In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (12)

Articles by Ishita Chatterjee in JoVE

Other articles by Ishita Chatterjee on PubMed

The Translation Elongation Factor EEF1B Plays a Role in the Oxidative Stress Response Pathway

RNA Biology. Jul, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 17179749

The multi-subunit guanine nucleotide exchange factor eEF1B for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Translation Elongation Factor 1A (eEF1A) has catalytic (eEF1Balpha) and noncatalytic (eEF1Bgamma) subunits. Deletion of the two nonessential genes encoding eEF1Bgamma has no dramatic effects on total protein synthesis or translational fidelity. Instead, loss of each gene gives resistance to oxidative stress, and loss of both is additive. The level of stress resistance is similar to overexpression of the Yap1p stress transcription factor and is dependent on the presence of the YAP1gene. Cells lacking the catalytic eEF1Balpha subunit show even greater resistance to CdSO(4), with or without eEF1Bgamma present. Thus, the loss of guanine nucleotide exchange activity promotes the resistance. As nucleotide exchange is a critical regulator of most G-proteins, these results indicate a new mechanism in the growing list of examples of post-transcriptional responses to cellular stress.

Rapid Depletion of Mutant Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 5A at Restrictive Temperature Reveals Connections to Actin Cytoskeleton and Cell Cycle Progression

Molecular Genetics and Genomics : MGG. Mar, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16408210

Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only protein in nature that contains hypusine, an unusual amino acid derived from the modification of lysine by spermidine. Two genes, TIF51A and TIF51B, encode eIF5A in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to understand the structure-function relationship of eIF5A, we have generated yeast mutants by introducing plasmid-borne tif51A into a double null strain where both TIF51A and TIF51B have been disrupted. One of the mutants, tsL102A strain (tif51A L102A tif51aDelta tif51bDelta) exhibits a strong temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. At the restrictive temperature, tsL102A strain also exhibits a cell shape change, a lack of volume change in response to temperature increase and becomes more sensitive to ethanol, a hallmark of defects in the PKC/WSC cell wall integrity pathway. In addition, a striking change in actin dynamics and a complete cell cycle arrest at G1 phase occur in tsL102A cells at restrictive temperature. The temperature-sensitivity of tsL102A strain is due to a rapid loss of mutant eIF5A with the half-life reduced from 6 h at permissive temperature to 20 min at restrictive temperature. Phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride (PMSF), an irreversible inhibitor of serine protease, inhibited the degradation of mutant eIF5A and suppressed the temperature-sensitive growth arrest. Sorbitol, an osmotic stabilizer that complement defects in PKC/WSC pathways, stabilizes the mutant eIF5A and suppresses all the observed temperature-sensitive phenotypes.

NANOG Induction of Fetal Liver Kinase-1 (FLK1) Transcription Regulates Endothelial Cell Proliferation and Angiogenesis

Blood. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21119109

NANOG is a master transcription factor associated with the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency. Here, we demonstrate that transcription factor NANOG is expressed in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and in a subset of tumor cell lines. Importantly, we provide evidence that WNT3A stimulation of ECs induces the transcription of NANOG which mediates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, also known as fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK1). We defined ATTA as a minimal binding site for NANOG. Accordingly, a luciferase reporter assay showed that NANOG binds to and activates 4 ATTA binding sites identified in the FLK1 promoter after WNT3A stimulation. Consistent with this data, we found that, under basal conditions and in response to WNT3A stimulation, NANOG binding to these ATTA sequences markedly induced the expression of FLK1. Thus, our data indicate an essential role in angiogenesis for NANOG binding to these 4 ATTA sites. Surprisingly, NANOG depletion not only decreased FLK1 expression but also reduced cell proliferation and angiogenesis. These findings show the necessary and sufficient role of NANOG in inducing the transcription of FLK1 to regulate the angiogenic phenotypes of ECs.

Lipid Phosphate Phosphatase-3 Regulates Tumor Growth Via β-catenin and CYCLIN-D1 Signaling

Molecular Cancer. May, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21569306

The acquisition of proliferative and invasive phenotypes is considered a hallmark of neoplastic transformation; however, the underlying mechanisms are less well known. Lipid phosphate phosphatase-3 (LPP3) not only catalyzes the dephosphorylation of the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) to generate sphingosine but also may regulate embryonic development and angiogenesis via the Wnt pathway. The goal of this study was to determine the role of LPP3 in tumor cells.

