In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (50)

Articles by Seema Saksena in JoVE

Other articles by Seema Saksena on PubMed

Modulation of Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco-2 Cells by Nitric Oxide

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12181176

The present studies were undertaken to determine the direct effects of nitric oxide (NO) released from an exogenous donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl pencillamine (SNAP) on Cl-/OH- exchange activity in human Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NO inhibits Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells via cGMP-dependent protein kinases G (PKG) and C (PKC) signal-transduction pathways. Our data in support of this conclusion can be outlined as follows: 1) incubation of Caco-2 cells with SNAP (500 microM) for 30 min resulted in approximately 50% inhibition of DIDS-sensitive 36Cl uptake; 2) soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitors Ly-83583 and (1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one significantly blocked the inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity by SNAP; 3) addition of 8-bromo-cGMP (8-BrcGMP) mimicked the effects of SNAP; 4) specific PKG inhibitor KT-5823 significantly inhibited the decrease in Cl-/OH- exchange activity in response to either SNAP or 8-BrcGMP; 5) Cl-/OH-exchange activity in Caco-2 cells in response to SNAP was not altered in the presence of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (Rp-cAMPS), demonstrating that the PKA pathway was not involved; 6) the effect of NO on Cl-/OH- exchange activity was mediated by PKC, because each of the two PKC inhibitors chelerythrine chloride and calphostin C blocked the SNAP-mediated inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity; 7) SO/OH- exchange in Caco-2 cells was unaffected by SNAP. Our results suggest that NO-induced inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange may play an important role in the pathophysiology of diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel diseases.

Regulation of NHE3 by Nitric Oxide in Caco-2 Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12181191

The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) activity was investigated utilizing Caco-2 cells as an experimental model. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with 10(-3) M S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a conventional donor of NO, for 20 min resulted in a approximately 45% dose-dependent decrease in NHE activity, as determined by assay of ethylisopropylamiloride-sensitive 22Na uptake. A similar decrease in NHE activity was observed utilizing another NO-specific donor, sodium nitroprusside. SNAP-mediated inhibition of NHE activity was not secondary to a loss of cell viability. NHE3 activity was significantly reduced by SNAP (P < 0.05), whereas NHE2 activity was essentially unaltered. The effects of SNAP were mediated by the cGMP-dependent signal transduction pathway as follows: 1) LY-83583 and 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), specific inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, blocked the inhibitory effect of SNAP on NHE; 2) 8-bromo-cGMP mimicked the effects of SNAP on NHE activity; 3) the SNAP-induced decrease in NHE activity was counteracted by a specific protein kinase G inhibitor, KT-5823 (1 microM); 4) chelerythrine chloride (2 microM) or calphostin C (200 nM), specific protein kinase C inhibitors, did not affect inhibition of NHE activity by SNAP; 5) there was no cross activation by the protein kinase A-dependent pathway, as the inhibitory effects of SNAP were not blocked by Rp-cAMPS (25 microM), a specific protein kinase A inhibitor. These data provide novel evidence that NO inhibits NHE3 activity via activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, resulting in an increase in intracellular cGMP levels and activation of protein kinase G.

Inhibition of Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco-2 Cells by Phorbol Esters is Mediated by PKCepsilon

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Nov, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12372810

The present studies were undertaken to examine the possible regulation of apical membrane Cl-/OH- exchanger in Caco-2 cells by protein kinase C (PKC). The effect of the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an in vitro PKC agonist, on OH- gradient-driven 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive 36Cl uptake in Caco-2 cells was assessed. The results demonstrated that PMA decreased apical Cl-/OH- exchanger activity via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-mediated activation of PKCepsilon. The data consistent with these conclusions are as follows: 1) short-term treatment of cells for 1-2 h with PMA (100 nM) significantly decreased Cl-/OH- exchange activity compared with control (4alpha-PMA); 2) pretreatment of cells with specific PKC inhibitors chelerythrine chloride, calphostin C, and GF-109203X completely blocked the inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity by PMA; 3) specific inhibitors for PKCepsilon (Ro-318220) but not PKCalpha (Go-6976) significantly blocked the PMA-mediated inhibition; 4) specific PI3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of PMA; and 5) PI3-kinase activators IRS-1 peptide and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] mimicked the effects of PMA. These findings provide the first evidence for PKCepsilon-mediated inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells and indicate the involvement of the PI3-kinase-mediated pathways in the regulation of Cl- absorption in intestinal epithelial cells.

Mechanisms of Calcium Transport in Human Colonic Basolateral Membrane Vesicles

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Oct, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12395904

Human colon has been suggested to play an important role in calcium absorption especially after extensive disease or resection of the small intestine. We have previously demonstrated the presence of a carrier-mediated calcium uptake mechanism in the human colonic luminal membrane vesicles. Current studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the mechanism(s) of calcium exit across the basolateral membrane domain of the human colon. Human colonic basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMVs) were isolated and purified from mucosal scrapings of organ donor colons, utilizing a technique developed in our laboratory. 45Ca uptake was measured by a rapid filtration technique. 45Ca uptake represented transport into the intravesicular space as evidenced by an osmolarity study and by the demonstration of Ca2' efflux from calcium preloaded vesicles by Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Calcium uptake was stimulated by Mg2+ ATP. The kinetic parameters for ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake revealed saturation kinetics with Michaelis constant (Km) of 0.22 +/- 0.04 microM and a maximum rate of uptake (Vmax) of 0.38 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein/min. The Km of ATP concentration required for half maximal Ca2+ uptake was 0.39 +/- 0.04 mM. ATP-stimulated calcium uptake into these vesicles was further stimulated in the presence of calmodulin and was inhibited by calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine. Uptake of 45Ca into BLMVs was markedly inhibited by cis-Na+ but was significantly stimulated by trans-Na+ (40-50% stimulation). Our results demonstrate the presence of a Mg2+/ATP-dependent calmodulin-regulated Ca2+ transport system and a Na+-Ca2+ exchange process in the human colonic basolateral membranes.

Cholesterol Modulates Human Intestinal Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. May, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15604201

Bile acids are efficiently absorbed from the intestinal lumen via the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). ASBT function is essential for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. The molecular mechanisms of the direct effect of cholesterol on human ASBT function and expression are not entirely understood. The present studies were undertaken to establish a suitable in vitro experimental model to study human ASBT function and its regulation by cholesterol. Luminal membrane bile acid transport was evaluated by the measurement of sodium-dependent 3H-labeled taurocholic acid (3H-TC) uptake in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. The relative abundance of human ASBT (hASBT) mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Transient transfection and luciferase assay techniques were employed to assess hASBT promoter activity. Caco-2 cell line was found to represent a suitable model to study hASBT function and regulation. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-HCH; 2.5 microg/ml for 24 h) significantly inhibited Na(+)-dependent 3H-TC uptake in Caco-2 cells. This inhibition was associated with a 50% decrease in the V(max) of the transporter with no significant changes in the apparent K(m). The inhibition in hASBT activity was associated with reduction in both the level of hASBT mRNA and its promoter activity. Our data show the inhibition of hASBT function and expression by 25-HCH in Caco-2 cells. These data provide novel evidence for the direct regulation of human ASBT function by cholesterol and suggest that this phenomenon may play a central role in cholesterol homeostasis.

Involvement of C-Src and Protein Kinase C Delta in the Inhibition of Cl(-)/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco-2 Cells by Serotonin

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15637072

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is an important neurotransmitter and intercellular messenger regulating various gastrointestinal functions, including electrolyte transport. To date, however, no information is available with respect to its effects on the human intestinal apical anion exchanger Cl(-)/OH- (HCO3-). The present studies were therefore undertaken to examine the direct effects of serotonin on OH- gradient-driven 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid-sensitive 36Cl- uptake utilizing the post-confluent transformed human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. Our results demonstrate that serotonin inhibits Cl(-)/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells via both tyrosine kinase and Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C delta-mediated pathways involving either 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptor subtype. The data consistent with our inference are as follows. (i) The short term treatment of cells with 5-HT (0.1 microM) for 15-60 min significantly decreased Cl(-)/OH- exchange (50-70%, p < 0.05). (ii) The specific agonists for 5-HT3, m-chlorophenylbiguanide, and 5-HT4, 3-(4-allylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-quinoxaline chloronitrile, mimicked the effects of serotonin. (iii) Tropisetron dual inhibitor for both the 5-HT3/4 receptor subtypes significantly blocked the inhibition, whereas specific 5-HT3 (Y-25130) or 5-HT4 receptor (RS39604) antagonist failed to block the inhibitory effects of 5-HT. (iv) The Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl ester) had no effect on the serotonin-induced inhibition. (v) The specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors chelerythrine chloride or calphostin C completely blocked the inhibition by 5-HT. (vi) The specific inhibitor for PKC delta, rottlerin, significantly blocked the inhibition by 5-HT. (vii) The specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin, or Src family kinase inhibitor, PP1, abolished the 5-HT-mediated inhibition of Cl(-)/OH- exchange activity. (viii) 5-HT stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src kinase and PKC delta.

