for the amelioration of its effect, this study has been designed to first observe the binding affinity of piperine to immune cell receptors and its protective effects on the DLM induced immunotoxicity under in vitro condition. The docking results demonstrated that piperine has good binding affinity towards CD4 and CD8 receptors. In vitro study results have shown that piperine (1, 10 and 50 μg/ml) increased cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. The early activated markers of apoptosis such as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-3 activation by DLM was significantly reduced by piperine treatment. GSH depletion induced by DLM has been also restored by piperine treatment. At 18 h, all concentration of piperine (1, 10 and 50 μg/ml) significantly ameliorated the DLM induced apoptosis. Further, DLM induced phenotypic changes were mitigated by the piperine. In addition, piperine also restored the cytokine levels, which were suppressed by DLM treatment. These findings strongly indicate the anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and chemo-protective ability of piperine in the DLM induced thymic apoptosis.

Generation of Aneurogenic Larvae by Parabiosis of Salamander Embryos

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25740484

Limb regeneration of salamanders is nerve dependent, and the removal of the nerves in early stages of limb regeneration severely curtails the proliferation of the blastemal cells and growth of the regenerate. The removal of the neural tube from a developing salamander embryo results in an aneurogenic larva and the aneurogenic limb (ANL) develops independently without innervation. Paradoxically, the limb in an ANL is capable of regeneration in a nerve-independent manner. Here, we describe a detailed method for the generation of ANL in the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, for regeneration studies.

Derivation and Long-term Culture of Cells from Newt Adult Limbs and Limb Blastemas

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25740486

Notwithstanding the key importance of in vivo models for understanding patterning and cellular interactions in the regenerating tailed amphibian (salamander) limb, dissection of molecular mechanisms, as in other species, can be greatly aided by robust in vitro models. This chapter focuses on derivation and maintenance of cell lines from adult post-metamorphic salamanders and in particular cells derived from normal and regenerating limbs. We also describe a protocol for nucleofecting newt cells that can be used both to investigate the gene function in short-term studies and to establish stable cell lines.

NFKB1/NFKBIa Polymorphisms Are Associated with the Progression of Cervical Carcinoma in HPV-infected Postmenopausal Women from Rural Area

Tumour Biology : the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25773394

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered as the major etiological agent for development of cervical cancer but alone is not sufficient enough. So, other environmental factors and host genetic background may play an important role in the development of cervical cancer. HPV carries a minimal amount of structural and regulatory proteins so it is apparently dependent on its host for survival. NF-κB/IkB system plays an important regulatory role in the apoptotic pathway. In the present study, a total of 575 consecutive subjects including 285 cases (45 cervical pre-cancerous and 240 invasive cervical carcinoma) and 290 age- and ethnicity-matched controls recruited from Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Hospital and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi between July 2009 to July 2013 were genotyped for NFKB1 -94 insertion/deletion (rs28362491) and NFKBIa 3'-UTR2758A > G (rs696) polymorphism by PCR-RFLP followed by sequencing. We observed a positive association of NFKB1 -94 insertion/insertion (II) and NFKBIa 3'-UTR 2758 GG genotypes with the progression of cervical carcinoma. Cervical cancer patients were found more pronounce to be a carrier of II + GG genotype of both the SNPs. We also noticed that HPV-infected postmenopausal women having higher parity along with the history of tobacco consumption and who carries insertion allele of NFKB1 -94 polymorphism in association of GG genotype of NFKBIa 3'-UTR polymorphism, were more susceptible to develop cervical carcinoma. II + GG genotype together were found to have direct proportionality with the aggressiveness of cervical carcinoma. In conclusion, alteration in the gene map of NFKB1/NFKBIa helps in the progression of cervical cancer accompanied by HPV infection in postmenopausal women from rural residential setup who had higher parity along with history of tobacco consumption.

Identification of Human Papillomavirus-16 E6 Variation in Cervical Cancer and Their Impact on T and B Cell Epitopes

Journal of Virological Methods. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25800725

The infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the most important risk factor for development of cervical cancer. The intra-type variations of HPV have different biological and pathological consequences with respect to disease progression. In the present study, six major Indian variants were experimentally identified in E6 gene of HPV-16 and showed their impact on immunogenicity by in silico methods. Four different phylogenetic lineages were observed in sequences including European (E) prototype, European variant, Asian and American Asian variant classes and complete absence of African phylogenetic lineages. On the prediction of B- and T-cell epitopes, 18 and 23 potent epitopes for MHC-II alleles, 10 potent MHC-I and 15 B-cell epitopes in each reference and variant sequence were identified. Interestingly, the presence of variation H78Y and L83V result in creation of four new epitopes for the HLA-DQA1*0101/DQB1*0501. Out of 15 B-cell predicted epitopes, three most potent epitopes were identified in both reference and variant sequence. Notably the amino acid stretch from amino acid 16-60 and 76-94 are very important for the immunological properties of E6 protein because these regions contain majority of the predicted epitopes. In future, this could control the cervical cancer by targeting these amino acid stretches for the development of HPV-16 vaccine.

Osteochondroma (OC) of the Condyle of Left Mandible: A Rare Case

Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR. Feb, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25859534

Osteochondroma (OC) is one of the most common benign condylar tumours having both chondroma and osteoma. However, this tumour is most frequently found on the metaphyses of long bones and is unusual on the skull. When it affects the mandibular condyle, the cause could be due to trauma to the tempero mandibular joint (TMJ). Here, in this report we present a rare case of osteochondroma of left condyle region in a 36-year-old man. The patient had noticed pain in the left TMJ for six months. The lesion is surgically removed and histologically evaluated which composed of chondrocytes dispersed in hyaline matrix along with a rim of calcified bone at one end.

