In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (32)

Articles by Shubha Priyamvada in JoVE

Other articles by Shubha Priyamvada on PubMed

Influence of Ramadan-type Fasting on Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism and Brush Border Membrane in Small Intestine and Liver of Rat Used As a Model

The British Journal of Nutrition. Dec, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 17181884

During Ramadan, Muslims the world over abstain from food and water from dawn to sunset for a month. We hypothesised that this unique model of prolonged intermittent fasting would result in specific intestinal and liver metabolic adaptations and hence alter metabolic activities. The effect of Ramadan-type fasting was studied on enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and the brush border membrane of intestine and liver from rat used as a model. Rats were fasted (12 h) and then refed (12 h) daily for 30 d, as practised by Muslims during Ramadan. Ramadan-type fasting caused a significant decline in serum glucose, cholesterol and lactate dehydrogenase activity, whereas inorganic phosphate increased but blood urea N was not changed. Fasting resulted in increased activities of intestinal lactate (+34%), isocitrate (+63%), succinate (+83%) and malate (+106%) dehydrogenases, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (+17%) and glucose-6-phosphatase (+22%). Liver lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase activities were also enhanced. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme fell significantly in the intestine but increased in liver. Although the activities of alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and sucrase decreased in mucosal homogenates and brush border membrane, those of liver alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and leucine aminopeptidase significantly increased. These changes were due to a respective decrease and increase of the maximal velocities of the enzyme reactions. Ramadan-type fasting caused similar effects whether the rats fasted with a daytime or night-time feeding schedule. The present results show a tremendous adaptation capacity of both liver and intestinal metabolic activities with Ramadan-type fasting in rats used as a model for Ramadan fasting in people.

Influence of Green Tea on Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism, Antioxidant Defense, and Plasma Membrane in Rat Tissues

Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). Sep, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17679048

Green tea, consumed worldwide since ancient times, is considered beneficial to human health. We hypothesized that green tea would enhance antioxidant defenses and specific metabolic activities of rat intestine, liver, and kidney to improve their functions.

Influence of Ramadan-type Fasting on Carbohydrate Metabolism, Brush Border Membrane Enzymes and Phosphate Transport in Rat Kidney Used As a Model

The British Journal of Nutrition. Nov, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17764602

Ramadan fasting is a unique model of fasting in which Muslims the world over abstain from food and water from dawn to sunset for 1 month. We hypothesized that this model of prolonged intermittent fasting would result in specific adaptive alterations in rat kidney to keep a positive balance of metabolites and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The effect of Ramadan-type fasting was studied on enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and brush border membrane (BBM) and BBM uptake of 32Pi in different renal tissue zones in the rat model. Rats were fasted (12 h) and then re-fed (12 h) daily for 30 d similar to human Ramadan fasting. Ramadan-type fasting resulted in increased serum Pi and phospholipids, whereas Pi clearance decreased. Serum creatinine and its clearance were not affected. Fasting caused a significant decrease in the activities of lactate and malate dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, both in the renal cortex and medulla. However, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase profoundly increased but that of malic enzyme decreased. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in BBM decreased, whereas transport of 32Pi significantly increased. The decrease in enzyme activities and increase in 32Pi transport were due to alterations of both maximal velocities and relative affinities. The results indicate that Ramadan-type fasting caused specific metabolic alterations with enhanced Pi conservation in different kidney tissues in a rat model used for Ramadan fasting in man.

Time Dependent Effects of Gentamicin on the Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism, Brush Border Membrane and Oxidative Stress in Rat Kidney Tissues

Life Sciences. Feb, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18201728

Gentamicin (GM), an antibiotic against life threatening bacterial infection, induces remarkable toxicity in the kidney. Histological studies have indicated that mitochondria, microsomes, lysosomes and plasma membranes of renal proximal convoluted tubules in particular are major GM targets. Despite numerous investigations, the biochemical/cellular basis of GM nephrotoxicity is not well understood. Recently reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important mediators of GM-induced nephrotoxicity. We hypothesize that GM causes damage to intracellular organelles and affects their structural integrity and alters metabolic and other functional capabilities. To address above hypothesis a long-term, time-dependent effect of GM has been studied on blood/urine parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM) and basolateral (BLM), lysosomes and oxidative stress in renal tissues. A nephrotoxic dose of GM (80 mg/kg body weight) was administered to rats daily for 15 days. The long-term treatment with GM induced a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen followed by massive proteinuria, glucosuria, enzymuria along with loss of electrolytes in the urine. The activities of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, plasma membranes, lysosomes significantly declined. The activities of antioxidant enzymes e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were severely depressed and lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the renal cortex and medulla. We conclude that GM administration induced oxidative damage to renal tissues that resulted in impaired carbohydrate metabolism and decreased activities of BBM, BLM and lysosomes associated with increased lipid peroxides.