Serotonin Inhibits Na+/H+ Exchange Activity Via 5-HT4 Receptors and Activation of PKC Alpha in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Gastroenterology. Apr, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15825078

Increased serotonin levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diarrhea associated with celiac and inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of serotonin on Na+ /H+ exchange (NHE) activity in the human intestine have not been investigated fully. The present studies examined the acute effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on NHE activity using Caco-2 cells as an in vitro model.

Expression and Membrane Localization of MCT Isoforms Along the Length of the Human Intestine

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Oct, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15901598

Recent studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated the involvement of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1 in the luminal uptake of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the human intestine. Functional studies from our laboratory previously demonstrated kinetically distinct SCFA transporters on the apical and basolateral membranes of human colonocytes. Although apical SCFA uptake is mediated by the MCT1 isoform, the molecular identity of the basolateral membrane SCFA transporter(s) and whether this transporter is encoded by another MCT isoform is not known. The present studies were designed to assess the expression and membrane localization of different MCT isoforms in human small intestine and colon. Immunoblotting was performed with the purified apical and basolateral membranes from human intestinal mucosa obtained from organ donor intestine. Immunohistochemistry studies were done on paraffin-embedded sections of human colonic biopsy samples. Immunoblotting studies detected a protein band of approximately 39 kDa for MCT1, predominantly in the apical membranes. The relative abundance of MCT1 mRNA and protein increased along the length of the human intestine. MCT4 (54 kDa) and MCT5 (54 kDa) isoforms showed basolateral localization and were highly expressed in the distal colon. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that human MCT1 antibody labeling was confined to the apical membranes, whereas MCT5 antibody staining was restricted to the basolateral membranes of the colonocytes. We speculate that distinct MCT isoforms may be involved in SCFA transport across the apical or basolateral membranes in polarized colonic epithelial cells.

Modulation of Human Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 Gene Expression by Sterol: Role of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jan, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17008555

Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is an essential intestinal component of cholesterol absorption. However, little is known about the molecular regulation of intestinal NPC1L1 expression and promoter activity. We demonstrated that human NPC1L1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased by 25-hydroxycholesterol but increased in response to cellular cholesterol depletion achieved by incubation with Mevinolin (an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. We also showed that a -1741/+56 fragment of the NPC1L1 gene demonstrated high promoter activity in Caco-2 cells that was reduced by 25-hydroxycholesterol and stimulated by cholesterol depletion. Interestingly, we showed that the NPC1L1 promoter is remarkably transactivated by the overexpression of sterol regulatory element (SRE) binding protein (SREBP)-2, suggesting its involvement in the sterol-induced alteration in NPC1L1 promoter activity. Finally, we identified two putative SREs in the human NPC1L1 promoter and established their essential roles in mediating the effects of cholesterol on promoter activity. Our study demonstrated the modulation of human NPC1L1 expression and promoter activity by cholesterol in a SREBP-2-dependent mechanism.

Mechanism Underlying Inhibition of Intestinal Apical Cl/OH Exchange Following Infection with Enteropathogenic E. Coli

The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Feb, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17256057

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a major cause of infantile diarrhea, but the pathophysiology underlying associated diarrhea is poorly understood. We examined the role of the luminal membrane Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange process in EPEC pathogenesis using in vitro and in vivo models. Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as OH(-) gradient-driven (36)Cl(-) uptake. EPEC infection (60 minutes-3 hours) inhibited apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity in human intestinal Caco-2 and T84 cells. This effect was dependent upon the bacterial type III secretory system (TTSS) and involved secreted effector molecules EspG and EspG2, known to disrupt the host microtubular network. The microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine (100 muM, 3 hours) also inhibited (36)Cl(-) uptake. The plasma membrane expression of major apical anion exchanger DRA (SLC26A3) was considerably reduced in EPEC-infected cells, corresponding with decreased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. Confocal microscopic studies showed that EPEC infection caused a marked redistribution of DRA from the apical membrane to intracellular compartments. Interestingly, infection of cells with an EPEC mutant deficient in espG significantly attenuated the decrease in surface expression of DRA protein as compared with treatment with wild-type EPEC. EPEC infection in vivo (1 day) also caused marked redistribution of surface DRA protein in the mouse colon. Our data demonstrate that EspG and EspG2 play an important role in contributing to EPEC infection-associated inhibition of luminal membrane chloride transport via modulation of surface DRA expression.

Taurodeoxycholate Modulates Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco2 Cells

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. May, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17387613

Bile acid malabsorption has been shown to be associated with diarrhea in cases such as ileal resection Crohn's disease of the ileum, and radiation enteritis. The mechanisms of bile acid-induced diarrhea are not fully understood. Although the induction of colonic chloride secretion in response to bile acids has been extensively investigated, to date the direct effect of bile acids on intestinal chloride absorption has not been well defined. Therefore, the current studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of bile acids on the apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange process utilizing Caco2 monolayers as an in vitro cellular model. Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive pH gradient-driven (36)Cl uptake. The results are summarized as follows: (i) short-term exposure (20 min) of Caco2 cells to taurodeoxycholate (TDC; 200 microM) and glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC; 200 microM) acids significantly inhibited apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange (by approximately 60-70%); (ii) the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM blocked the inhibition by TDC; (iii) the reduction in Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange by TDC was reversed by the PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride; (iv) functional and inhibitor studies indicated that TDC induced inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange was mediated via the activation of the PKC beta I isoform; (v) the effect of TDC on apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange was completely blocked by the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 (5 microM); and (vi) the PKA inhibitor, RpcAMP, had no effect on TDC induced inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange. In conclusion, our studies provide direct evidence for inhibition of human intestinal apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity by bile acids via Ca(2+)-, PI3 kinase-, and PKC beta I-dependent pathways in Caco2 cells.

Regulation of Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) Promoter by Butyrate in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Involvement of NF-kappaB Pathway

Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Apr, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17786924

Butyrate, a short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the colon, constitutes the major fuel for colonocytes. We have earlier shown the role of apically localized monocarboxylate transporter isoform 1 (MCT1) in transport of butyrate into human colonic Caco-2 cells. In an effort to study the regulation of MCT1 gene, we and others have cloned the promoter region of the MCT1 gene and identified cis elements for key transcription factors. A previous study has shown up-regulation of MCT1 expression, and activity by butyrate in AA/C1 human colonic epithelial cells, however, the detailed mechanisms of this up-regulation are not known. In this study, we demonstrate that butyrate, a substrate for MCT1, stimulates MCT1 promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. This effect was dose dependent and specific to butyrate as other predominant SCFAs, acetate, and propionate, were ineffective. Utilizing progressive deletion constructs of the MCT1 promoter, we showed that the putative butyrate responsive elements are in the -229/+91 region of the promoter. Butyrate stimulation of the MCT1 promoter was found to be independent of PKC, PKA, and tyrosine kinases. However, specific inhibitors of the NF-kappaB pathway, lactacystein (LC), and caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) significantly reduced the MCT1 promoter stimulation by butyrate. Also, butyrate directly stimulated NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase reporter activity. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) also stimulated MCT1 promoter activity, however, unlike butyrate, this stimulation was unaltered by the NF-kappaB inhibitors. Further, the combined effect of butyrate, and TSA on MCT1 promoter activity was additive, indicating that their mechanisms of action were independent. Our results demonstrate the involvement of NF-kappaB pathway in the regulation of MCT1 promoter activity by butyrate.

Function, Expression, and Characterization of the Serotonin Transporter in the Native Human Intestine

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jan, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17991706

The enteric serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in modulating serotonin availability and thus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various intestinal disorders. To date, SERT expression and function in the human intestine have not been investigated. Current studies were designed to characterize the function, expression, distribution, and membrane localization of SERT in the native human intestine. Real-time PCR studies showed relatively higher SERT mRNA expression in the human small intestine compared with colon (ileum > duodenum > jejunum). Northern blot analysis revealed three mRNA hybridizing species encoding SERT (3.0, 4.9, and 6.8 kb) in the human ileum. Consistent with SERT mRNA expression, SERT immunostaining was mainly detected in the epithelial cells of human duodenal and ileal resected tissues. Notably, SERT expression was localized predominantly to the apical and intracellular compartments and was distributed throughout the crypt-villus axis. Immunoblotting studies detected a prominent protein band ( approximately 70 kDa) in the ileal apical plasma membrane vesicles (AMVs) isolated from mucosa obtained from organ-donor intestine. Functional studies showed that uptake of [(3)H]serotonin (150 nM) in human ileal AMVs was 1) significantly increased in the presence of both Na(+) and Cl(-); 2) inhibited ( approximately 50%) by the neuronal SERT inhibitor, fluoxetine (10 microM) and by unlabeled 5-HT; and 3) exhibited saturation kinetics indicating the presence of a carrier-mediated process. Our studies demonstrated differential expression of SERT across various regions of the human intestine and provide evidence for the existence of a functional SERT capable of removing intraluminal serotonin in human ileal epithelial cells.