Comparative Efficacy of Piperine and Curcumin in Deltamethrin Induced Splenic Apoptosis and Altered Immune Functions

Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. Mar, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25868812

Deltamethrin (DLM) being a potent immunotoxicant affects both humoral and cell mediated immunity. Thus, for the amelioration of its effects, two different bioactive herbal extracts piperine and curcumin are evaluated and their efficacy has been compared. The docking results demonstrated that curcumin has good binding affinity towards CD28 and CD45 receptors as compared to piperine but in vitro studies revealed that piperine is more effective. DLM induced apoptotic markers such as oxidative stress and caspase 3 have been attenuated more significantly by piperine as compared to curcumin. Phenotypic and cytokine changes have also been mitigated best with piperine. Thus, these findings strongly demonstrate that piperine displays the more anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and chemo-protective properties in the DLM induced splenic apoptosis as compared to curcumin. So, piperine can be considered the drug of choice under immunocompromised conditions.

Identification of the Orphan Gene Prod 1 in Basal and Other Salamander Families

EvoDevo. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25874078

The urodele amphibians (salamanders) are the only adult tetrapods able to regenerate the limb. It is unclear if this is an ancestral property that is retained in salamanders but lost in other tetrapods or if it evolved in salamanders. The three-finger protein Prod 1 is implicated in the mechanism of newt limb regeneration, and no orthologs have been found in other vertebrates, thus providing evidence for the second viewpoint. It has also been suggested that this protein could play a role in salamander-specific aspects of limb development. There are ten families of extant salamanders, and Prod 1 has only been identified in two of them to date. It is important to determine if it is present in other families and, particularly, the basal group of two families which diverged approximately 200 MYA.

The in Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Ethno-pharmacological Important Plants of Darjeeling District of West Bengal Against Different Human Cancer Cell Lines

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Feb, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25887417

Plant derived components have attracted particular attention as an alternative source to battle several diseases including cancer. The variation in the climate, the geographical location and the rich ethnomedicinal traditions has made the Darjeeling Himalayas an abode of invaluable repository of traditional medicinal plants. In this study, we explored the in vitro anticancer properties of traditionally used medicinal plants from the Darjeeling hills against different human cancer cell lines.

Ebola Virus: Current and Future Perspectives

Infectious Disorders Drug Targets. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25910510

The present outbreak associated with Ebola disease in Western countries of the African continent which is believed to be one of the massive eruptions caused by the Ebola viral infections. In the present scenario ebola has been transmitted to the European and American regions through the travelers from wide spread countries like Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. The viral disease is spreading through the contact in any form by the infected persons or patients and creating huge risks to the mortals. The symptoms related to ebola virus are often highly pathogenic; about 70-80% of death cases are reported due to critical hemorrhagic fever. Early in infection, ebola virus infects macrophages and endothelial cells. It mainly produces a Viral Protein 24 (eVP24) which prevents interferon-based signals which are important for destruction of viruses. How ebola virus manipulates the function of the immune system is still unclear. Due to lack of this knowledge, no approved treatment is available. In this review, we have tried to compile the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of ebola virus infection. The promising ligands against ebola virus have been also discussed which will be helpful for researchers to design drugs for the treatment of ebola virus disease.

Mechanisms of Intestinal Serotonin Transporter (SERT) Upregulation by TGF-β1 Induced Non-Smad Pathways

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25954931

TGF-β1 is an important multifunctional cytokine with numerous protective effects on intestinal mucosa. The influence of TGF-β1 on serotonin transporter (SERT) activity, the critical mechanism regulating the extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT), is not known. Current studies were designed to examine acute effects of TGF-β1 on SERT. Model human intestinal Caco-2 cells grown as monolayer's or as cysts in 3D culture and ex vivo mouse model were utilized. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 60 min) stimulated SERT activity (~2 fold, P<0.005). This stimulation of SERT function was dependent upon activation of TGF-β1 receptor (TGFRI) as SB-431542, a specific TGF-βRI inhibitor blocked the SERT stimulation. SERT activation in response to TGF-β1 was attenuated by inhibition of PI3K and occurred via enhanced recruitment of SERT-GFP to apical surface in a PI3K dependent manner. The exocytosis inhibitor brefeldin A (2.5 μM) attenuated the TGF-β1-mediated increase in SERT function. TGF-β1 increased the association of SERT with the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) syntaxin 3 (STX3) and promoted exocytosis of SERT. Caco-2 cells grown as cysts in 3D culture recapitulated the effects of TGF-β1 showing increased luminal staining of SERT. Ussing chamber studies revealed increase in 3H-5-HT uptake in mouse ileum treated ex vivo with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 1h). These data demonstrate a novel mechanism rapidly regulating intestinal SERT via PI3K and STX3. Since decreased SERT is implicated in various gastro-intestinal disorders e.g IBD, IBS and diarrhea, understanding mechanisms stimulating SERT function by TGF-β1 offers a novel therapeutic strategy to treat GI disorders.

Deltamethrin, a Pyrethroid Insecticide, Could Be a Promising Candidate As an Anticancer Agent

Medical Hypotheses. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25981874

Cancer is the one of the leading causes of death, whose incidences is increasing day by day. Various types of anticancer agents are used for its treatment, but unfortunately none of them is able to treat the cancer. Thus, the exploration of novel mechanistic pathways of existing molecules may help to develop more effective anticancer agents. Deltamethrin, at low concentration, is a safe pyrethroid insecticide that is widely used in the agriculture and home pest control. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the deltamethrin have the potential to induce apoptogenic signaling pathways which plays an important role in the mechanism of anticancer action. Thus, deltamethrin thereof could have the potential to develop as an anticancer agent. Further both in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic and toxic effects of this compound is needed for starting of clinical trial.