Effect of Uranyl Nitrate on Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism and Brush Border Membrane in Different Kidney Tissues

Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. Jun, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18343012

Uranium, the heaviest of the naturally occurring elements is widely present as environmental contaminant from natural deposits, industrial emissions and most importantly from modern weapons. Histopathological examinations revealed that uranyl nitrate (UN) exposure caused severe damage to pars recta of renal proximal tubule. However, biochemical events involved in cellular response to renal injury are not completely elucidated. We hypothesized that UN exposure would severely damage kidney tissues and alter their metabolic functions. Rats were treated with a single nephrotoxic dose of UN (0.5mg/kg body weight) i.p. After 5d, effect of UN was studied on the activities of various enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM) and oxidative stress in different kidney tissues. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase increased whereas activities of isocitrate, succinate and malate dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase significantly decreased by UN exposure. Activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased whereas that of NADP-malic enzyme increased. The activities of BBM enzymes were significantly lowered and after dissociation from BBM excreted in urine. Lipid peroxidation and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased whereas catalase activity decreased by UN. UN treatment caused specific alterations in the activities of metabolic and membrane enzymes and perturbed antioxidant defenses.

Studies on the Protective Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on Gentamicin-induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Rat Kidney

Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids. Jun, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18556188

Gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity limits its long-term clinical use. Several agents/strategies were attempted to prevent GM nephrotoxicity but were not found suitable for clinical practice. Dietary fish oil (FO) retard the progression of certain types of cancers, cardiovascular and renal disorders. We aimed to evaluate protective effect of FO on GM-induced renal proximal tubular damage. The rats were pre-fed experimental diets for 10 days and then received GM (80 mg/kg body weight/day) treatment for 10 days while still on diet. Serum/urine parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM), oxidative stress and phosphate transport in rat kidney were analyzed. GM nephrotoxicity was recorded by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. GM increased the activities of lactate and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases whereas decreased malate, isocitrate dehydrogenases; glucose-6 and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases; superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and BBM enzymes. In contrast, FO alone increased enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism, BBM and oxidative stress. FO feeding to GM treated rats markedly enhanced resistance to GM elicited deleterious effects and prevented GM-induced decrease in 32Pi uptake across BBM. Dietary FO supplementation ameliorated GM-induced specific metabolic alterations and oxidative damage due to its intrinsic biochemical/antioxidant properties.

Effect of Trichloroethylene (TCE) Toxicity on the Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism, Brush Border Membrane and Oxidative Stress in Kidney and Other Rat Tissues

Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. Jul, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19361549

Trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, is a major environmental contaminant. Histopathological examinations revealed that TCE caused liver and kidney toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, biochemical mechanism and tissue response to toxic insult are not completely elucidated. We hypothesized that TCE induces oxidative stress to various rat tissues and alters their metabolic functions. Male Wistar rats were given TCE (1000 mg/kg/day) in corn oil orally for 25 d. Blood and tissues were collected and analyzed for various biochemical and enzymatic parameters. TCE administration increased blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase but decreased serum glucose, inorganic phosphate and phospholipids indicating kidney and liver toxicity. Activity of hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase increased in the intestine and liver whereas decreased in renal tissues. Malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase decreased in all tissues whereas increased in medulla. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased but NADP-malic enzyme decreased in all tissues except in medulla. The activity of BBM enzymes decreased but renal Na/Pi transport increased. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities variably declined whereas lipid peroxidation significantly enhanced in all tissues. The present results indicate that TCE caused severe damage to kidney, intestine, liver and brain; altered carbohydrate metabolism and suppressed antioxidant defense system.

Protective Effect of Green Tea Extract on Gentamicin-induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Rat Kidney

Pharmacological Research. Apr, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19429467

Gentamicin (GM) is an effective aminoglycoside antibiotic against severe infections but nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage limits its long term clinical use. Various strategies were attempted to ameliorate GM nephropathy but were not found suitable for clinical practice. Green tea (GT) polyphenols have shown strong chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects against various pathologies. We hypothesized that GT prevents GM nephrotoxicity by virtue of its antioxidative properties. A nephrotoxic dose of GM was co-administered to control and GT-fed male Wistar rats. Serum parameters and enzymes of oxidative stress, brush border membrane (BBM), and carbohydrate metabolism were analyzed. GM increased serum creatinine, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and suppressed superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in renal tissues. Activity of hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase increased whereas malate dehydrogenase decreased. Gluconeogenic enzymes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were differentially altered in the cortex and medulla. However, GT given to GM rats reduced nephrotoxicity parameters, enhanced antioxidant defense and energy metabolism. The activity of BBM enzymes and transport of Pi declined by GM whereas GT enhanced BBM enzymes and Pi transport. In conclusion, green tea ameliorates GM elicited nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage by improving antioxidant defense, tissue integrity and energy metabolism.

Studies on the Protective Effect of Green Tea Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

Pharmacological Research. Nov, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19647078

Cisplatin (CP) an anticancer drug is known to induce nephrotoxicity, which limits its long-term clinical use. Green tea (GT), consumed since ancient times is known for its numerous health benefits. It has been shown to improve kidney functions in animal models of acute renal failure. The present study was undertaken to see whether GT can prevent CP-induced nephrotoxic and other deleterious effects. A nephrotoxic dose of CP was co-administered to control and GT-fed male Wistar rats every fifth day for 25 days. The effect of GT was determined on CP-induced alterations in various serum parameters and on enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, and antioxidant defense system in renal cortex and medulla. CP nephrotoxicity was recorded by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. CP increased the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase whereas, the activities of malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and (32)Pi transport significantly decreased. GT consumption increased the activities of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, oxidative stress, and (32)Pi transport. GT ameliorated CP-induced nephrotoxic and other deleterious effects due to its intrinsic biochemical/antioxidant properties.