Modulation of Ileal Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) Activity by Depletion of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol: Association with Lipid Rafts

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18063707

Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) represents a highly efficient conservation mechanism of bile acids via mediation of their active transport across the luminal membrane of terminal ileum. To gain insight into the cellular regulation of ASBT, we investigated the association of ASBT with cholesterol and sphingolipid-enriched specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts and examined the role of membrane cholesterol in maintaining ASBT function. Human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells stably transfected with human ASBT, human ileal brush-border membrane vesicles, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were utilized for these studies. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of ASBT protein with lipid rafts. Disruption of lipid rafts by depletion of membrane cholesterol with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) significantly reduced the association of ASBT with lipid rafts, which was paralleled by a decrease in ASBT activity in Caco-2 and HEK-293 cells treated with MbetaCD. The inhibition in ASBT activity by MbetaCD was blocked in the cells treated with MbetaCD-cholesterol complexes. Kinetic analysis revealed that MbetaCD treatment decreased the V(max) of the transporter, which was not associated with alteration in the plasma membrane expression of ASBT. Our study illustrates that cholesterol content of lipid rafts is essential for the optimal activity of ASBT and support the association of ASBT with lipid rafts. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which ASBT activity may be rapidly modulated by alterations in cholesterol content of plasma membrane and thus have important implications in processes related to maintenance of bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis.

Role of Fyn and PI3K in H2O2-induced Inhibition of Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

The Biochemical Journal. Nov, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18564062

H(2)O(2) is a highly reactive oxygen metabolite that has been implicated as an important mediator of inflammation-induced intestinal injury associated with ischaemia/reperfusion, radiation and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies have shown that H(2)O(2) inhibits NaCl absorption and activates Cl(-) secretion in the rat and rabbit colon. To date, however, almost no information is available with respect to its effect on the human intestinal apical anion exchanger Cl(-)/OH(-) (HCO(3)(-)). The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to examine the direct effects of H(2)O(2) on OH(-) gradient-driven DIDS (4,4'-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate)-sensitive (36)Cl(-) uptake utilizing a post-confluent transformed human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2. Our results demonstrate that H(2)O(2) (1 mM for 60 min) significantly inhibited (approx. 60%; P<0.05) Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity in Caco-2 cells. H(2)O(2)-mediated inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity involved the Src kinase Fyn and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent pathways. H(2)O(2) also induced phosphorylation of Fyn and p85 (the regulatory subunit of PI3K) in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, an increased association of Fyn and p85 was observed in response to H(2)O(2), resulting in the activation of the downstream target PLCgamma1 (phospholipase Cgamma1). Elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels and PKCalpha (protein kinase Calpha) functioned as downstream effectors of H(2)O(2)-induced PLCgamma1 activation. Our results, for the first time, provide evidence for H(2)O(2)-induced Src kinase Fyn/PI3K complex association. This complex association resulted in the subsequent activation of PLCgamma1 and Ca(2+)-dependent PKCalpha, resulting in the inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. These findings suggest that H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of the Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange process may play an important role in the pathophysiology of diarrhoea associated with inflammatory disorders, where the amount of reactive oxygen species is markedly elevated.

Characterization of the 5'-flanking Region and Regulation of Expression of Human Anion Exchanger SLC26A6

Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18655181

SLC26A6 (putative anion transporter 1, PAT1) has been shown to play an important role in mediating the luminal Cl(-)/OH(-)(HCO(3)(-)) exchange process in the intestine. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of intestinal SLC26A6 gene expression in the intestine. Current studies were, therefore, designed to clone and characterize the 5'-regulatory region of the human SLC26A6 gene and determine the mechanisms involved in its regulation. A 1,120 bp (p-964/+156) SLC26A6 promoter fragment cloned upstream to the luciferase reporter gene in pGL2-basic exhibited high promoter activity when transfected in Caco2 cells. Progressive deletions of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated that -214/-44 region of the promoter harbors cis-acting elements important for maximal SLC26A6 promoter activity. Since, diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel diseases is attributed to increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we examined the effects of IFNgamma (30 ng/ml, 24 h) on SLC26A6 function, expression and promoter activity. IFNgamma decreased both SLC26A6 mRNA and function and repressed SLC26A6 promoter activity. Deletion analysis indicated that IFNgamma response element is located between -414/-214 region and sequence analysis of this region revealed the presence of potential Interferon Stimulated Responsive Element (ISRE), a binding site (-318/-300 bp) for interferon regulatory factor-1 transcription factor (IRF-1). Mutations in the potential ISRE site abrogated the inhibitory effects of IFNgamma. These studies provided novel evidence for the involvement of IRF-1 in the regulation of SLC26A6 gene expression by IFNgamma in the human intestine.

Serotonin Modifies Cytoskeleton and Brush-border Membrane Architecture in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18669621

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) influences numerous functions in the gastrointestinal tract. We previously demonstrated that 5-HT treatment of Caco-2 cells inhibited Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHE) and Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activities via distinct signaling mechanisms. Since regulation of several ion transporters such as NHE3 is influenced by intact cytoskeleton, we hypothesized that 5-HT modifies actin cytoskeleton and/or brush-border membrane architecture via involvement of signaling pathways. Ultrastructural analysis showed that 5-HT (0.1 muM, 1 h) treatment of Caco-2 cells caused the apical membrane to assume a convex dome shape that was associated with shortening of microvilli. To examine whether these cellular architecture changes are cytoskeleton driven, we analyzed actin cytoskeleton by fluorescence microscopy. 5-HT induced basal stress fibers with prominent cortical actin filaments via 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor subtypes. This induction was partially attenuated by chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) and PKCalpha inhibition (Go6976). In vitro assays revealed that PKCalpha interacted with actin and this association was increased by 5-HT. Our data provide novel evidence that 5-HT-induced signaling via 5-HT3/4 receptor subtypes to cause Ca(2+) and PKCalpha-dependent regulation of actin cytoskeleton may play an important role in modulation of ion transporters that contribute to pathophysiology of diarrheal conditions associated with elevated levels of 5-HT.

PKC-dependent Stimulation of the Human MCT1 Promoter Involves Transcription Factor AP2

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19033536

Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) plays an important role in the absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate in the human colon. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that phorbol ester, PMA (1 microM, 24 h), upregulates butyrate transport and MCT1 protein expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of MCT1 gene expression by PMA in the intestine are not known. In the present study, we showed that PMA (0.1 microM, 24 h) increased the MCT1 promoter activity (-871/+91) by approximately fourfold. A corresponding increase in MCT1 mRNA abundance in response to PMA was also observed. PMA-induced stimulation of MCT1 promoter activity was observed as early as 1 h and persisted until 24 h, suggesting that the effects of PMA are attributable to initial PKC activation. Kinase inhibitor and phosphorylation studies indicated that these effects may be mediated through activation of the atypical PKC-zeta isoform. 5'-deletion studies demonstrated that the MCT1 core promoter region (-229/+91) is the PMA-responsive region. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed the predominant involvement of potential activator protein 2 (AP2) binding site in the activation of MCT1 promoter activity by PMA. In addition, overexpression of AP2 in Caco-2 cells significantly increased MCT1 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. These findings showing the regulation of MCT1 promoter by PKC and AP2 are of significant importance for an understanding of the molecular regulation of SCFA absorption in the human intestine.

Modulation of Ileal Apical Na+-dependent Bile Acid Transporter ASBT by Protein Kinase C

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19571234

Ileal apical Na(+)-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is responsible for reabsorbing the majority of bile acids from the intestinal lumen. Rapid adaptation of ASBT function in response to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli is essential for the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis. However, not much is known about molecular mechanisms responsible for acute posttranscriptional regulation of ileal ASBT. The protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway represents a major cell signaling mechanism influencing intestinal epithelial functions. The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate ASBT regulation in intestinal Caco-2 monolayers by the well-known PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Our results showed that Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]taurocholic acid uptake in Caco-2 cells was significantly inhibited in response to 2 h incubation with 100 nM PMA compared with incubation with 4alpha-PMA (inactive form). The inhibitory effect of PMA was blocked in the presence of 5 microM bisindolylmaleimide I (PKC inhibitor) but not 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (Ca(2+) chelator) or LY-294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor). PMA inhibition of ASBT function was also abrogated in the presence of myristoylated PKCzeta pseudosubstrate peptide, indicating involvement of the atypical PKCzeta isoform. The inhibition by PMA was associated with a significant decrease in the maximal velocity of the transporter and a reduction in ASBT plasma membrane content, suggesting a modulation by vesicular recycling. Our novel findings demonstrate a posttranscriptional modulation of ileal ASBT function and membrane expression by phorbol ester via a PKCzeta-dependent pathway.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli Infection Inhibits Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Function and Expression

Gastroenterology. Dec, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19747920

Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) availability in the gut. Elevated 5-HT levels are associated with diarrheal conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and enteric infections. Whether alteration in SERT activity contributes to the pathophysiology of diarrhea induced by the food-borne pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is not known. The present studies examined the effects of EPEC infection on SERT activity and expression in intestinal epithelial cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms.