Arsenic Exposure Causes Epigenetic Dysregulation of IL-8 Expression Leading to Proneoplastic Changes in Kidney Cells

Toxicology Letters. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26008221

Prolonged arsenic exposure has been shown to cause several detrimental effects in adults. However its effects following prenatal exposure are not well defined at the epigenetic level, particularly in terms of changes which may predispose an individual to adult malignancies. In this work, we have studied the effect of arsenic exposure on renal system using human embryonic kidney cells and prenatally exposed animals and identified Interleukin-8(IL-8) and its homologue (CINC-1) as mediators of arsenic induced renal toxicity. We further show that embryonic kidney cells are more responsive to arsenic leading to higher induction of IL-8 as compared to adult cells due to DNA methylation and histone acetylation (H3 acetylation) changes in the IL-8 promoter. Through bisulfite analysis of the IL-8 promoter, we have also identified an arsenic modulated CpG site at -168 bases upstream of transcription start site. This CpG is associated with C/EBP and CREB binding sites in the IL-8 promoter and its demethylation by arsenic coupled with increased H3 histone acetylation and CBP/P300 recruitment could lead to induction of IL-8. Our study shows how epigenetic modulation of IL-8 by arsenic could contribute to increased cell migratory and proliferative capabilities, cell cycle dysregulation and renal toxicity.

Identification of Immunotherapeutic Epitope of E5 Protein of Human Papillomavirus-16: An in Silico Approach

Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization. Sep, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26212000

Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynaecological cancer in India and contributes 1/3rd of global burden. High risk-human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the major etiological factor for development of cervical cancer. Two available HPV vaccines provide protection against HPV induced cervical malignancy. However, vaccines having therapeutic values are of utmost priority. Till date, most of HPV therapeutic vaccines are focused on two major HPV oncoproteins (E6/E7). HPV-E5 which acts by altering the activity of cellular proteins, mainly growth factor pathways emerges as a new therapeutic target. In present study, we predicted the candidate B-cell and T-cell epitopes of HPV16-E5, which can be used for HPV immunotherapy. We identified that epitope SAFRCFIVYIIFVY as most potent peptide for HLA-A*11:01 having percentile value of 0.5 and immunogenicity score of 0.69558. For MHC-II, epitopes IPLFLIHTHARFLIT for HLA-DRB1*14:01 alleles have the lowest IC50 value (18.13 nM). The identification of structural feature and immunogenic epitopes provides the best information for development of drugs or vaccine. In conclusion, the expression of E5 protein was detected in the early phase of the HPV infection, which gives an opportunity to target HPV-E5 that would help in the prevention and progression of the precancerous lesion to invasive carcinomas.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Counteracts Enteropathogenic E. Coli-induced Inhibition of Butyrate Uptake in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Oct, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26272259

Butyrate, a key short-chain fatty acid metabolite of colonic luminal bacterial action on dietary fiber, serves as a primary fuel for the colonocytes, ameliorates mucosal inflammation, and stimulates NaCl absorption. Absorption of butyrate into the colonocytes is essential for these intracellular effects. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) plays a major role in colonic luminal butyrate absorption. Previous studies (Tan J, McKenzie C, Potamitis M, Thorburn AN, Mackay CR, Macia L. Adv Immunol 121: 91-119, 2014.) showed decreased MCT1 expression and function in intestinal inflammation. We have previously shown (Borthakur A, Gill RK, Hodges K, Ramaswamy K, Hecht G, Dudeja PK. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290: G30-G35, 2006.) impaired butyrate absorption in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells due to decreased MCT1 level at the apical cell surface following enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) infection. Current studies, therefore, examined the potential role of probiotic Lactobacilli in stimulating MCT1-mediated butyrate uptake and counteracting EPEC inhibition of MCT1 function. Of the five species of Lactobacilli, short-term (3 h) treatment with L. acidophilus (LA) significantly increased MCT1-mediated butyrate uptake in Caco-2 cells. Heat-killed LA was ineffective, whereas the conditioned culture supernatant of LA (LA-CS) was equally effective in stimulating MCT1 function, indicating that the effects are mediated by LA-secreted soluble factor(s). Furthermore, LA-CS increased apical membrane levels of MCT1 protein via decreasing its basal endocytosis, suggesting that LA-CS stimulation of butyrate uptake could be secondary to increased levels of MCT1 on the apical cell surface. LA-CS also attenuated EPEC inhibition of butyrate uptake and EPEC-mediated endocytosis of MCT1. Our studies highlight distinct role of specific LA-secreted molecules in modulating colonic butyrate absorption.

Expression of CD 68, CD 45 and Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR in Central and Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma, Giant Cell Tumor of Long Bones, and Tuberculous Granuloma: An Immunohistochemical Study

Indian Journal of Dental Research : Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research. May-Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26275199

Multinucleated giant cells (MNCs) form an integral part of numerous bone and soft tissue tumors, tumor-like lesions and are often associated with granulomas of immunological and nonimmunological origin. The presence of various types of giant cells depends on the lesions in which they are present which are difficult to be diagnosed under routine histological techniques. Immunohistochemistry can be used for a better diagnosis and understanding of the origin of various giant cells using various markers of immune response like human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and those expressed on monocytes and macrophages like CD 68 and leukocyte common antigen (LCA).