Studies on the Protective Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on Uranyl-nitrate-induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Rat Kidney

Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids. Jan, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19931439

Human and animal exposure demonstrates that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, attempts to reduce it were not found suitable for clinical use. Dietary fish oil (FO) enriched in omega-3 fatty acids reduces the severity of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Present study investigates the protective effect of FO on uranyl nitrate (UN)-induced renal damage. Rats prefed with experimental diets for 15 days, given single nephrotoxic dose of UN (0.5mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. After 5d of UN treatment, serum/urine parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM), oxidative stress and phosphate transport were analyzed in rat kidney. UN nephrotoxicity was characterized by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. UN increased the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme whereas decreased malate, isocitrate and glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenases; glucose-6-phophatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and BBM enzyme activities. UN caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation, activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity. Feeding FO alone increased activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism, BBM, oxidative stress and Pi transport. UN-elicited alterations were prevented by FO feeding. However, corn oil had no such effects and was not similarly effective. In conclusion, FO appears to protect against UN-induced nephrotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanism.

LPA Stimulates Intestinal DRA Gene Transcription Via LPA2 Receptor, PI3K/AKT, and C-Fos-dependent Pathway

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22159277

DRA (downregulated in adenoma) or SLC26A3 is the major apical anion exchanger mediating Cl(-) absorption in intestinal epithelial cells. Disturbances in DRA function and expression have been implicated in diarrheal conditions such as congenital chloride diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. Previous studies have shown that DRA is subject to regulation by short-term and transcriptional mechanisms. In this regard, we have recently shown that short-term treatment by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an important bioactive phospholipid, stimulates Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-)(OH(-)) exchange activity via an increase in DRA surface levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. However, the long-term effects of LPA on DRA at the level of gene transcription have not been examined. The present studies were aimed at investigating the effects of LPA on DRA function and expression as well as elucidating the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation. Long-term LPA treatment increased the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity in Caco-2 cells. LPA treatment (50-100 μM) of Caco-2 cells significantly stimulated DRA mRNA levels and DRA promoter activity (-1183/+114). This increase in DRA promoter activity involved the LPA2 receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways. Progressive deletions from -1183/+114 to -790/+114 abrogated the stimulatory effects of LPA, indicating that the -1183/-790 promoter region harbors LPA response elements. Utilizing EMSA and mutational studies, our results showed that LPA induced the DRA promoter activity in a c-Fos-dependent manner. LPA also increased the protein expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos but not c-Jun enhanced the DRA promoter activity. This increase in DRA transcription in response to LPA indicates that LPA may act as an antidiarrheal agent and could be exploited for the treatment of diarrhea associated with inflammatory or infectious diseases of the gut.

Caffeic Acid Inhibits Chromium(VI)-induced Oxidative Stress and Changes in Brush Border Membrane Enzymes in Rat Intestine

Biological Trace Element Research. Aug, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22328309

We have previously shown that a single oral dose of potassium dichromate results in a decrease in the activities of several brush border membrane enzymes, produces oxidative stress, and alters the activities of several antioxidant enzymes in the small intestine of rats. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of treatment with the dietary antioxidant caffeic acid on potassium dichromate-induced biochemical changes in the rat intestine. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, potassium dichromate alone, caffeic acid alone, and potassium dichromate + caffeic acid. Administration of a single oral dose of potassium dichromate alone (100 mg/kg body mass) led to a decrease in the activities of brush border membrane enzymes, increase in lipid peroxidation, decrease in sulfhydryl groups, and changes in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes. Two oral doses of caffeic acid (each of 250 mg/kg body mass) greatly attenuated the potassium dichromate-induced changes in all these parameters, but the administration of caffeic acid alone had no effect. Thus, caffeic acid is an effective agent in reducing the effects of potassium dichromate on the intestine and could prove to be useful in alleviating the toxicity of chromium(VI) compounds.

Targeting Parkinson's - Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Oxidative Stress As Points of Interventions

CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets. Jun, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22483312

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons leading to decrease in striatal dopamine (DA) levels. In the present review, our focus was on recent advances in the treatment procedures of PD to achieve an increase in deficient tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and/or expression. Stimulation of residual TH activity by the cofactors, 6R-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin (BPH4) or NADH, or by brain transplant of natural TH-containing cells (fetal substantia nigra) or genetically engineered TH-containing cells, has been tried experimentally and clinically lately. As a promising approach to the gene therapy, intrastriatal expression of DAsynthesizing enzymes through transduction with separate adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors/ marrow stromal cells (MSCs) or nonviral intravenous administration of rat transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody (TfRmAb)-targeted PEGylated immunoliposomes (PILs) has been found to be effective in animal models. Oxidative stress has been identified as one of the intermediary risk factors that could initiate and/or promote degeneration of DA neurons. TH itself is a prime target of oxidative/nitrosative injury. Certain superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic prevented nitration of TH in cultured dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, development of therapeutic agents that can prevent formation of or specifically remove nitrating agents without interfering with normal neuronal function may protect protein from inactivation and provide means of limiting neuronal injury in PD. Non-pharmacological approaches such as diet therapy or use of active constituents of plants and phytomedicines have also emerged as a new - area of high interest. New treatment strategies for TH dysfunction rectification, a provision for neuroprotection in PD, seem to be on the horizon with many therapies under investigation.