Mechanisms Underlying Modulation of Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) by Somatostatin in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 20501436

Somatostatin (SST), an important neuropeptide of the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to stimulate sodium chloride absorption and inhibit chloride secretion in the intestine. However, the effects of SST on luminal butyrate absorption in the human intestine have not been investigated. Earlier studies from our group and others have shown that monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) plays an important role in the transport of butyrate in the human intestine. The present studies were undertaken to examine the effects of SST on butyrate uptake utilizing postconfluent human intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells. Apical SST treatment of Caco-2 cells for 30-60 min significantly increased butyrate uptake in a dose-dependent manner with maximal increase at 50 nM ( approximately 60%, P < 0.05). SST receptor 2 agonist, seglitide, mimicked the effects of SST on butyrate uptake. SST-mediated stimulation of butyrate uptake involved the p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. Kinetic studies demonstrated that SST increased the maximal velocity (V(max)) of the transporter by approximately twofold without any change in apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)). The higher butyrate uptake in response to SST was associated with an increase in the apical membrane levels of MCT1 protein parallel to a decrease in the intracellular MCT1 pool. MCT1 has been shown to interact specifically with CD147 glycoprotein/chaperone to facilitate proper expression and function of MCT1 at the cell surface. SST significantly enhanced the membrane levels of CD147 as well as its association with MCT1. This association was completely abolished by the specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Our findings demonstrate that increased MCT1 association with CD147 at the apical membrane in response to SST is p38 MAP kinase dependent and underlies the stimulatory effects of SST on butyrate uptake.

Mechanisms of Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Mediated Stimulation of Intestinal Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19910524

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a potent bioactive phospholipid, is a natural component of food products like soy and egg yolk. LPA modulates a number of epithelial functions and has been shown to inhibit cholera toxin-induced diarrhea. Antidiarrheal effects of LPA are known to be mediated by inhibiting chloride secretion. However, the effects of LPA on chloride absorption in the mammalian intestine are not known. The present studies examined the effects of LPA on apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchangers known to be involved in chloride absorption in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were treated with LPA, and Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive (36)Cl(-) uptake. Cell surface biotinylation studies were performed to evaluate the effect of LPA on cell surface levels of apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchangers, downregulated in adenoma (DRA) (SLC26A3), and putative anion transporter-1 (SLC26A6). Treatment of Caco-2 cells with LPA (100 muM) significantly stimulated Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. Specific agonist for LPA2 receptor mimicked the effects of LPA. LPA-mediated stimulation of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was dependent on activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Consistent with the functional activity, LPA treatment resulted in increased levels of DRA on the apical membrane. Our results demonstrate that LPA stimulates apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity and surface levels of DRA in intestinal epithelial cells. This increase in Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange may contribute to the antidiarrheal effects of LPA.

Mechanisms of Transcriptional Modulation of the Human Anion Exchanger SLC26A3 Gene Expression by IFN-{gamma}

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19940027

Two members of the SLC26 gene family, SLC26A3 or DRA (downregulated in adenoma) and SLC26A6 (putative anion transporter 1, PAT1), are known to play a major role in apical Cl(-)/OH(-) (HCO(3)(-)) exchange process in the human intestine. We have previously shown the inhibitory effects of IFN-gamma (30 ng/ml, 24 h) on both SLC26A3 and A6 expression and promoter activity. We also demonstrated that the effects of IFN-gamma on SLC26A6 gene expression were mediated via IRF-1 transcription factor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional modulation of SLC26A3 gene expression by IFN-gamma in the intestine are not known. The present studies were, therefore, designed to elucidate the signaling mechanisms and transcription factor(s) involved in mediating the inhibitory effects of IFN-gamma on DRA promoter (p--1183/+114) activity. Deletion analysis indicated that the IFN-gamma response element is located within the -1183 to -790 region, and sequence analysis of this region revealed the presence of potential gamma-activated site (GAS), a binding site (-933/-925 bp) for signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 1 (STAT1). Mutations in the potential GAS element abrogated the inhibitory effects of IFN-gamma. These studies provide evidence for the involvement of STAT1 in the inhibition of SLC26A3 gene expression by IFN-gamma in the human intestine.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Stimulates the Expression of SLC26A3 Via a Transcriptional Mechanism

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20044511

Clinical efficacy of probiotics in treating various forms of diarrhea has been clearly established. However, mechanisms underlying antidiarrheal effects of probiotics are not completely defined. Diarrhea is caused either by decreased absorption or increased secretion of electrolytes and solutes in the intestine. In this regard, the electroneutral absorption of two major electrolytes, Na(+) and Cl(-), occurs mainly through the coupled operation of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers and Cl(-)/OH(-) exchangers. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) acutely stimulated Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity via an increase in the surface levels of the apical anion exchanger SLC26A3 (DRA). However, whether probiotics influence SLC26A3 expression and promoter activity has not been examined. The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the long-term effects of LA on SLC26A3 expression and promoter activity. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with LA for 6-24 h resulted in a significant increase in Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. DRA mRNA levels were also significantly elevated in response to LA treatment starting as early as 8 h. Additionally, the promoter activity of DRA was increased by more than twofold following 8 h LA treatment of Caco-2 cells. Similar to the in vitro studies, in vivo studies using mice gavaged with LA also showed significantly increased DRA mRNA ( approximately 4-fold) and protein expression in the colonic regions as assessed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. In conclusion, increase in DRA promoter activity and expression may contribute to the upregulation of intestinal electrolyte absorption and might underlie the potential antidiarrheal effects of LA.

Green Tea Catechin EGCG Inhibits Ileal Apical Sodium Bile Acid Transporter ASBT

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20056894

Green tea catechins exhibit hypocholesterolemic effects probably via their inhibitory effects on intestinal bile acid absorption. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is responsible for reabsorption of bile acids. The present studies were, therefore, designed to investigate the modulation of ASBT function and membrane expression by green tea catechins in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells stably transfected with ASBT-V5 fusion protein and intestinal Caco-2 monolayers. Our data showed that ASBT activity was significantly decreased by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) but not other green tea catechins. Inhibition of PKC, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and MAPK-dependent pathways failed to block the reduction in ASBT activity by EGCG. Kinetics studies showed a significant decrease in the V(max) of the transporter, whereas total ASBT content on the plasma membrane was unaltered by EGCG. Concomitant with the decrease in ASBT function, EGCG significantly reduced ASBT pool in the detergent-insoluble fraction, while increasing its presence in the detergent-soluble fraction of plasma membrane. Furthermore, EGCG decreased the association of ASBT with floating lipid raft fractions of cellular membrane on Optiprep density gradient. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a novel role of lipid rafts in the modulation of ASBT function by the dietary component EGCG, which may underlie the hypocholesterolemic effects of green tea.

Ileal Apical Na+-dependent Bile Acid Transporter ASBT is Upregulated in Rats with Diabetes Mellitus Induced by Low Doses of Streptozotocin

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20651004

Increased intestinal bile acid absorption and expansion of the bile acid pool has been implicated in the hypercholesterolemia associated with diabetes mellitus. However, the molecular basis of the increase in bile acid absorption in diabetes mellitus is not fully understood. The ileal apical Na(+)-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is primarily responsible for active reabsorption of the majority of bile acids. Current studies were designed to investigate the modulation of ASBT function and expression in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus in rats and to examine the effect of insulin on rat ASBT promoter by insulin. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of low doses of STZ (20 mg/kg body wt) on five consecutive days. Human insulin (10 U/day) was given to a group of diabetic rats for 3 days before euthanasia. RNA and protein were extracted from mucosa isolated from the small intestine and ASBT expression was assessed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Our data showed that ASBT mRNA and protein expression were significantly elevated in diabetic rats. Insulin treatment of diabetic rats reversed the increase in ASBT protein expression to control levels. Consistently, ileal Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]taurocholic uptake in isolated intestinal epithelial cells was significantly increased in diabetic rats. In vitro studies utilizing intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells demonstrated that ASBT expression and promoter activity were significantly decreased by insulin. These studies demonstrated that insulin directly influences ASBT expression and promoter activity and that ASBT function and expression are increased in rats with STZ-induced diabetes mellitus. The increase in ASBT expression may contribute to disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis associated with diabetes mellitus.