Mechanisms of DRA Recycling in Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Effect of Enteropathogenic E. Coli

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26447204

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes infantile diarrhea worldwide. EPEC decreases the activity and surface expression of the key intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)], contributing to the pathophysiology of early diarrhea. Little is known about the mechanisms governing membrane recycling of DRA. In the current study, Caco-2 cells were used to investigate DRA trafficking under basal conditions and in response to EPEC. Apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive (125)I(-) uptake. Cell surface biotinylation was performed to assess DRA endocytosis and exocytosis. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chlorpromazine (60 μM) increased apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity. Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, also increased function and surface levels of DRA via decreased endocytosis. Perturbation of microtubules by nocodazole revealed that intact microtubules are essential for basal exocytic (but not endocytic) DRA recycling. Mice treated with colchicine showed a decrease in DRA surface levels as visualized by confocal microscopy. In response to EPEC infection, DRA surface expression was reduced partly via an increase in DRA endocytosis and a decrease in exocytosis. These effects were dependent on the EPEC virulence genes espG1 and espG2. Intriguingly, the EPEC-induced decrease in DRA function was unaltered in the presence of dynasore, suggesting a clathrin-independent internalization of surface DRA. In conclusion, these studies establish the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and microtubules in the basal surface expression of DRA and demonstrate that the EPEC-mediated decrease in DRA function and apical expression in Caco-2 cells involves decreased exocytosis.

Mechanism of Immunoprotective Effects of Curcumin in DLM-induced Thymic Apoptosis and Altered Immune Function: an in Silico and in Vitro Study

Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26471321

Curcumin, a main component of Curcuma Longa Linn, is a plant polyphenol used as an immune-enhancer in the Indian system of traditional medicine. However, its underlying mechanism of immune-protection remains unknown. The present study is designed to delineate the role of curcumin in deltamethrin (DLM)-induced thymocyte apoptosis and altered immune functions. In silico studies revealed that curcumin has a strong binding affinity toward CD4 and CD8 receptors. DLM (25 µM) induces thymocytes apoptosis through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Various concentrations of curcumin (1, 10 and 50 µg/ml), when added along with DLM, caused a concentration- and time-related amelioration in apoptogenic signaling pathways induced by DLM. Inhibition of DLM-induced reactive oxygen species production, replenishment of glutathione and suppression of caspase activities by curcumin may thus be responsible for the suppression of downstream cascade of events, i.e. apoptosis, phenotypic changes and altered cytokine release. Thus, this study clearly demonstrates that the mechanism of immunoprotection of curcumin in DLM-induced thymic apoptosis includes inhibition of oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways underlying apoptosis.

An Orphan Gene is Necessary for Preaxial Digit Formation During Salamander Limb Development

Nature Communications. Oct, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26498026

Limb development in salamanders differs from other tetrapods in that the first digits to form are the two most anterior (preaxial dominance). This has been proposed as a salamander novelty and its mechanistic basis is unknown. Salamanders are the only adult tetrapods able to regenerate the limb, and the contribution of preaxial dominance to limb regeneration is unclear. Here we show that during early outgrowth of the limb bud, a small cohort of cells express the orphan gene Prod1 together with Bmp2, a critical player in digit condensation in amniotes. Disruption of Prod1 with a gene-editing nuclease abrogates these cells, and blocks formation of the radius and ulna, and outgrowth of the anterior digits. Preaxial dominance is a notable feature of limb regeneration in the larval newt, but this changes abruptly after metamorphosis so that the formation of anterior and posterior digits occurs together within the autopodium resembling an amniote-like pattern.

Identification and Validation of Immunogenic Potential of India Specific HPV-16 Variant Constructs: In-silico &in-vivo Insight to Vaccine Development

Scientific Reports. Oct, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26507515

Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers in the world but in India, it is the top most cancer among women. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) is the most important risk factor. The sequence variation(s) in the most common HR-HPV i.e. HPV type 16 leads to altered biological functions with possible clinical significance in the different geographical locations. Sixteen major variants (V1-V16) in full length L1 gene of HPV-16 were identified following analysis of 250 prospectively collected cervical cancer tissue biopsies and their effect on immunogenicity was studied. The effect of these major variations on the epitopes were predicted by in silico methods and the immunogenicity of variants and respective reference DNA vaccine constructs were evaluated by administration of prepared DNA vaccine constructs in female BALB/c mice to evaluate antibody titer. In the present study, L500F (V16) variation showed a significant ~2.7 fold (p < 0.002) increase in antibody titer, whereas T379P (V8) showed ~0.4 fold (p < 0.328) decrease after final injection. These results showed a promising roadmap for the development of DNA based vaccine and for the generation of effective response, though there is a need to study more prevalent variants of HPV in the Indian population.

Correction: Lactobacillus Acidophilus Alleviates Platelet-Activating Factor-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26540439

Prevalence of Complications and Clinical Audit of Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Hospital Based Study

Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR. Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26673042

Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) needs multi factorial risk reduction strategies like weight reduction, blood pressure (BP) control and lipid profile regulation, along with glycaemic control. These strategies should be implemented very early in the course of the disease to prevent both microvascular and macro vascular complications.

Concomitant Correction of a Soft-Tissue Fenestration with Keratinised Tissue Augmentation By Using A Rotated Double-Pedicle Flap During Second-Stage Implant Surgery- A Case Report

Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26816998

Soft tissue deficiencies and defects around dental implants have been observed frequently. Soft-tissue defects after implant procedures originate from the process of modelling of periimplant mucosa and often cause aesthetic disharmony, food debris accumulation and soft tissue shrinkage. Periimplant mucogingival surgery focuses on creating an optimum band of keratinized tissue resulting in soft tissue architecture similar to the gingiva around natural teeth. A 23-year-old male reported to the Department of Periodontology with a complaint of gum soreness, foul smell and food accumulation at a site where a 3.75 x 11.5mm implant was placed previously. On clinical examination, fenestration of tissue above the cover screw was observed and there appeared to be a keratinized tissue of 1mm surrounding the implant. The case was managed by use of a rotated double-pedicle flap during second-stage implant surgery to correct the soft-tissue fenestration defect and to obtain a keratinized periimplant soft tissue. A periosteal bed was prepared by giving a horizontal incision at the mucogingival junction to a depth of 4 mm. Two split-thickness keratinized pedicles were dissected from the mesial and distal interproximal tissues near the implant. After rotation, both the pedicles were sutured to each other mid-buccally and the pedicles were rigidly immobilized with sutures. At 1 month, there was a 3mm band of stable and firm keratinized tissue over the underlying tissues. The procedure resulted in an aesthetic improvement due to enhanced soft tissue architecture and optimum integration between the peri-implant soft tissue and the final prosthesis.