A Novel Nutrient Sensing Mechanism Underlies Substrate-induced Regulation of Monocarboxylate Transporter-1

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22982338

Monocarboxylate transporter isoform-1 (MCT1) plays an important role in the absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon. Butyrate, a major SCFA, serves as the primary energy source for the colonic mucosa, maintains epithelial integrity, and ameliorates intestinal inflammation. Previous studies have shown substrate (butyrate)-induced upregulation of MCT1 expression and function via transcriptional mechanisms. The present studies provide evidence that short-term MCT1 regulation by substrates could be mediated via a novel nutrient sensing mechanism. Short-term regulation of MCT1 by butyrate was examined in vitro in human intestinal C2BBe1 and rat intestinal IEC-6 cells and ex vivo in rat intestinal mucosa. Effects of pectin feeding on MCT1, in vivo, were determined in rat model. Butyrate treatment (30-120 min) of C2BBe1 cells increased MCT1 function {p-(chloromercuri) benzene sulfonate (PCMBS)-sensitive [(14)C]butyrate uptake} in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The effects were associated with decreased intracellular cAMP levels, increased V(max) of butyrate uptake, and GPR109A-dependent increase in apical membrane MCT1 level. Nicotinic acid, an agonist for the SCFA receptor GPR109A, also increased MCT1 function and decreased intracellular cAMP. Pectin feeding increased apical membrane MCT1 levels and nicotinate-induced transepithelial butyrate flux in rat colon. Our data provide strong evidence for substrate-induced enhancement of MCT1 surface expression and function via a novel nutrient sensing mechanism involving GPR109A as a SCFA sensor.

Oral Administration of Caffeic Acid Ameliorates the Effect of Cisplatin on Brush Border Membrane Enzymes and Antioxidant System in Rat Intestine

Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology : Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Fur Toxikologische Pathologie. Jan, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 21640567

Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used antineoplastic drug that exhibits gastrointestinal toxicity. We have previously shown that administration of a single dose of CP results in a decrease in the activities of several brush border membrane (BBM) enzymes, induces oxidative stress and alters the activities of several antioxidant enzymes in the small intestine of rats. In the present study we have investigated the effect of treatment with the dietary antioxidant caffeic acid (CA) on CP induced biochemical changes in the intestine. Administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CP alone (6 mg/kg body weight) led to a decrease in the activities of the BBM enzymes, increase in lipid peroxidation, decrease in sulfhydryl groups and changes in the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and thioredoxin reductase. Administration of two doses of CA (each of 250 mg/kg body weight), at 15 and 120 min after treatment with CP, significantly attenuated the CP-induced changes in all these parameters but the administration of CA alone had no effect. These results suggest that CA is an effective agent in reducing the effects of CP on the intestine and could prove to be useful in alleviating the gastrointestinal toxicity of this drug.

Keratinocyte Growth Factor-2 Stimulates P-glycoprotein Expression and Function in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Mar, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23328208

Intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp/multidrug resistance 1), encoded by the ATP-binding cassette B1 gene, is primarily involved in the transepithelial efflux of toxic metabolites and xenobiotics from the mucosa into the gut lumen. Reduced Pgp function and expression has been shown to be associated with intestinal inflammatory disorders. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF2) has emerged as a potential target for modulation of intestinal inflammation and maintenance of gut mucosal integrity. Whether KGF2 directly regulates Pgp in the human intestine is not known. Therefore, the present studies were undertaken to determine the modulation of Pgp by KGF2 using Caco-2 cells. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with KGF2 (10 ng/ml, 1 h) increased Pgp activity (~2-fold, P < 0.05) as measured by verapamil-sensitive [(3)H]digoxin flux. This increase in Pgp function was associated with an increase in surface Pgp levels. The specific fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) antagonist PD-161570 blocked the KGF2-mediated increase in Pgp activity. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by PD-98059 attenuated the stimulatory effects of KGF2 on Pgp activity. Small-interfering RNA knockdown of Erk1/2 MAPK blocked the increase in surface Pgp levels by KGF2. Long-term treatment with KGF2 (10 ng/ml, 24 h) also significantly increased PgP activity, mRNA, protein expression, and promoter activity. The long-term effects of KGF2 on Pgp promoter activity were also blocked by the FGFR antagonist and mediated by the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our findings define the posttranslational and transcriptional mechanisms underlying stimulation of Pgp function and expression by KGF2 that may contribute to the beneficial effects of KGF2 in intestinal inflammatory disorders.