Stimulation of Apical Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) Exchanger, SLC26A3 by Neuropeptide Y is Lipid Raft Dependent

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Dec, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20884887

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an important proabsorptive hormone of the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to inhibit chloride secretion and stimulate NaCl absorption. However, mechanisms underlying the proabsorptive effects of NPY are not fully understood. The present studies were designed to examine the direct effects of NPY on apical Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity and the underlying mechanisms involved utilizing Caco2 cells. Our results showed that NPY (100 nM, 30 min) significantly increased Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity (∼2-fold). Selective NPY/Y1 or Y2 receptor agonists mimicked the effects of NPY. NPY-mediated stimulation of Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity involved the ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. Cell surface biotinylation studies showed that NPY does not alter DRA (apical Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchanger) surface expression, ruling out the involvement of membrane trafficking events. Interestingly, DRA was found to be predominantly expressed in the detergent-insoluble (DI) and low-density fractions (LDF) of human colonic apical membrane vesicles (AMVs) representing lipid rafts. Depletion of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, 10 mM, 1 h) remarkably decreased DRA expression in the DI fractions. Similar results were obtained in Triton-X 100-treated Caco2 plasma membranes. DRA association with lipid rafts in the DI and LDF fractions of Caco2 cells was significantly enhanced (∼45%) by NPY compared with control. MβCD significantly decreased Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity in Caco2 cells as measured by DIDS- or niflumic acid-sensitive ³⁶Cl⁻ uptake (∼50%). Our results demonstrate that NPY modulates Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity by enhancing the association of DRA with lipid rafts, thereby resulting in an increase in Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity. Our findings suggest that the alteration in the association of DRA with lipid rafts may contribute to the proabsorptive effects of NPY in the human intestine.

Epidermal Growth Factor Upregulates Serotonin Transporter in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Via Transcriptional Mechanisms

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Apr, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21273531

Serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates extracellular availability of serotonin and is a potential pharmacological target for gastrointestinal disorders. A decrease in SERT has been implicated in intestinal inflammatory and diarrheal disorders. However, little is known regarding regulation of SERT in the intestine. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to influence intestinal electrolyte and nutrient transport processes and has protective effects on intestinal mucosa. Whether EGF regulates SERT in the human intestine is not known. The present studies examined the regulation of SERT by EGF, utilizing Caco-2 cells grown on Transwell inserts as an in vitro model. Treatment with EGF from the basolateral side (10 ng/ml, 24 h) significantly stimulated SERT activity (∼2-fold, P < 0.01) and mRNA levels compared with control. EGF increased the activities of the two alternate promoter constructs for human SERT gene: SERT promoter 1 (hSERTp1, upstream of exon 1a) and SERT promoter 2 (hSERTp2, upstream of exon 2). Inhibition of EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activity by PD168393 (1 nM) blocked the stimulatory effects of EGF on SERT promoters. Progressive deletions of the SERT promoter indicated that the putative EGF-responsive elements are present in the -672/-472 region of the hSERTp1 and regions spanning -1195/-738 and -152/+123 of hSERTp2. EGF markedly increased the binding of Caco-2 nuclear proteins to the potential AP-1 cis-elements present in EGF-responsive regions of hSERTp1 and p2. Overexpression of c-jun but not c-fos specifically transactivated hSERTp2, with no effects on hSERTp1. Our findings define novel mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of SERT by EGF via EGFR at the promoter level that may contribute to the beneficial effects of EGF in gut disorders.

Upregulation of P-glycoprotein by Probiotics in Intestinal Epithelial Cells and in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium Model of Colitis in Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21350189

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediates efflux of xenobiotics and bacterial toxins from the intestinal mucosa into the lumen. Dysregulation of P-gp has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Certain probiotics have been shown to be effective in treating inflammatory bowel disease. However, direct effects of probiotics on P-gp are not known. Current studies examined the effects of Lactobacilli on P-gp function and expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 monolayers and a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis were utilized. P-gp activity was measured as verapamil-sensitive [(3)H]digoxin transepithelial flux. Multidrug resistant 1 (MDR1)/P-gp expression was measured by real-time quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. Culture supernatant (CS; 1:10 or 1:50, 24 h) of Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus rhamnosus treatment of differentiated Caco-2 monolayers (21 days postplating) increased (∼3-fold) MDR1/P-gp mRNA and protein levels. L. acidophilus or L. rhamnosus CS stimulated P-gp activity (∼2-fold, P < 0.05) via phosphoinositide 3-kinase and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways. In mice, L. acidophilus or L. rhamnosus treatment (3 × 10(9) colony-forming units) increased mdr1a/P-gp mRNA and protein expression in the ileum and colon (2- to 3-fold). In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model (3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days), the degree of colitis as judged by histological damage and myeloperoxidase activity was reduced by L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus treatment to DSS-treated mice blocked the reduced expression of mdr1a/P-gp mRNA and protein in the distal colon. These findings suggest that Lactobacilli or their soluble factors stimulate P-gp expression and function under normal and inflammatory conditions. These data provide insights into a novel mechanism involving P-gp upregulation in beneficial effects of probiotics in intestinal inflammatory disorders.

SREBP2 Mediates the Modulation of Intestinal NPC1L1 Expression by Curcumin

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jul, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21527728

Curcumin, the major phenolic compound in the spice turmeric, exhibits numerous biological effects, including lowering plasma cholesterol and preventing diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. The mechanisms underlying the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin are not fully understood. In this regard, intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter, the molecular target of intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe, plays an essential role in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The current studies were designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on NPC1L1 function, expression, and promoter activity in intestinal Caco-2 monolayers. NPC1L1 function was evaluated by the measurement of ezetimibe-sensitive [(3)H]cholesterol esterification. Relative abundance of NPC1L1 mRNA and protein was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Luciferase assays were used to measure NPC1L1 promoter activity. Our results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited ezetimibe-sensitive cholesterol esterification in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum decrease (by 52% compared with control) occurring at 50 μM concentration. Curcumin treatment of Caco-2 monolayers also significantly decreased NPC1L1 mRNA and protein expression. Similarly, the promoter activity of the NPC1L1 gene was inhibited significantly (55%) by 50 μM curcumin. The decrease in NPC1L1 promoter activity by curcumin was associated with a reduction in the expression and the DNA-binding activity of the sterol response element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor. Furthermore, the overexpression of active SREBP2 protected NPC1L1 from the inhibitory effect of curcumin. Our studies demonstrate that curcumin directly modulates intestinal NPC1L1 expression via transcriptional regulation and the involvement of SREBP2 transcription factor.

Transcriptional Regulation of the Intestinal Luminal Na⁺ and Cl⁻ Transporters

The Biochemical Journal. Apr, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21726200

The epithelial apical membrane Na+/H+ exchangers [NHE (sodium hydrogen exchanger)2 and NHE3] and Cl-/HCO3- exchangers [DRA (down-regulated in adenoma) and PAT-1 (putative anion transporter 1)] are key luminal membrane transporters involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. During the last decade, there has been a surge of studies focusing on the short-term regulation of these electrolyte transporters, particularly for NHE3 regulation. However, the long-term regulation of the electrolyte transporters, involving transcriptional mechanisms and transcription factors that govern their basal regulation or dysregulation in diseased states, has only now started to unfold with the cloning and characterization of their gene promoters. The present review provides a detailed analysis of the core promoters of NHE2, NHE3, DRA and PAT-1 and outlines the transcription factors involved in their basal regulation as well as in response to both physiological (butyrate, protein kinases and probiotics) and pathophysiological (cytokines and high levels of serotonin) stimuli. The information available on the transcriptional regulation of the recently identified NHE8 isoform is also highlighted. Therefore the present review bridges a gap in our knowledge of the transcriptional mechanisms underlying the alterations in the gene expression of intestinal epithelial luminal membrane Na+ and Cl- transporters involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption. An understanding of the mechanisms of the modulation of gene expression of these transporters is important for a better assessment of the pathophysiology of diarrhoea associated with inflammatory and infectious diseases and may aid in designing better management protocols.