Deltamethrin-induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Caspase-dependent Signaling Pathways in Murine Splenocytes

Environmental Toxicology. Jul, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 25534813

Deltamethrin (DLM) is a well-known pyrethroid insecticide used extensively in pest control. Exposure to DLM has been demonstrated to cause apoptosis in various cells. However, the immunotoxic effects of DLM on mammalian system and its mechanism is still an open question to be explored. To explore these effects, this study has been designed to first observe the interactions of DLM to immune cell receptors and its effects on the immune system. The docking score revealed that DLM has strong binding affinity toward the CD45 and CD28 receptors. In vitro study revealed that DLM induces apoptosis in murine splenocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. The earliest markers of apoptosis such as enhanced reactive oxygen species and caspase 3 activation are evident as early as 1 h by 25 and 50 µM DLM. Western blot analysis demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase and Bax expression is increased in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas Bcl 2 expression is significantly reduced after 3 h of DLM treatment. Glutathione depletion has been also observed at 3 and 6 h by 25 and 50 µM concentration of DLM. Flow cytometry results imply that the fraction of hypodiploid cells has gradually increased with all the concentrations of DLM at 18 h. N-acetyl cysteine effectively reduces the percentage of apoptotic cells, which is increased by DLM. In contrast, buthionine sulfoxamine causes an elevation in the percentage of apoptotic cells. Phenotyping data imply the effect of DLM toxicity in murine splenocytes. In brief, the study demonstrates that DLM causes apoptosis through its interaction with CD45 and CD28 receptors, leading to oxidative stress and activation of the mitochondrial caspase-dependent pathways which ultimately affects the immune functions. This study provides mechanistic information by which DLM causes toxicity in murine splenocytes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 808-819, 2016.

Ebola Virus Altered Innate and Adaptive Immune Response Signalling Pathways: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Approaches

Infectious Disorders Drug Targets. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26743519

Ebola virus (EBOV) arise attention for their impressive lethality by the poor immune response and high inflammatory reaction in the patients. It causes a severe hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates of up to 90%. The mechanism underlying this lethal outcome is poorly understood. In 2014, a major outbreak of Ebola virus spread amongst several African countries, including Leone, Sierra, and Guinea. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, but the virus has the potential to spread globally. Presently, there is no vaccine or treatment is available to counteract Ebola virus infections due to poor understanding of its interaction with the immune system. Accumulating evidence indicates that the virus actively alters both innate and adaptive immune responses and triggers harmful inflammatory responses. In the literature, some reports have shown that alteration of immune signaling pathways could be due to the ability of EBOV to interfere with dendritic cells (DCs), which link innate and adaptive immune responses. On the other hand, some reports have demonstrated that EBOV, VP35 proteins act as interferon antagonists. So, how the Ebola virus altered the innate and adaptive immune response signaling pathways is still an open question for the researcher to be explored. Thus, in this review, I try to summarize the mechanisms of the alteration of innate and adaptive immune response signaling pathways by Ebola virus which will be helpful for designing effective drugs or vaccines against this lethal infection. Further, potential targets, current treatment and novel therapeutic approaches have also been discussed.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Stimulates Intestinal P-glycoprotein Expression Via a C-Fos/c-Jun-dependent Mechanism in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26867563

Our previous studies showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) culture supernatant (CS) increased P-glycoprotein [Pgp/multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)] function, expression, and promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. The current studies were designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating the stimulatory effects of LA CS on Pgp promoter activity. Deletion analysis indicated that the LA CS response element(s) is located in the -172/+428-bp region, and sequence analysis of this region revealed three potential binding sites for c-Fos or c-Jun: proximal activating protein (AP) 1a (-119/-98 bp), distal AP1b (-99/-78 bp), and AP1c (+175/+196 bp). LA CS (24 h) showed an approximately twofold increase in the protein expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in Caco-2 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that LA CS markedly increased the binding of Caco-2 nuclear proteins to AP1a and AP1b, but not AP1c. The DNA-protein complex was completely eliminated by c-Fos antibody, while c-Jun antibody partially eliminated the complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also showed that LA CS enhanced the association of c-Fos and c-Jun (by ∼4- and 1.5-fold, respectively) with endogenous Pgp promoter in Caco-2 cells (p-172/+1). Interestingly, overexpression of c-Fos or c-Jun activated Pgp promoter by nearly twofold each. This increase was further enhanced (∼14-fold) when c-Fos and c-Jun were simultaneously overexpressed, suggesting that the presence of one of these transcription factors potentiates the effect of the other. These studies, for the first time, provide evidence for the involvement of c-Fos/c-Jun in stimulation of Pgp gene expression by LA CS in the human intestine.