MicroRNA: Novel Modulators of the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway

Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23360258

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key gene regulators controlling the expression of many target mRNAs. The nervous system harbors highest number of miRNAs expressed in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. Neural miRNAs have been accredited with diverse roles like regulation of neural differentiation, synaptogenesis, inflammation, memory and cognition. Their aberrant expression and/or function has been linked to various neurodegenerative, neuroinflammatory and stress related disorders. Recent evidence indicates that miRNAs are essential to the fine tuning of the immune responses. Besides controlling the maturation, proliferation and differentiation of myeloid and lymphoid lineages they participate directly by modulating the signaling pathways through the Toll-like receptors and thus the cytokine response. The miRNAs commuting between the nervous and immune systems and affecting the neuro-immune dialogue are emerging.

Linking Alzheimer's Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Via Aberrant Insulin Signaling and Inflammation

CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets. Mar, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24074448

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two progressive and devastating health disorders afflicting millions of people worldwide. The probability and incidence of both have increased considerably in recent years consequent to increased longevity and population growth. Progressively more links are being continuously found between inflammation and central nervous system disorders like AD, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, traumatic brain injury and even cancers of the nervous tissue. The depth of the relationship depends on the timing and extent of anti- or pro-inflammatory gene expression. Inflammation has also been implicated in T2DM. Misfolding and fibrillization (of tissue specific and/or non-specific proteins) are features common to both AD and T2DM and are induced by as well as contribute to inflammation and stress (oxidative/ glycation). This review appraises the roles of inflammation and abnormalities in the insulin signaling system as important shared features of T2DM and AD. The capacity of anti-cholinesterases in reducing the level of certain common inflammatory markers in particular if they may provide therapeutic potential to mitigate awry mechanisms leading to AD.

Translational Repression of SLC26A3 by MiR-494 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24177028

SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] is a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. Altered DRA expression levels are associated with infectious and inflammatory diarrheal diseases. Therefore, it is critical to understand the regulation of DRA expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small RNAs that regulate protein expression via blocking the translation and/or promoting mRNA degradation. To investigate potential modulation of DRA expression by miRNA, five different in silico algorithms were used to predict the miRNAs that target DRA. Of these miRNAs, miR-494 was shown to have a highly conserved putative binding site in the DRA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) compared with other DRA-targeting miRNAs in vertebrates. Transfection with pmirGLO dual luciferase vector containing DRA 3'-UTR (pmirGLO-3'-UTR DRA) resulted in a significant decrease in relative luciferase activity compared with empty vector. Cotransfection of the DRA 3'-UTR luciferase vector with a miR-494 mimic further decreased luciferase activity compared with cells transfected with negative control. The transfection of a miR-494 mimic into Caco-2 and T-84 cells significantly increased the expression of miR-494 and concomitantly decreased the DRA protein expression. Mutation of the seed sequences for miR-494 in 3'-UTR of DRA abrogated the effect of miR-494 on 3'-UTR. These data demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism of DRA expression via miR-494 and indicate that targeting this microRNA may serve to be a potential therapeutic strategy for diarrheal diseases.

Gene-environment Interactions in Heavy Metal and Pesticide Carcinogenesis

Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24309507

Cancer is a complex disease involving a sequence of gene-environment interactions. Lifestyle, genetics, dietary factors, and environmental pollutants can increase the risk of cancer. Gene-environment interactions have been studied by a candidate-gene approach focusing on metabolism, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Here, we review the influence of gene-environment interactions in carcinogenesis, with emphasis on heavy metal and pesticide exposures.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Attenuates Downregulation of DRA Function and Expression in Inflammatory Models

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25059823

Probiotics, including Lactobacilli, are commensal bacteria that have been used in clinical trials and experimental models for the prevention and treatment of diarrheal disorders. Our previous studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and its culture supernatant (CS) stimulated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity, acutely via an increase in the surface levels of downregulated in adenoma (DRA, SLC26A3) and in long-term treatments via increasing its expression involving transcriptional mechanisms. However, the role of LA in modulating DRA activity under inflammatory conditions is not known. Current in vitro studies using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells examined the efficacy of LA or its CS in counteracting the inhibitory effects of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) on Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity. Pretreatment of cells with LA or LA-CS for 1 h followed by coincubation with IFN-γ significantly alleviated the inhibitory effects of IFN-γ on Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity. In the in vivo model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis (3% in drinking water for 7 days) in C57BL/6J mice, administration of live LA (3 × 10(9) colony-forming units) via oral gavage attenuated colonic inflammation. LA administration also counteracted the colitis-induced decrease in DRA mRNA and protein levels. Efficacy of LA or its secreted soluble factors in alleviating inflammation and inflammation-associated dysregulation of DRA activity could justify their therapeutic potential in inflammatory diarrheal diseases.