LPA Stimulates Intestinal DRA Gene Transcription Via LPA2 Receptor, PI3K/AKT, and C-Fos-dependent Pathway

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22159277

DRA (downregulated in adenoma) or SLC26A3 is the major apical anion exchanger mediating Cl(-) absorption in intestinal epithelial cells. Disturbances in DRA function and expression have been implicated in diarrheal conditions such as congenital chloride diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. Previous studies have shown that DRA is subject to regulation by short-term and transcriptional mechanisms. In this regard, we have recently shown that short-term treatment by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an important bioactive phospholipid, stimulates Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-)(OH(-)) exchange activity via an increase in DRA surface levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. However, the long-term effects of LPA on DRA at the level of gene transcription have not been examined. The present studies were aimed at investigating the effects of LPA on DRA function and expression as well as elucidating the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation. Long-term LPA treatment increased the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity in Caco-2 cells. LPA treatment (50-100 μM) of Caco-2 cells significantly stimulated DRA mRNA levels and DRA promoter activity (-1183/+114). This increase in DRA promoter activity involved the LPA2 receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways. Progressive deletions from -1183/+114 to -790/+114 abrogated the stimulatory effects of LPA, indicating that the -1183/-790 promoter region harbors LPA response elements. Utilizing EMSA and mutational studies, our results showed that LPA induced the DRA promoter activity in a c-Fos-dependent manner. LPA also increased the protein expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos but not c-Jun enhanced the DRA promoter activity. This increase in DRA transcription in response to LPA indicates that LPA may act as an antidiarrheal agent and could be exploited for the treatment of diarrhea associated with inflammatory or infectious diseases of the gut.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli Inhibits Ileal Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter ASBT

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. May, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22403793

Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is responsible for the absorption of bile acids from the intestine. A decrease in ASBT function and expression has been implicated in diarrhea associated with intestinal inflammation. Whether infection with pathogenic microorganisms such as the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) affect ASBT activity is not known. EPEC is a food-borne enteric pathogen that translocates bacterial effector molecules via type three secretion system (TTSS) into host cells and is a major cause of infantile diarrhea. We investigated the effects of EPEC infection on ileal ASBT function utilizing human intestinal Caco2 cells and HEK-293 cells stably transfected with ASBT-V5 fusion protein (2BT cells). ASBT activity was significantly inhibited following 60 min infection with EPEC but not with nonpathogenic E. coli. Mutations in bacterial escN, espA, espB, and espD, the genes encoding for the elements of bacterial TTSS, ablated EPEC inhibitory effect on ASBT function. Furthermore, mutation in the bacterial BFP gene encoding for bundle-forming pili abrogated the inhibition of ASBT by EPEC, indicating the essential role for bacterial aggregation and the early attachment. The inhibition by EPEC was associated with a significant decrease in the V(max) of the transporter and a reduction in the level of ASBT on the plasma membrane. The inhibition of ASBT by EPEC was blocked in the presence of protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. Our studies provide novel evidence for the alterations in the activity of ASBT by EPEC infection and suggest a possible effect for EPEC in influencing intestinal bile acid homeostasis.

D-Glucose Modulates Intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) Gene Expression Via Transcriptional Regulation

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jan, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23139223

The expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter has been shown to be elevated in patients with diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia such as diabetes mellitus. High levels of glucose were shown to directly increase the expression of NPC1L1 in intestinal epithelial cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to examine the transcriptional regulation of NPC1L1 expression in human intestinal Caco2 cells in response to glucose. Removal of glucose from the culture medium of Caco2 cells for 24 h significantly decreased the NPC1L1 mRNA, protein expression, as well as the promoter activity. Glucose replenishment significantly increased the promoter activity of NPC1L1 in a dose-dependent manner compared with control cells. Exposure of Caco2 cells to nonmetabolizable form of glucose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucopyranose (OMG) had no effect on NPC1L1 promoter activity, indicating that the observed effects are dependent on glucose metabolism. Furthermore, glucose-mediated increase in promoter activity was abrogated in the presence of okadaic acid, suggesting the involvement of protein phosphatases. Glucose effects on several deletion constructs of NPC1L1 promoter demonstrated that cis elements mediating the effects of glucose are located in the region between -291 and +56 of NPC1L1 promoter. Consistent with the effects of glucose removal on NPC1L1 expression in Caco2 cells, 24-h fasting resulted in a significant decrease in the relative expression of NPC1L1 in mouse jejunum. In conclusion, glucose appears to directly modulate NPC1L1 expression via transcriptional mechanisms and the involvement of phosphatase-dependent pathways.

Regulation of Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Expression Via Epigenetic Mechanisms: Role of HDAC2

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23195070

The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) facilitates clearance of extracellular 5-HT by its uptake and internalization. Decreased expression of SERT and consequent high 5-HT levels have been implicated in various diarrheal disorders. Thus, appropriate regulation of SERT is critical for maintenance of 5-HT homeostasis in health and disease. Previous studies demonstrated that SERT is regulated via posttranslational and transcriptional mechanisms. However, the role of epigenetic mechanisms in SERT regulation is not known. Current studies investigated the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on SERT expression and delineated the mechanisms. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with the pan-HDAC inhibitors butyrate (5 mM) and trichostatin (TSA, 1 μM) decreased SERT mRNA and protein levels. Butyrate- or TSA-induced decrease in SERT was associated with decreased activity of human SERT (hSERT) promoter 1 (upstream of exon 1a), but not hSERT promoter 2 (upstream of exon 2). Butyrate + TSA did not show an additive effect on SERT expression, indicating that mechanisms involving histone hyperacetylation may be involved. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated enrichment of the hSERT promoter 1 (flanking nt -250/+2) with tetra-acetylated histone H3 or H4, which was increased (~3-fold) by butyrate. Interestingly, specific inhibition of HDAC2 (but not HDAC1) utilizing small interfering RNA decreased SERT mRNA and protein levels. The decrease in SERT expression by HDAC inhibition was recapitulated in an in vivo model. SERT mRNA levels were decreased in the ileum and colon of mice fed pectin (increased availability of butyrate) compared with controls fed a fiber-free diet (~50-60%). Our results identify a novel role of HDAC2 as a regulator of SERT gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells.

Keratinocyte Growth Factor-2 Stimulates P-glycoprotein Expression and Function in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23328208

Intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp/multidrug resistance 1), encoded by the ATP-binding cassette B1 gene, is primarily involved in the transepithelial efflux of toxic metabolites and xenobiotics from the mucosa into the gut lumen. Reduced Pgp function and expression has been shown to be associated with intestinal inflammatory disorders. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF2) has emerged as a potential target for modulation of intestinal inflammation and maintenance of gut mucosal integrity. Whether KGF2 directly regulates Pgp in the human intestine is not known. Therefore, the present studies were undertaken to determine the modulation of Pgp by KGF2 using Caco-2 cells. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with KGF2 (10 ng/ml, 1 h) increased Pgp activity (~2-fold, P < 0.05) as measured by verapamil-sensitive [(3)H]digoxin flux. This increase in Pgp function was associated with an increase in surface Pgp levels. The specific fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) antagonist PD-161570 blocked the KGF2-mediated increase in Pgp activity. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by PD-98059 attenuated the stimulatory effects of KGF2 on Pgp activity. Small-interfering RNA knockdown of Erk1/2 MAPK blocked the increase in surface Pgp levels by KGF2. Long-term treatment with KGF2 (10 ng/ml, 24 h) also significantly increased PgP activity, mRNA, protein expression, and promoter activity. The long-term effects of KGF2 on Pgp promoter activity were also blocked by the FGFR antagonist and mediated by the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our findings define the posttranslational and transcriptional mechanisms underlying stimulation of Pgp function and expression by KGF2 that may contribute to the beneficial effects of KGF2 in intestinal inflammatory disorders.

Overactivation of Intestinal SREBP2 in Mice Increases Serum Cholesterol

PloS One. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24465397

Sterol Response Element Binding Protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor is a master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Treatment with statins, inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, activates intestinal SREBP2, which may hinder their cholesterol-lowering effects. Overactivation of SREBP2 in mouse liver was shown to have no effect on plasma cholesterol. However, the influence of activating intestinal SREBP2 on plasma cholesterol is not known. We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model with intestine specific overexpression of active SREBP2 (ISR2) driven by villin promoter. ISR2 mice showed overexpression of active SREBP2 specifically in the intestine. Microarray analysis of jejunal RNA from ISR2 mice showed a significant increase in genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in jejunum and liver (mg/g protein) were significantly increased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. Serum Cholesterol was significantly increased in VLDL and LDL fractions whereas the level of serum triglycerides was decreased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. In conclusion, activation of intestinal SREBP2 alone seems to be sufficient to increase plasma cholesterol, highlighting the essential role of intestine in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the body.

Pharmacokinetic Characterization of Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) Fruit Extract Standardized to α-mangostin in C57BL/6 Mice

Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24774070

Previously, we have reported the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of α-mangostin in mice. For this study, we evaluated the PK profile of α-mangostin using a standardized mangosteen extract in C57BL/6 mice. The primary objective was to determine the PK properties of α-mangostin when administered as an extract. This experiment was designed to test our primary hypothesis that α-mangostin in an extract should achieve a desirable PK profile. This is especially relevant as dietary supplements of mangosteen fruit are regularly standardized to α-mangostin. Mice received 100 mg/kg of mangosteen fruit extract orally, equivalent to 36 mg/kg of α-mangostin, and plasma samples were analyzed over a 24-hour period. Concentrations of α-mangostin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, we evaluated the stability in the presence of phase I and phase II enzymes in liver and gastrointestinal microsomes. Furthermore, we identified evidence of phase II metabolism of α-mangostin. Further research will be required to determine if less abundant xanthones present in the mangosteen may modulate the PK parameters of α-mangostin.