Transcriptional Modulation of SLC26A3 (DRA) by Sphingosine-1-phosphate

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27079615

SLC26A3 or Downregulated in adenoma (DRA) is the major Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. Alterations in DRA function and expression have been implicated in diarrheal diseases associated with inflammation or infection. Therefore, agents that upregulate DRA activity may serve as potential antidiarrheals. In this regard, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a member of the bioactive sphingolipid family, has been shown to modulate various cellular processes including improvement of intestinal barrier function. However, the role of S1P in modulating intestinal chloride absorption by regulating DRA is not known. Therefore, the present studies were designed to examine the direct effects of S1P on apical Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity and DRA expression. S1P significantly increased Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity and also significantly increased DRA mRNA and protein expression. Increased DRA mRNA by S1P was accompanied by enhanced DRA promoter activity, indicating involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. The specific S1P receptor subtype-2 (S1PR2) antagonist JTE-013 blocked the stimulatory effects of S1P on DRA promoter activity, indicating the involvement of S1PR2 S1P-mediated increase in DRA promoter activity involved PI3K/Akt pathway. Progressive deletions of the DRA promoter indicated that the putative S1P-responsive elements are present in the -790/-398 region of the DRA promoter. Furthermore, results obtained from electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that S1P stimulated DRA promoter activity via increased binding of Ying-Yang1 (YY1) in the S1P-responsive region. In conclusion, transcriptional modulation of DRA expression and function in response to S1P through a PI3/Akt pathway represents a novel role of S1P as a potential proabsorptive agent.

Mechanism of Action of Secreted Newt Anterior Gradient Protein

PloS One. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27100463

Anterior gradient (AG) proteins have a thioredoxin fold and are targeted to the secretory pathway where they may act in the ER, as well as after secretion into the extracellular space. A newt member of the family (nAG) was previously identified as interacting with the GPI-anchored salamander-specific three-finger protein called Prod1. Expression of nAG has been implicated in the nerve dependence of limb regeneration in salamanders, and nAG acted as a growth factor for cultured newt limb blastemal (progenitor) cells, but the mechanism of action was not understood. Here we show that addition of a peptide antibody to Prod1 specifically inhibit the proliferation of blastema cells, suggesting that Prod1 acts as a cell surface receptor for secreted nAG, leading to S phase entry. Mutation of the single cysteine residue in the canonical active site of nAG to alanine or serine leads to protein degradation, but addition of residues at the C terminus stabilises the secreted protein. The mutation of the cysteine residue led to no detectable activity on S phase entry in cultured newt limb blastemal cells. In addition, our phylogenetic analyses have identified a new Caudata AG protein called AG4. A comparison of the AG proteins in a cell culture assay indicates that nAG secretion is significantly higher than AGR2 or AG4, suggesting that this property may vary in different members of the family.

Homology Model, Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Novel Pyrazole Analogs Design of Candida Albicans CYP450 Lanosterol 14 α-demethylase, a Target Enzyme for Antifungal Therapy

Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27142238

Candida albicans infections and their resistance to clinically approved azole drugs are major concerns for human. The azole antifungal drugs inhibit the ergosterol synthesis by targeting lanosterol 14α-demethylase of cytochrome P450 family. The lack of high-resolution structural information of fungal pathogens has been a barrier for the design of modified azole drugs. Thus, a preliminary theoretical molecular dynamic study is carried out to develop and validate a simple homologous model using crystallographic structure of the lanosterol 14α-demethylase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PDB ID-1EA1) in which the active site residues are substituted with that of C. albicans (taxid 5476). Further, novel designed pyrazole analogs (SGS1-16) docked on chimeric 1EA1 and revealed that SGS-16 show good binding affinity through non-bonding interaction with the heme, which is different from the leading azole antifungals. The ADME-T results showed these analogs can be further explored in design of more safe and effective antifungal agents.

Determination of Albumin Adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate in Workers of a 4,4'-methylenedianiline Factory

Biomarkers : Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals. May, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27145381

Lung sensitization and asthma are the main health effects of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Albumin adducts (isocyanate specific adducts) of MDI might be involved in the etiology of sensitization reactions. Albumin adducts of MDI have been found in subjects classified as 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) workers. The mean adduct levels in these MDA-workers were 1.5 times higher than in MDI-workers of the same company. MDA-specific hemoglobin adducts, were present ten times more in the MDA-workers than in the MDI-workers. MDA-workers with specific work task had significantly higher albumin adduct levels.

Identification of Intestinal Ion Transport Defects in Microvillus Inclusion Disease

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jul, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27229121

Loss of function mutations in the actin motor myosin Vb (Myo5b) lead to microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) and death in newborns and children. MVID results in secretory diarrhea, brush border (BB) defects, villus atrophy, and microvillus inclusions (MVIs) in enterocytes. How loss of Myo5b results in increased stool loss of chloride (Cl(-)) and sodium (Na(+)) is unknown. The present study used Myo5b loss-of-function human MVID intestine, polarized intestinal cell models of secretory crypt (T84) and villus resembling (CaCo2BBe, C2BBe) enterocytes lacking Myo5b in conjunction with immunofluorescence confocal stimulated emission depletion (gSTED) imaging, immunohistochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, shRNA silencing, immunoblots, and electrophysiological approaches to examine the distribution, expression, and function of the major BB ion transporters NHE3 (Na(+)), CFTR (Cl(-)), and SLC26A3 (DRA) (Cl(-)/HCO3 (-)) that control intestinal fluid transport. We hypothesized that enterocyte maturation defects lead villus atrophy with immature secretory cryptlike enterocytes in the MVID epithelium. We investigated the role of Myo5b in enterocyte maturation. NHE3 and DRA localization and function were markedly reduced on the BB membrane of human MVID enterocytes and Myo5bKD C2BBe cells, while CFTR localization was preserved. Forskolin-stimulated CFTR ion transport in Myo5bKD T84 cells resembled that of control. Loss of Myo5b led to YAP1 nuclear retention, retarded enterocyte maturation, and a cryptlike phenotype. We conclude that preservation of functional CFTR in immature enterocytes, reduced functional expression of NHE3, and DRA contribute to Cl(-) and Na(+) stool loss in MVID diarrhea.