Probiotic Bifidobacterium Species Stimulate Human SLC26A3 Gene Function and Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25143346

SLC26A3, or downregulated in adenoma (DRA), plays a major role in mediating Cl(-) absorption in the mammalian intestine. Disturbances in DRA function and expression have been implicated in intestinal disorders such as congenital Cl(-) diarrhea and gut inflammation. We previously showed that an increase in DRA function and expression by Lactobacillus acidophilus and its culture supernatant (CS) might underlie antidiarrheal effects of this probiotic strain. However, the effects of Bifidobacterium species, important inhabitants of the human colon, on intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity are not known. Our current results demonstrate that CS derived from Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium bifidum increased anion exchange activity in Caco-2 cells (∼1.8- to 2.4-fold). Consistent with the increase in DRA function, CS also increased the protein, as well as the mRNA, level of DRA (but not putative anion transporter 1). CS of all three Bifidobacterium sp. increased DRA promoter activity (-1,183/+114 bp) in Caco-2 cells (1.5- to 1.8-fold). Furthermore, the increase in DRA mRNA expression by CS of B. breve and B. infantis was blocked in the presence of the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (5 μM) and the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μM). Administration of live B. breve, B. infantis, and B. bifidum by oral gavage to mice for 24 h increased DRA mRNA and protein levels in the colon. These data demonstrate an upregulation of DRA via activation of the ERK1/2 pathway that may underlie potential antidiarrheal effects of Bifidobacterium sp.

All-trans-retinoic Acid Increases SLC26A3 DRA (Down-regulated in Adenoma) Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Via HNF-1β

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25887398

All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active vitamin A derivative known to modulate a number of physiological processes, including growth and development, differentiation, and gene transcription. The protective effect of ATRA in gut inflammation and diarrheal diseases has been documented. In this regard, down-regulated in adenoma (DRA, a key luminal membrane Cl(-) transporter involved in NaCl absorption) has been shown to be suppressed in intestinal inflammation. This suppression of DRA is associated with diarrheal phenotype. Therefore, current studies were undertaken to examine the effects of ATRA on DRA expression. DRA mRNA levels were significantly elevated (∼4-fold) in response to ATRA with induction starting as early as 8 h of incubation. Similarly, ATRA increased DRA protein expression by ∼50%. Furthermore, DRA promoter activity was significantly increased in response to ATRA indicating transcriptional activation. ATRA effects on DRA expression appeared to be mediated via the RAR-β receptor subtype, as ATRA remarkably induced RAR-β mRNA levels, whereas RAR-β knockdown substantially attenuated the ability of ATRA to increase DRA expression. Results obtained from agonist (CH-55) and antagonist (LE-135) studies further confirmed that ATRA exerts its effects through RAR-β. Furthermore, ATRA treatment resulted in a significant increase in HNF-1β mRNA levels. The ability of ATRA to induce DRA expression was inhibited in the presence of HNF-1β siRNA indicative of its involvement in ATRA-induced effects on DRA expression. In conclusion, ATRA may act as an antidiarrheal agent by increasing DRA expression via the RAR-β/HNF-1β-dependent pathway.

Mechanisms of Intestinal Serotonin Transporter (SERT) Upregulation by TGF-β1 Induced Non-Smad Pathways

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25954931

TGF-β1 is an important multifunctional cytokine with numerous protective effects on intestinal mucosa. The influence of TGF-β1 on serotonin transporter (SERT) activity, the critical mechanism regulating the extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT), is not known. Current studies were designed to examine acute effects of TGF-β1 on SERT. Model human intestinal Caco-2 cells grown as monolayer's or as cysts in 3D culture and ex vivo mouse model were utilized. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 60 min) stimulated SERT activity (~2 fold, P<0.005). This stimulation of SERT function was dependent upon activation of TGF-β1 receptor (TGFRI) as SB-431542, a specific TGF-βRI inhibitor blocked the SERT stimulation. SERT activation in response to TGF-β1 was attenuated by inhibition of PI3K and occurred via enhanced recruitment of SERT-GFP to apical surface in a PI3K dependent manner. The exocytosis inhibitor brefeldin A (2.5 μM) attenuated the TGF-β1-mediated increase in SERT function. TGF-β1 increased the association of SERT with the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) syntaxin 3 (STX3) and promoted exocytosis of SERT. Caco-2 cells grown as cysts in 3D culture recapitulated the effects of TGF-β1 showing increased luminal staining of SERT. Ussing chamber studies revealed increase in 3H-5-HT uptake in mouse ileum treated ex vivo with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml, 1h). These data demonstrate a novel mechanism rapidly regulating intestinal SERT via PI3K and STX3. Since decreased SERT is implicated in various gastro-intestinal disorders e.g IBD, IBS and diarrhea, understanding mechanisms stimulating SERT function by TGF-β1 offers a novel therapeutic strategy to treat GI disorders.

Mechanisms of DRA Recycling in Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Effect of Enteropathogenic E. Coli

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26447204

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes infantile diarrhea worldwide. EPEC decreases the activity and surface expression of the key intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)], contributing to the pathophysiology of early diarrhea. Little is known about the mechanisms governing membrane recycling of DRA. In the current study, Caco-2 cells were used to investigate DRA trafficking under basal conditions and in response to EPEC. Apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive (125)I(-) uptake. Cell surface biotinylation was performed to assess DRA endocytosis and exocytosis. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chlorpromazine (60 μM) increased apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity. Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, also increased function and surface levels of DRA via decreased endocytosis. Perturbation of microtubules by nocodazole revealed that intact microtubules are essential for basal exocytic (but not endocytic) DRA recycling. Mice treated with colchicine showed a decrease in DRA surface levels as visualized by confocal microscopy. In response to EPEC infection, DRA surface expression was reduced partly via an increase in DRA endocytosis and a decrease in exocytosis. These effects were dependent on the EPEC virulence genes espG1 and espG2. Intriguingly, the EPEC-induced decrease in DRA function was unaltered in the presence of dynasore, suggesting a clathrin-independent internalization of surface DRA. In conclusion, these studies establish the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and microtubules in the basal surface expression of DRA and demonstrate that the EPEC-mediated decrease in DRA function and apical expression in Caco-2 cells involves decreased exocytosis.