Focal Adhesion Kinase Regulation of Neovascularization

Microvascular Research. Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21616084

In this review, we discuss the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an intracellular tyrosine kinase, in endothelial cells in relation to neovascularization. Genetic and in vitro studies have identified critical factors, receptor systems, and their intracellular signaling components that regulate the neovasculogenic phenotypes of endothelial cells. Among these factors, FAK appears to regulate several aspects of endothelial cellular behavior, including migration, survival, cytoskeletal organization, as well as cell proliferation. Upon adhesion of endothelial cells to extracellular matrix (ECM) ligands, integrins cluster on the plane of plasma-membrane, while cytoplasmic domains of integrins interact with cytoskeletal proteins and signaling molecules including FAK. However, FAK not only serves as a critical component of integrin signaling, but is also a downstream element of the VEGF/VEGF-receptor and other ligand-receptor systems that regulate neovascularization. A complete understanding of FAK-mediated neovascularization, therefore, should address the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the biology of FAK. Continued research on FAK may, therefore, yield novel therapies to improve treatment modalities for the pathological neovascularization associated with diseases.

Flk1+ and VE-cadherin+ Endothelial Cells Derived from IPSCs Recapitulates Vascular Development During Differentiation and Display Similar Angiogenic Potential As ESC-derived Cells

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24386480

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have emerged as a source of potentially unlimited supply of autologous endothelial cells (ECs) for vascularization. However, the regenerative function of these cells relative to adult ECs and ECs derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells is unknown. The objective was to define the differentiation characteristics and vascularization potential of Fetal liver kinase (Flk)1(+) and Vascular Endothelial (VE)-cadherin(+) ECs derived identically from mouse (m)ES and miPS cells.

Low-dose 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime Induces Partial Dedifferentiation of Endothelial Cells to Promote Increased Neovascularization

Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Jun, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24496925

Endothelial cell (EC) dedifferentiation in relation to neovascularization is a poorly understood process. In this report, we addressed the role of Wnt signaling in the mechanisms of neovascularization in adult tissues. Here, we show that a low-dose of 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO), a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, induced the stabilization of β-catenin and its subsequent direct interaction with the transcription factor NANOG in the nucleus of ECs. This event induced loss of VE-cadherin from the adherens junctions, increased EC proliferation accompanied by asymmetric cell division (ACD), and formed cellular aggregates in hanging drop assays indicating the acquisition of a dedifferentiated state. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, nuclear NANOG protein bound to the NANOG- and VEGFR2-promoters in ECs, and the addition of BIO activated the NANOG-promoter-luciferase reporter system in a cell-based assay. Consequently, NANOG-knockdown decreased BIO-induced NOTCH-1 expression, thereby decreasing cell proliferation, ACD, and neovascularization. In a Matrigel plug assay, BIO induced increased neovascularization, secondary to the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, in a mouse model of hind limb ischemia, BIO augmented neovascularization that was coupled with increased expression of NOTCH-1 in ECs and increased smooth muscle α-actin(+) cell recruitment around the neovessels. Thus, these results demonstrate the ability of a low-dose of BIO to augment neovascularization secondary to VEGF, a process that was accompanied by a partial dedifferentiation of ECs via β-catenin and the NANOG signaling pathway.

Mechanisms of Intestinal Serotonin Transporter (SERT) Upregulation by TGF-β1 Induced Non-Smad Pathways

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25954931

TGF-β1 is an important multifunctional cytokine with numerous protective effects on intestinal mucosa. The influence of TGF-β1 on serotonin transporter (SERT) activity, the critical mechanism regulating the extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT), is not known. Current studies were designed to examine acute effects of TGF-β1 on SERT. Model human intestinal Caco-2 cells grown as monolayer's or as cysts in 3D culture and ex vivo mouse model were utilized. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 60 min) stimulated SERT activity (~2 fold, P<0.005). This stimulation of SERT function was dependent upon activation of TGF-β1 receptor (TGFRI) as SB-431542, a specific TGF-βRI inhibitor blocked the SERT stimulation. SERT activation in response to TGF-β1 was attenuated by inhibition of PI3K and occurred via enhanced recruitment of SERT-GFP to apical surface in a PI3K dependent manner. The exocytosis inhibitor brefeldin A (2.5 μM) attenuated the TGF-β1-mediated increase in SERT function. TGF-β1 increased the association of SERT with the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) syntaxin 3 (STX3) and promoted exocytosis of SERT. Caco-2 cells grown as cysts in 3D culture recapitulated the effects of TGF-β1 showing increased luminal staining of SERT. Ussing chamber studies revealed increase in 3H-5-HT uptake in mouse ileum treated ex vivo with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 1h). These data demonstrate a novel mechanism rapidly regulating intestinal SERT via PI3K and STX3. Since decreased SERT is implicated in various gastro-intestinal disorders e.g IBD, IBS and diarrhea, understanding mechanisms stimulating SERT function by TGF-β1 offers a novel therapeutic strategy to treat GI disorders.

Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell Culture Methods and Induction of Differentiation into Endothelial Cells

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 25687301

The study of stem cell behavior and differentiation in a developmental context is complex, time-consuming, and expensive, and for this reason, cell culture remains a method of choice for developmental and regenerative biology and mechanistic studies. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), and the route for differentiation appears to mimic the developmental process that occurs during the formation of an embryo. Traditional EC induction methods from embryonic stem (ES) cells rely mostly on the formation of embryoid body (EB), which employs feeder or feeder-free conditions in the presence or absence of supporting cells. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells can be cultured in feeder layer or feeder-free conditions. Here, we describe the iPS cell culture methods and induction differentiation of these cells into ECs. We use anti-mouse Flk1 and anti-mouse VE-cadherin to isolate and characterize mouse ECs, because these antibodies are commercially available and their use has been described in the literature, including by our group. The ECs produced by this method have been used by our laboratory, and we have demonstrated their in vivo potential. We also discuss how iPS cells differ in their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in culture.

Endothelial Lipid Phosphate Phosphatase-3 Deficiency That Disrupts the Endothelial Barrier Function is a Modifier of Cardiovascular Development

Cardiovascular Research. 07, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27125875

Lipid phosphate phosphatase-3 (LPP3) is expressed at high levels in endothelial cells (ECs). Although LPP3 is known to hydrolyse the phosphate group from lysolipids such as spingosine-1-phosphate and its structural homologues, the function of Lpp3 in ECs is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated how tyrosine-protein kinase receptor (TEK or Tie2) promoter-dependent deletion of Lpp3 alters EC activities.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Counteracts Inhibition of NHE3 and DRA Expression and Alleviates Diarrheal Phenotype in Mice Infected with Citrobacter Rodentium

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27634011

Impaired absorption of electrolytes is a hallmark of diarrhea associated with inflammation or enteric infections. Intestinal epithelial luminal membrane NHE3 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3) and DRA (Down-Regulated in Adenoma; Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger) play key roles in mediating electroneutral NaCl absorption. We have previously shown decreased NHE3 and DRA function in response to short-term infection with enteropathogenic E coli (EPEC), a diarrheal pathogen. Recent studies have also shown substantial downregulation of DRA expression in a diarrheal model of infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse counterpart of EPEC. Since our previous studies showed that the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) increased DRA and NHE3 function and expression and conferred protective effects in experimental colitis, we sought to evaluate the efficacy of LA in counteracting NHE3 and DRA inhibition and ameliorating diarrhea in a model of C rodentium infection. FVB/N mice challenged with C rodentium [1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)] with or without administration of live LA (3 × 10(9) CFU) were assessed for NHE3 and DRA mRNA and protein expression, mRNA levels of carbonic anhydrase, diarrheal phenotype (assessed by colonic weight-to-length ratio), myeloperoxidase activity, and proinflammatory cytokines. LA counteracted C rodentium-induced inhibition of colonic DRA, NHE3, and carbonic anhydrase I and IV expression and attenuated diarrheal phenotype and MPO activity. Furthermore, LA completely blocked C rodentium induction of IL-1β, IFN-γ, and CXCL1 mRNA and C rodentium-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. In conclusion, our data provide mechanistic insights into antidiarrheal effects of LA in a model of infectious diarrhea and colitis.

GLP-1 Nanomedicine Alleviates Gut Inflammation

Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27553076

The gut hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, its clinical use is limited by its short half-life. Previously, we have shown that GLP-1 as a nanomedicine (GLP-1 in sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles, GLP-1-SSM) has increased in vivo stability. The current study was aimed at testing the efficacy of this GLP-1 nanomedicine in alleviating colonic inflammation and associated diarrhea in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced mouse colitis model. Our results show that GLP-1-SSM treatment markedly alleviated the colitis phenotype by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increasing goblet cells and preserving intestinal epithelial architecture in colitis model. Further, GLP-1-SSM alleviated diarrhea (as assessed by luminal fluid) by increasing protein expression of intestinal chloride transporter DRA (down regulated in adenoma). Our results indicate that GLP-1 nanomedicine may act as a novel therapeutic tool in alleviating gut inflammation and associated diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

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