Inhibition of AAK1 Kinase As a Novel Therapeutic Approach to Treat Neuropathic Pain

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27411717

To identify novel targets for neuropathic pain, 3097 mouse knockout lines were tested in acute and persistent pain behavior assays. One of the lines from this screen, which contained a null allele of the adapter protein-2 associated kinase 1 (AAK1) gene, had a normal response in acute pain assays (hot plate, phase I formalin), but a markedly reduced response to persistent pain in phase II formalin. AAK1 knockout mice also failed to develop tactile allodynia following the Chung procedure of spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Based on these findings, potent, small-molecule inhibitors of AAK1 were identified. Studies in mice showed that one such inhibitor, LP-935509, caused a reduced pain response in phase II formalin and reversed fully established pain behavior following the SNL procedure. Further studies showed that the inhibitor also reduced evoked pain responses in the rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) model and the rat streptozotocin model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Using a nonbrain-penetrant AAK1 inhibitor and local administration of an AAK1 inhibitor, the relevant pool of AAK1 for antineuropathic action was found to be in the spinal cord. Consistent with these results, AAK1 inhibitors dose-dependently reduced the increased spontaneous neural activity in the spinal cord caused by CCI and blocked the development of windup induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the paw. The mechanism of AAK1 antinociception was further investigated with inhibitors of α2 adrenergic and opioid receptors. These studies showed that α2 adrenergic receptor inhibitors, but not opioid receptor inhibitors, not only prevented AAK1 inhibitor antineuropathic action in behavioral assays, but also blocked the AAK1 inhibitor-induced reduction in spinal neural activity in the rat CCI model. Hence, AAK1 inhibitors are a novel therapeutic approach to neuropathic pain with activity in animal models that is mechanistically linked (behaviorally and electrophysiologically) to α2 adrenergic signaling, a pathway known to be antinociceptive in humans.

Determination of Albumin Adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate After Specific Inhalative Challenge Tests in Workers

Toxicology Letters. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27521498

4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important isocyanate used in the industry. Lung sensitization with bronchial asthma is the main disorder in exposed workers. Albumin adducts of MDI might be involved in specific immunological reactions. MDI adducts with lysine (MDI-Lys) of albumin have been found in MDI-workers and construction workers. MDI-Lys is an isocyanate-specific adduct of MDI with albumin. In the present study, we report MDI-adducts in workers undergoing diagnostic MDI challenge tests. The workers were exposed for 2h to 5ppb of MDI. The adduct levels increase significantly after the exposure to MDI in the challenge chamber. About 0.6% of the dose was bound to albumin. So far, only urinary metabolites of MDI were measured to monitor isocyanate workers. However, such urinary metabolites are not isocyanate specific. Therefore, we propose to measure albumin adducts for monitoring MDI exposed subjects.

Early Demographic and Clinical Predictors of Developing Acute Kidney Injury in Snake Bite Patients: A Retrospective Controlled Study from an Indian Tertiary Care Hospital in North Eastern Uttar Pradesh India

Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine : Peer-reviewed, Official Publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine. Jul, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27555694

This study was conducted retrospectively to define early demographic and clinical predictors for acute kidney injury (AKI) among snake bite patients at the time of hospital admission.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Counteracts Inhibition of NHE3 and DRA Expression and Alleviates Diarrheal Phenotype in Mice Infected with Citrobacter Rodentium

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27634011

Impaired absorption of electrolytes is a hallmark of diarrhea associated with inflammation or enteric infections. Intestinal epithelial luminal membrane NHE3 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3) and DRA (Down-Regulated in Adenoma; Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger) play key roles in mediating electroneutral NaCl absorption. We have previously shown decreased NHE3 and DRA function in response to short-term infection with enteropathogenic E coli (EPEC), a diarrheal pathogen. Recent studies have also shown substantial downregulation of DRA expression in a diarrheal model of infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse counterpart of EPEC. Since our previous studies showed that the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) increased DRA and NHE3 function and expression and conferred protective effects in experimental colitis, we sought to evaluate the efficacy of LA in counteracting NHE3 and DRA inhibition and ameliorating diarrhea in a model of C rodentium infection. FVB/N mice challenged with C rodentium [1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)] with or without administration of live LA (3 × 10(9) CFU) were assessed for NHE3 and DRA mRNA and protein expression, mRNA levels of carbonic anhydrase, diarrheal phenotype (assessed by colonic weight-to-length ratio), myeloperoxidase activity, and proinflammatory cytokines. LA counteracted C rodentium-induced inhibition of colonic DRA, NHE3, and carbonic anhydrase I and IV expression and attenuated diarrheal phenotype and MPO activity. Furthermore, LA completely blocked C rodentium induction of IL-1β, IFN-γ, and CXCL1 mRNA and C rodentium-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. In conclusion, our data provide mechanistic insights into antidiarrheal effects of LA in a model of infectious diarrhea and colitis.

Change in Oxidative Stress of Normotensive Elderly Subjects Following Lifestyle Modifications

Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27790427

Oxidative stress is associated with aging, which ultimately causes deterioration of muscles. Antioxidant defense system deteriorates while enhancing accumulations of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) due to lipid peroxidation and altered enzyme activities in old age. Regular practice of yoga can maintain the antioxidants level of the body, even in stressful conditions.