Epigenetic Modulation of Intestinal Cholesterol Transporter Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) Gene Expression by DNA Methylation

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24904062

Intestinal NPC1L1 transporter is essential for cholesterol absorption and the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. NPC1L1 is differentially expressed along the gastrointestinal tract with very low levels in the colon as compared with the small intestine. This study was undertaken to examine whether DNA methylation was responsible for segment-specific expression of NPC1L1. Treatment of mice with 5-azacytidine (i.p.) resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in NPC1L1 mRNA expression in the colon. The lack of expression of NPC1L1 in the normal colon was associated with high levels of methylation in the area flanking the 3-kb fragment upstream of the initiation site of the mouse NPC1L1 gene in mouse colon as analyzed by EpiTYPER® MassARRAY®. The high level of methylation in the colon was observed in specific CpG dinucleotides and was significantly decreased in response to 5-azacytidine. Similar to mouse NPC1L1, 5-azacytidine treatment also increased the level of human NPC1L1 mRNA expression in the intestinal HuTu-80 cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Silencing the expression of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, -2, -3A, and -3B alone by siRNA did not affect NPC1L1 expression in HuTu-80 cells. However, the simultaneous attenuation of DNMT1 and -3B expression caused a significant increase in NPC1L1 mRNA expression as compared with control. Also, in vitro methylation of the human NPC1L1 promoter significantly decreased NPC1L1 promoter activity in human intestinal Caco2 cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrated for the first time that DNA methylation in the promoter region of the NPC1L1 gene appears to be a major mechanism underlying differential expression of NPC1L1 along the length of the gastrointestinal tract.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Attenuates Downregulation of DRA Function and Expression in Inflammatory Models

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25059823

Probiotics, including Lactobacilli, are commensal bacteria that have been used in clinical trials and experimental models for the prevention and treatment of diarrheal disorders. Our previous studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and its culture supernatant (CS) stimulated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity, acutely via an increase in the surface levels of downregulated in adenoma (DRA, SLC26A3) and in long-term treatments via increasing its expression involving transcriptional mechanisms. However, the role of LA in modulating DRA activity under inflammatory conditions is not known. Current in vitro studies using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells examined the efficacy of LA or its CS in counteracting the inhibitory effects of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) on Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity. Pretreatment of cells with LA or LA-CS for 1 h followed by coincubation with IFN-γ significantly alleviated the inhibitory effects of IFN-γ on Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity. In the in vivo model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis (3% in drinking water for 7 days) in C57BL/6J mice, administration of live LA (3 × 10(9) colony-forming units) via oral gavage attenuated colonic inflammation. LA administration also counteracted the colitis-induced decrease in DRA mRNA and protein levels. Efficacy of LA or its secreted soluble factors in alleviating inflammation and inflammation-associated dysregulation of DRA activity could justify their therapeutic potential in inflammatory diarrheal diseases.

N-glycosylation is Essential for Ileal ASBT Function and Protection Against Proteases

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25855079

The bile acid transporter ASBT is a glycoprotein responsible for active absorption of bile acids. Inhibiting ASBT function and bile acid absorption is an attractive approach to lower plasma cholesterol and improve glucose imbalance in diabetic patients. Deglycosylation of ASBT was shown to decrease its function. However, the exact roles of N-glycosylation of ASBT, and how it affects its function, is not known. Current studies investigated the roles of N-glycosylation in ASBT protein stability and protection against proteases utilizing HEK-293 cells stably transfected with ASBT-V5 fusion protein. ASBT-V5 protein was detected as two bands with molecular mass of ~41 and ~35 kDa. Inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin significantly decreased ASBT activity and shifted ASBT bands to ~30 kDa, representing a deglycosylated protein. Treatment of total cellular lysates with PNGase F or Endo H glycosidases showed that the upper 41-kDa band represents a fully mature N-acetylglucosamine-rich glycoprotein and the lower 35-kDa band represents a mannose-rich core glycoprotein. Studies with the glycosylation deficient ASBT mutant (N10Q) showed that the N-glycosylation is not essential for ASBT targeting to plasma membrane. However, mature glycosylation significantly increased the half-life and protected ASBT protein from digestion with trypsin. Incubating the cells with high glucose (25 mM) for 48 h increased mature glycosylated ASBT along with an increase in its function. These results unravel novel roles for N-glycosylation of ASBT and suggest that high levels of glucose alter the composition of the glycan and may contribute to the increase in ASBT function in diabetes mellitus.

All-trans-retinoic Acid Increases SLC26A3 DRA (Down-regulated in Adenoma) Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Via HNF-1β

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25887398

All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active vitamin A derivative known to modulate a number of physiological processes, including growth and development, differentiation, and gene transcription. The protective effect of ATRA in gut inflammation and diarrheal diseases has been documented. In this regard, down-regulated in adenoma (DRA, a key luminal membrane Cl(-) transporter involved in NaCl absorption) has been shown to be suppressed in intestinal inflammation. This suppression of DRA is associated with diarrheal phenotype. Therefore, current studies were undertaken to examine the effects of ATRA on DRA expression. DRA mRNA levels were significantly elevated (∼4-fold) in response to ATRA with induction starting as early as 8 h of incubation. Similarly, ATRA increased DRA protein expression by ∼50%. Furthermore, DRA promoter activity was significantly increased in response to ATRA indicating transcriptional activation. ATRA effects on DRA expression appeared to be mediated via the RAR-β receptor subtype, as ATRA remarkably induced RAR-β mRNA levels, whereas RAR-β knockdown substantially attenuated the ability of ATRA to increase DRA expression. Results obtained from agonist (CH-55) and antagonist (LE-135) studies further confirmed that ATRA exerts its effects through RAR-β. Furthermore, ATRA treatment resulted in a significant increase in HNF-1β mRNA levels. The ability of ATRA to induce DRA expression was inhibited in the presence of HNF-1β siRNA indicative of its involvement in ATRA-induced effects on DRA expression. In conclusion, ATRA may act as an antidiarrheal agent by increasing DRA expression via the RAR-β/HNF-1β-dependent pathway.

Mechanisms of Intestinal Serotonin Transporter (SERT) Upregulation by TGF-β1 Induced Non-Smad Pathways

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25954931

TGF-β1 is an important multifunctional cytokine with numerous protective effects on intestinal mucosa. The influence of TGF-β1 on serotonin transporter (SERT) activity, the critical mechanism regulating the extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT), is not known. Current studies were designed to examine acute effects of TGF-β1 on SERT. Model human intestinal Caco-2 cells grown as monolayer's or as cysts in 3D culture and ex vivo mouse model were utilized. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 60 min) stimulated SERT activity (~2 fold, P<0.005). This stimulation of SERT function was dependent upon activation of TGF-β1 receptor (TGFRI) as SB-431542, a specific TGF-βRI inhibitor blocked the SERT stimulation. SERT activation in response to TGF-β1 was attenuated by inhibition of PI3K and occurred via enhanced recruitment of SERT-GFP to apical surface in a PI3K dependent manner. The exocytosis inhibitor brefeldin A (2.5 μM) attenuated the TGF-β1-mediated increase in SERT function. TGF-β1 increased the association of SERT with the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) syntaxin 3 (STX3) and promoted exocytosis of SERT. Caco-2 cells grown as cysts in 3D culture recapitulated the effects of TGF-β1 showing increased luminal staining of SERT. Ussing chamber studies revealed increase in 3H-5-HT uptake in mouse ileum treated ex vivo with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 1h). These data demonstrate a novel mechanism rapidly regulating intestinal SERT via PI3K and STX3. Since decreased SERT is implicated in various gastro-intestinal disorders e.g IBD, IBS and diarrhea, understanding mechanisms stimulating SERT function by TGF-β1 offers a novel therapeutic strategy to treat GI disorders.

Mechanisms of DRA Recycling in Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Effect of Enteropathogenic E. Coli

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26447204

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes infantile diarrhea worldwide. EPEC decreases the activity and surface expression of the key intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)], contributing to the pathophysiology of early diarrhea. Little is known about the mechanisms governing membrane recycling of DRA. In the current study, Caco-2 cells were used to investigate DRA trafficking under basal conditions and in response to EPEC. Apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive (125)I(-) uptake. Cell surface biotinylation was performed to assess DRA endocytosis and exocytosis. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chlorpromazine (60 μM) increased apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity. Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, also increased function and surface levels of DRA via decreased endocytosis. Perturbation of microtubules by nocodazole revealed that intact microtubules are essential for basal exocytic (but not endocytic) DRA recycling. Mice treated with colchicine showed a decrease in DRA surface levels as visualized by confocal microscopy. In response to EPEC infection, DRA surface expression was reduced partly via an increase in DRA endocytosis and a decrease in exocytosis. These effects were dependent on the EPEC virulence genes espG1 and espG2. Intriguingly, the EPEC-induced decrease in DRA function was unaltered in the presence of dynasore, suggesting a clathrin-independent internalization of surface DRA. In conclusion, these studies establish the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and microtubules in the basal surface expression of DRA and demonstrate that the EPEC-mediated decrease in DRA function and apical expression in Caco-2 cells involves decreased exocytosis.