Mechanisms Underlying Dysregulation of Electrolyte Absorption in Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Diarrhea

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26595422

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic inflammation of the intestine affects the normal fluid and electrolyte absorption leading to diarrhea, the hallmark symptom of IBD. The management of IBD-associated diarrhea still remains to be a challenge, and extensive studies over the last 2 decades have focused on investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying IBD-associated diarrhea. These studies have shown that the predominant mechanism of diarrhea in IBD involves impairment of electroneutral NaCl absorption, with very little role if any played by anion secretion. The electroneutral NaCl absorption involves coupled operation of Na/H exchanger 3 (NHE3 or SLC9A3) and Cl/HCO3 exchanger DRA (Down Regulated in Adenoma, or SLC26A3). Increasing evidence now supports the critical role of a marked decrease in NHE3 and DRA function and/or expression in IBD-associated diarrhea. This review provides a detailed analysis of the current knowledge related to alterations in NHE3 and DRA function and expression in IBD including the mechanisms underlying these observations and highlights the potential of these transporters as important and novel therapeutic targets.

A Novel Anti-inflammatory Role of GPR120 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26791484

GPR120 (free fatty acid receptor-4) is a G protein-coupled receptor for medium- and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, including ω-3 fatty acids. Recent studies have shown GPR120 to play cardinal roles in metabolic disorders via modulation of gut hormone secretion and insulin sensitivity and to exert anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and adipose tissues. However, information on anti-inflammatory role of GPR120 at the level of intestinal epithelium is very limited. Current studies demonstrated differential levels of GPR120 mRNA and protein along the length of the human, mouse, and rat intestine and delineated distinct anti-inflammatory responses following GPR120 activation in model human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, but not in model mouse intestinal epithelial endocrine cell line STC-1. In Caco-2 cells, GPR120 was internalized, bound to β-arrestin-2, and attenuated NF-κB activation in response to 30-min exposure to the agonists GW9508, TUG-891, or docosahexaenoic acid. These effects were abrogated in response to small interfering RNA silencing of β-arrestin-2. Treatment of STC-1 cells with these agonists did not induce receptor internalization and had no effects on NF-κB activation, although treatment with the agonists GW9508 or TUG-891 for 6 h augmented the synthesis and secretion of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 in this cell line. Our studies for the first time demonstrated a GPR120-mediated novel anti-inflammatory pathway in specific intestinal epithelial cell types that could be of therapeutic relevance to intestinal inflammatory disorders.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Stimulates Intestinal P-glycoprotein Expression Via a C-Fos/c-Jun-dependent Mechanism in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26867563

Our previous studies showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) culture supernatant (CS) increased P-glycoprotein [Pgp/multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)] function, expression, and promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. The current studies were designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating the stimulatory effects of LA CS on Pgp promoter activity. Deletion analysis indicated that the LA CS response element(s) is located in the -172/+428-bp region, and sequence analysis of this region revealed three potential binding sites for c-Fos or c-Jun: proximal activating protein (AP) 1a (-119/-98 bp), distal AP1b (-99/-78 bp), and AP1c (+175/+196 bp). LA CS (24 h) showed an approximately twofold increase in the protein expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in Caco-2 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that LA CS markedly increased the binding of Caco-2 nuclear proteins to AP1a and AP1b, but not AP1c. The DNA-protein complex was completely eliminated by c-Fos antibody, while c-Jun antibody partially eliminated the complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also showed that LA CS enhanced the association of c-Fos and c-Jun (by ∼4- and 1.5-fold, respectively) with endogenous Pgp promoter in Caco-2 cells (p-172/+1). Interestingly, overexpression of c-Fos or c-Jun activated Pgp promoter by nearly twofold each. This increase was further enhanced (∼14-fold) when c-Fos and c-Jun were simultaneously overexpressed, suggesting that the presence of one of these transcription factors potentiates the effect of the other. These studies, for the first time, provide evidence for the involvement of c-Fos/c-Jun in stimulation of Pgp gene expression by LA CS in the human intestine.