GLP-1 Nanomedicine Alleviates Gut Inflammation

Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27553076

The gut hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, its clinical use is limited by its short half-life. Previously, we have shown that GLP-1 as a nanomedicine (GLP-1 in sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles, GLP-1-SSM) has increased in vivo stability. The current study was aimed at testing the efficacy of this GLP-1 nanomedicine in alleviating colonic inflammation and associated diarrhea in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced mouse colitis model. Our results show that GLP-1-SSM treatment markedly alleviated the colitis phenotype by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increasing goblet cells and preserving intestinal epithelial architecture in colitis model. Further, GLP-1-SSM alleviated diarrhea (as assessed by luminal fluid) by increasing protein expression of intestinal chloride transporter DRA (down regulated in adenoma). Our results indicate that GLP-1 nanomedicine may act as a novel therapeutic tool in alleviating gut inflammation and associated diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Spiro-oxindoles As a Promising Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of P53-MDM2 Interaction Useful in Targeted Cancer Therapy

Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal). Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27943171

As a result of the toxicity of currently available anticancer drugs and the inefficiency of chemotherapeutic treatments, the design and discovery of effective and selective antitumor agents continues to be a hot topic in organic medicinal chemistry. Targeted therapy is a newer type of cancer treatment that uses drugs designed to interfere with specific molecules necessary for tumor growth and progression. This review explains the mechanism of regulation of p53 (tumor suppressor protein) by MDM2 and illustrates the role of targeting p53-MDM2 protein-protein interaction using small molecules as a new cancer therapeutic strategy. Spirocyclic oxindoles or spiro-oxindoles, with a rigid heterocyclic ring fused at the 3-position of the oxindole core with varied substitution around it, are the most efficacious class of small molecules which inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells, leading to complete tumor growth regression without affecting activities of normal cells. In this review, we present a comprehensive account of the systematic development of and recent progress in diverse spiro-oxindole derivatives active as potent selective inhibitors of p53-MDM2 interaction with special emphasis on spiro-pyrrolidinyl oxindoles (the MI series), their mechanism of action, and structure-activity relationship. This review will help in understanding the molecular mechanism of p53 reactivation by spiro-oxindoles in tumor tissues and also facilitates the design and exploration of more potent analogues with high efficacy and low side effects for the treatment of cancer. Recent progress in spiro-oxindole derivatives as potent small molecule inhibitors of p53-MDM2 interaction, useful as anticancer agents, is described with reference to their mechanism of action and structure-activity relationship.

Single Jugular Vein Cannulated Rats May Not Be Suitable for Intravenous Pharmacokinetic Screening of High LogP Compounds

European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences : Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. Mar, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28034694

Rat is commonly used for pharmacokinetic screening during pharmaceutical lead optimization. To handle the large number of compounds, rats with a single jugular vein cannulation are commonly utilized for intravenous pharmacokinetic studies, where the same cannula is used both for dose administration and blood sampling. We demonstrate that the single cannula method is not suitable for all compounds, especially for high logP compounds. We propose an alternative dual cannulation technique in which two cannulas are placed in the same jugular vein, thus avoiding an additional surgery. Compounds were administered orally or via intravenous infusion to compare PK parameters, including bioavailability, using both procedures. For itraconazole and amiodarone, known to bind to the cannula, the measured plasma exposures were substantially higher in the single cannulated rats than those from dual cannulated rats. Area under the plasma concentration time curve differed by 79% and 74% for itraconazole and amiodarone, respectively. When compared to the single cannulation approach, clearance, volume of distribution and bioavailability determined by dual cannulation were 39%, 60% and 38% higher for itraconazole, and 46%, 34% and 42% higher for amiodarone, respectively. In contrast, all pharmacokinetic parameters were similar between single and dual-cannulated rats for the hydrophilic compound atenolol. Based on these results, we recommend the use of dual cannulated rats for intravenous pharmacokinetic studies when testing a series of hydrophobic compounds that may be prone to non-specific binding to the cannula. If single cannulated model is selected for pharmacokinetic screening, we recommend a bridging study with dual cannulated rats with representative compounds of a given chemical series.

Radical Scavenging Activities of Lagerstroemia Speciosa (L.) Pers. Petal Extracts and Its Hepato-protection in CCl4-intoxicated Mice

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Jan, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28100224

Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. has medicinal importance. Bioactive phytochemicals isolated from different parts of L. speciosa, have revealed hypoglycemic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepato protective properties. Despite one report from Philippines detailing the use of L. speciosa as curative for fever and as well as diuretic, there is no experimental evidence about the hepatoprotective activity of the flower extracts.

Egyptian Tale from India: Application of Whole-exome Sequencing in Diagnosis of Atypical Familial Mediterranean Fever

International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28211254

Clinical diagnosis of autoinflammatory diseases requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and clinching molecular evidence to substantiate the diagnosis. This is more so in populations with low prevalence of these disorders. In this report, we describe the case of a young man from India with recurrent fever and persistent arthritis. The patient's forefathers were of Egyptian ancestry who practiced consanguinity. Molecular genetic analysis using whole-exome sequencing suggested the presence of variants c.443A>T:p.E148V and c.442G>C:p.E148Q in the MEFV gene, earlier independently shown to be associated with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) in a compound heterozygous state. The variants were further confirmed by capillary sequencing. This report also highlights the application of whole exome sequencing to delineate the allelic differences in the variants apart from serving as a quick genetic screening approach for autoinflammatory diseases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a compound heterozygosity for the two well-characterized variants associated with atypical FMF in a patient.

Biological Evaluation of a Halogenated Triterpenoid, 2α-bromo-dihydrobelulonic Acid As Inhibitor of Human Topoisomerase IIα and HeLa Cell Proliferation

Chemico-biological Interactions. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28254521

The pentacyclic lupane-type (6-6-6-6-5 type) triterpenoid, Betulinic acid (BA) is a potent inhibitor of topoisomerases and is of immense interest as anticancer drugs. However, the compound being highly lipophilic, has limited in vivo uptake capacity. BA derivatives with halogen substituent at C-2 have improved membrane permeability and cytotoxicity against cancer cells.

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