Mechanisms Underlying Dysregulation of Electrolyte Absorption in Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Diarrhea

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26595422

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic inflammation of the intestine affects the normal fluid and electrolyte absorption leading to diarrhea, the hallmark symptom of IBD. The management of IBD-associated diarrhea still remains to be a challenge, and extensive studies over the last 2 decades have focused on investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying IBD-associated diarrhea. These studies have shown that the predominant mechanism of diarrhea in IBD involves impairment of electroneutral NaCl absorption, with very little role if any played by anion secretion. The electroneutral NaCl absorption involves coupled operation of Na/H exchanger 3 (NHE3 or SLC9A3) and Cl/HCO3 exchanger DRA (Down Regulated in Adenoma, or SLC26A3). Increasing evidence now supports the critical role of a marked decrease in NHE3 and DRA function and/or expression in IBD-associated diarrhea. This review provides a detailed analysis of the current knowledge related to alterations in NHE3 and DRA function and expression in IBD including the mechanisms underlying these observations and highlights the potential of these transporters as important and novel therapeutic targets.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Stimulates Intestinal P-glycoprotein Expression Via a C-Fos/c-Jun-dependent Mechanism in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26867563

Our previous studies showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) culture supernatant (CS) increased P-glycoprotein [Pgp/multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)] function, expression, and promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. The current studies were designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating the stimulatory effects of LA CS on Pgp promoter activity. Deletion analysis indicated that the LA CS response element(s) is located in the -172/+428-bp region, and sequence analysis of this region revealed three potential binding sites for c-Fos or c-Jun: proximal activating protein (AP) 1a (-119/-98 bp), distal AP1b (-99/-78 bp), and AP1c (+175/+196 bp). LA CS (24 h) showed an approximately twofold increase in the protein expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in Caco-2 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that LA CS markedly increased the binding of Caco-2 nuclear proteins to AP1a and AP1b, but not AP1c. The DNA-protein complex was completely eliminated by c-Fos antibody, while c-Jun antibody partially eliminated the complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also showed that LA CS enhanced the association of c-Fos and c-Jun (by ∼4- and 1.5-fold, respectively) with endogenous Pgp promoter in Caco-2 cells (p-172/+1). Interestingly, overexpression of c-Fos or c-Jun activated Pgp promoter by nearly twofold each. This increase was further enhanced (∼14-fold) when c-Fos and c-Jun were simultaneously overexpressed, suggesting that the presence of one of these transcription factors potentiates the effect of the other. These studies, for the first time, provide evidence for the involvement of c-Fos/c-Jun in stimulation of Pgp gene expression by LA CS in the human intestine.

Transcriptional Modulation of SLC26A3 (DRA) by Sphingosine-1-phosphate

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27079615

SLC26A3 or Downregulated in adenoma (DRA) is the major Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. Alterations in DRA function and expression have been implicated in diarrheal diseases associated with inflammation or infection. Therefore, agents that upregulate DRA activity may serve as potential antidiarrheals. In this regard, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a member of the bioactive sphingolipid family, has been shown to modulate various cellular processes including improvement of intestinal barrier function. However, the role of S1P in modulating intestinal chloride absorption by regulating DRA is not known. Therefore, the present studies were designed to examine the direct effects of S1P on apical Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity and DRA expression. S1P significantly increased Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity and also significantly increased DRA mRNA and protein expression. Increased DRA mRNA by S1P was accompanied by enhanced DRA promoter activity, indicating involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. The specific S1P receptor subtype-2 (S1PR2) antagonist JTE-013 blocked the stimulatory effects of S1P on DRA promoter activity, indicating the involvement of S1PR2 S1P-mediated increase in DRA promoter activity involved PI3K/Akt pathway. Progressive deletions of the DRA promoter indicated that the putative S1P-responsive elements are present in the -790/-398 region of the DRA promoter. Furthermore, results obtained from electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that S1P stimulated DRA promoter activity via increased binding of Ying-Yang1 (YY1) in the S1P-responsive region. In conclusion, transcriptional modulation of DRA expression and function in response to S1P through a PI3/Akt pathway represents a novel role of S1P as a potential proabsorptive agent.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Counteracts Inhibition of NHE3 and DRA Expression and Alleviates Diarrheal Phenotype in Mice Infected with Citrobacter Rodentium

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27634011

Impaired absorption of electrolytes is a hallmark of diarrhea associated with inflammation or enteric infections. Intestinal epithelial luminal membrane NHE3 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3) and DRA (Down-Regulated in Adenoma; Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger) play key roles in mediating electroneutral NaCl absorption. We have previously shown decreased NHE3 and DRA function in response to short-term infection with enteropathogenic E coli (EPEC), a diarrheal pathogen. Recent studies have also shown substantial downregulation of DRA expression in a diarrheal model of infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse counterpart of EPEC. Since our previous studies showed that the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) increased DRA and NHE3 function and expression and conferred protective effects in experimental colitis, we sought to evaluate the efficacy of LA in counteracting NHE3 and DRA inhibition and ameliorating diarrhea in a model of C rodentium infection. FVB/N mice challenged with C rodentium [1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)] with or without administration of live LA (3 × 10(9) CFU) were assessed for NHE3 and DRA mRNA and protein expression, mRNA levels of carbonic anhydrase, diarrheal phenotype (assessed by colonic weight-to-length ratio), myeloperoxidase activity, and proinflammatory cytokines. LA counteracted C rodentium-induced inhibition of colonic DRA, NHE3, and carbonic anhydrase I and IV expression and attenuated diarrheal phenotype and MPO activity. Furthermore, LA completely blocked C rodentium induction of IL-1β, IFN-γ, and CXCL1 mRNA and C rodentium-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. In conclusion, our data provide mechanistic insights into antidiarrheal effects of LA in a model of infectious diarrhea and colitis.

GLP-1 Nanomedicine Alleviates Gut Inflammation

Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27553076

The gut hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, its clinical use is limited by its short half-life. Previously, we have shown that GLP-1 as a nanomedicine (GLP-1 in sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles, GLP-1-SSM) has increased in vivo stability. The current study was aimed at testing the efficacy of this GLP-1 nanomedicine in alleviating colonic inflammation and associated diarrhea in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced mouse colitis model. Our results show that GLP-1-SSM treatment markedly alleviated the colitis phenotype by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increasing goblet cells and preserving intestinal epithelial architecture in colitis model. Further, GLP-1-SSM alleviated diarrhea (as assessed by luminal fluid) by increasing protein expression of intestinal chloride transporter DRA (down regulated in adenoma). Our results indicate that GLP-1 nanomedicine may act as a novel therapeutic tool in alleviating gut inflammation and associated diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Role of SHP2 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase in SERT Inhibition by Enteropathogenic E. Coli (EPEC)

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28209599

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), one of the diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes, is among the most important food-borne pathogens infecting children worldwide. Inhibition of serotonin transporter (SERT), that regulates extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT), has been previously implicated in EPEC-associated diarrhea. EPEC was shown to inhibit SERT via activation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPase), albeit the specific PTPase involved is not known. Current studies aimed to identify EPEC activated PTPase and its role in SERT inhibition. Infection of Caco-2 monolayers with EPEC strain E2348/69 for 30 min increased the activity of SHP2 (Src-Homology-2 Domain containing PTPase) but not SHP1 or PTP1B. Similarly, western blot studies showed increased tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP2 indicative of its activation. Concomitantly, EPEC infection decreased SERT tyrosine phosphorylation levels. This was associated with increased interaction of SHP2 with SERT as evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation studies. To examine whether SHP2 directly influences SERT phosphorylation status or function, SHP2 cDNA plasmid constructs (wild type, constitutively active or dominant negative) were overexpressed in Caco-2 cells by Amaxa electroporation. In the cells overexpressing constitutively active SHP2, SERT polypeptide showed complete loss of tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, there was a decrease in SERT function as measured by Na(+)Cl(-)-sensitive (3)[H] 5-HT uptake and an increase in association of SERT with SHP2 in Caco-2 cells expressing constitutively active SHP2 compared to dominant negative SHP2. Our data demonstrate that intestinal SERT is a target of SHP2 and reveal a novel mechanism by which a common food-borne pathogen utilizes cellular SHP2 to inhibit SERT.

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