Transcriptional Modulation of SLC26A3 (DRA) by Sphingosine-1-phosphate

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27079615

SLC26A3 or Downregulated in adenoma (DRA) is the major Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. Alterations in DRA function and expression have been implicated in diarrheal diseases associated with inflammation or infection. Therefore, agents that upregulate DRA activity may serve as potential antidiarrheals. In this regard, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a member of the bioactive sphingolipid family, has been shown to modulate various cellular processes including improvement of intestinal barrier function. However, the role of S1P in modulating intestinal chloride absorption by regulating DRA is not known. Therefore, the present studies were designed to examine the direct effects of S1P on apical Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity and DRA expression. S1P significantly increased Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity and also significantly increased DRA mRNA and protein expression. Increased DRA mRNA by S1P was accompanied by enhanced DRA promoter activity, indicating involvement of transcriptional mechanisms. The specific S1P receptor subtype-2 (S1PR2) antagonist JTE-013 blocked the stimulatory effects of S1P on DRA promoter activity, indicating the involvement of S1PR2 S1P-mediated increase in DRA promoter activity involved PI3K/Akt pathway. Progressive deletions of the DRA promoter indicated that the putative S1P-responsive elements are present in the -790/-398 region of the DRA promoter. Furthermore, results obtained from electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that S1P stimulated DRA promoter activity via increased binding of Ying-Yang1 (YY1) in the S1P-responsive region. In conclusion, transcriptional modulation of DRA expression and function in response to S1P through a PI3/Akt pathway represents a novel role of S1P as a potential proabsorptive agent.

Keratin 8 Knockdown Leads to Loss of the Chloride Transporter DRA in the Colon

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27125276

Keratins (K) are intermediate filament proteins important in protection from stress. The roles of keratins in the intestine are not clear, but K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) mice develop a Th2-type colonic inflammation, epithelial hyperproliferation, and mild diarrhea caused by a keratin level-dependent decrease in short-circuit current and net sodium and chloride absorption in the distal colon. The lack of K8 leads to mistargeting or altered levels of membrane proteins in colonocytes; however, the main transporter responsible for the keratin-related ion transport defect is unknown. We here analyzed protein and mRNA levels of candidate ion transporters CFTR, PAT-1, NHE-3, and DRA in ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon. Although no differences were observed for CFTR, PAT-1, or NHE-3, DRA mRNA levels were decreased by three- to fourfold and DRA protein was almost entirely lost in K8(-/-) cecum and proximal and distal colon compared with K8(+/+), whereas the levels in ileum were normal. In K8(+/-) mice, DRA mRNA levels were unaltered, while decreased DRA protein levels were detected in the proximal colon. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the loss of DRA in K8(-/-) distal colon, while K8(+/-) displayed a similar but more patchy apical DRA distribution compared with K8(+/+) DRA was similarly decreased when K8 was knocked down in Caco-2 cells, confirming that K8 levels modulate DRA levels in an inflammation-independent manner. Taken together, the loss of DRA in the K8(-/-) mouse colon and cecum explains the dramatic chloride transport defect and diarrheal phenotype after K8 inactivation and identifies K8 as a novel regulator of DRA.

Lactobacillus Acidophilus Counteracts Inhibition of NHE3 and DRA Expression and Alleviates Diarrheal Phenotype in Mice Infected with Citrobacter Rodentium

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27634011

Impaired absorption of electrolytes is a hallmark of diarrhea associated with inflammation or enteric infections. Intestinal epithelial luminal membrane NHE3 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3) and DRA (Down-Regulated in Adenoma; Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger) play key roles in mediating electroneutral NaCl absorption. We have previously shown decreased NHE3 and DRA function in response to short-term infection with enteropathogenic E coli (EPEC), a diarrheal pathogen. Recent studies have also shown substantial downregulation of DRA expression in a diarrheal model of infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse counterpart of EPEC. Since our previous studies showed that the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) increased DRA and NHE3 function and expression and conferred protective effects in experimental colitis, we sought to evaluate the efficacy of LA in counteracting NHE3 and DRA inhibition and ameliorating diarrhea in a model of C rodentium infection. FVB/N mice challenged with C rodentium [1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)] with or without administration of live LA (3 × 10(9) CFU) were assessed for NHE3 and DRA mRNA and protein expression, mRNA levels of carbonic anhydrase, diarrheal phenotype (assessed by colonic weight-to-length ratio), myeloperoxidase activity, and proinflammatory cytokines. LA counteracted C rodentium-induced inhibition of colonic DRA, NHE3, and carbonic anhydrase I and IV expression and attenuated diarrheal phenotype and MPO activity. Furthermore, LA completely blocked C rodentium induction of IL-1β, IFN-γ, and CXCL1 mRNA and C rodentium-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. In conclusion, our data provide mechanistic insights into antidiarrheal effects of LA in a model of infectious diarrhea and colitis.

GLP-1 Nanomedicine Alleviates Gut Inflammation

Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27553076

The gut hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, its clinical use is limited by its short half-life. Previously, we have shown that GLP-1 as a nanomedicine (GLP-1 in sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles, GLP-1-SSM) has increased in vivo stability. The current study was aimed at testing the efficacy of this GLP-1 nanomedicine in alleviating colonic inflammation and associated diarrhea in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced mouse colitis model. Our results show that GLP-1-SSM treatment markedly alleviated the colitis phenotype by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increasing goblet cells and preserving intestinal epithelial architecture in colitis model. Further, GLP-1-SSM alleviated diarrhea (as assessed by luminal fluid) by increasing protein expression of intestinal chloride transporter DRA (down regulated in adenoma). Our results indicate that GLP-1 nanomedicine may act as a novel therapeutic tool in alleviating gut inflammation and associated diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

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