In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (17)

Articles by Sangeeta Tyagi in JoVE

Other articles by Sangeeta Tyagi on PubMed

Modulation of Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco-2 Cells by Nitric Oxide

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12181176

The present studies were undertaken to determine the direct effects of nitric oxide (NO) released from an exogenous donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl pencillamine (SNAP) on Cl-/OH- exchange activity in human Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NO inhibits Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells via cGMP-dependent protein kinases G (PKG) and C (PKC) signal-transduction pathways. Our data in support of this conclusion can be outlined as follows: 1) incubation of Caco-2 cells with SNAP (500 microM) for 30 min resulted in approximately 50% inhibition of DIDS-sensitive 36Cl uptake; 2) soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitors Ly-83583 and (1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one significantly blocked the inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity by SNAP; 3) addition of 8-bromo-cGMP (8-BrcGMP) mimicked the effects of SNAP; 4) specific PKG inhibitor KT-5823 significantly inhibited the decrease in Cl-/OH- exchange activity in response to either SNAP or 8-BrcGMP; 5) Cl-/OH-exchange activity in Caco-2 cells in response to SNAP was not altered in the presence of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (Rp-cAMPS), demonstrating that the PKA pathway was not involved; 6) the effect of NO on Cl-/OH- exchange activity was mediated by PKC, because each of the two PKC inhibitors chelerythrine chloride and calphostin C blocked the SNAP-mediated inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity; 7) SO/OH- exchange in Caco-2 cells was unaffected by SNAP. Our results suggest that NO-induced inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange may play an important role in the pathophysiology of diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel diseases.

Regulation of NHE3 by Nitric Oxide in Caco-2 Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12181191

The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) activity was investigated utilizing Caco-2 cells as an experimental model. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with 10(-3) M S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a conventional donor of NO, for 20 min resulted in a approximately 45% dose-dependent decrease in NHE activity, as determined by assay of ethylisopropylamiloride-sensitive 22Na uptake. A similar decrease in NHE activity was observed utilizing another NO-specific donor, sodium nitroprusside. SNAP-mediated inhibition of NHE activity was not secondary to a loss of cell viability. NHE3 activity was significantly reduced by SNAP (P < 0.05), whereas NHE2 activity was essentially unaltered. The effects of SNAP were mediated by the cGMP-dependent signal transduction pathway as follows: 1) LY-83583 and 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), specific inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, blocked the inhibitory effect of SNAP on NHE; 2) 8-bromo-cGMP mimicked the effects of SNAP on NHE activity; 3) the SNAP-induced decrease in NHE activity was counteracted by a specific protein kinase G inhibitor, KT-5823 (1 microM); 4) chelerythrine chloride (2 microM) or calphostin C (200 nM), specific protein kinase C inhibitors, did not affect inhibition of NHE activity by SNAP; 5) there was no cross activation by the protein kinase A-dependent pathway, as the inhibitory effects of SNAP were not blocked by Rp-cAMPS (25 microM), a specific protein kinase A inhibitor. These data provide novel evidence that NO inhibits NHE3 activity via activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, resulting in an increase in intracellular cGMP levels and activation of protein kinase G.

Inhibition of Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco-2 Cells by Phorbol Esters is Mediated by PKCepsilon

American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Nov, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12372810

The present studies were undertaken to examine the possible regulation of apical membrane Cl-/OH- exchanger in Caco-2 cells by protein kinase C (PKC). The effect of the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an in vitro PKC agonist, on OH- gradient-driven 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive 36Cl uptake in Caco-2 cells was assessed. The results demonstrated that PMA decreased apical Cl-/OH- exchanger activity via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-mediated activation of PKCepsilon. The data consistent with these conclusions are as follows: 1) short-term treatment of cells for 1-2 h with PMA (100 nM) significantly decreased Cl-/OH- exchange activity compared with control (4alpha-PMA); 2) pretreatment of cells with specific PKC inhibitors chelerythrine chloride, calphostin C, and GF-109203X completely blocked the inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity by PMA; 3) specific inhibitors for PKCepsilon (Ro-318220) but not PKCalpha (Go-6976) significantly blocked the PMA-mediated inhibition; 4) specific PI3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of PMA; and 5) PI3-kinase activators IRS-1 peptide and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] mimicked the effects of PMA. These findings provide the first evidence for PKCepsilon-mediated inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells and indicate the involvement of the PI3-kinase-mediated pathways in the regulation of Cl- absorption in intestinal epithelial cells.

Mechanisms of Calcium Transport in Human Colonic Basolateral Membrane Vesicles

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Oct, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12395904

Human colon has been suggested to play an important role in calcium absorption especially after extensive disease or resection of the small intestine. We have previously demonstrated the presence of a carrier-mediated calcium uptake mechanism in the human colonic luminal membrane vesicles. Current studies were, therefore, undertaken to investigate the mechanism(s) of calcium exit across the basolateral membrane domain of the human colon. Human colonic basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMVs) were isolated and purified from mucosal scrapings of organ donor colons, utilizing a technique developed in our laboratory. 45Ca uptake was measured by a rapid filtration technique. 45Ca uptake represented transport into the intravesicular space as evidenced by an osmolarity study and by the demonstration of Ca2' efflux from calcium preloaded vesicles by Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Calcium uptake was stimulated by Mg2+ ATP. The kinetic parameters for ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake revealed saturation kinetics with Michaelis constant (Km) of 0.22 +/- 0.04 microM and a maximum rate of uptake (Vmax) of 0.38 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein/min. The Km of ATP concentration required for half maximal Ca2+ uptake was 0.39 +/- 0.04 mM. ATP-stimulated calcium uptake into these vesicles was further stimulated in the presence of calmodulin and was inhibited by calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine. Uptake of 45Ca into BLMVs was markedly inhibited by cis-Na+ but was significantly stimulated by trans-Na+ (40-50% stimulation). Our results demonstrate the presence of a Mg2+/ATP-dependent calmodulin-regulated Ca2+ transport system and a Na+-Ca2+ exchange process in the human colonic basolateral membranes.

Evidence for a Carrier-mediated Mechanism for Thiamine Transport to Human Jejunal Basolateral Membrane Vesicles

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Jan, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12645798

Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated the presence of a pH-dependent, amiloride-sensitive, electroneutral carrier-mediated exchange for thiamine absorption in the human small intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. However, the mechanism of thiamine transport across the human small intestinal basolateral membrane is not understood. The present study was aimed to characterize the mechanism of thiamine transport across the basolateral membranes of the human jejunum. Basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) were purified from mucosal scrapings of organ donors, utilizing a Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation technique. The results showed [3H] thiamine uptake into BLMV to be: (1) markedly stimulated in the presence of an outwardly directed H+ gradient (pH 5.5in/7.5out); (2) significantly inhibited by amiloride in a dose-dependent manner; (3) sensitive to temperature and medium osmolarity and insensitive to changes in membrane potential; (4) not influenced by the addition of 1 mM Mg(2+)-ATP, inside and outside the vesicles in the presence of Na+ and K+; (5) inhibited by structural analogs-amprolium, oxythiamin, and unlabeled thiamine (100 microM); (6) not affected by organic cations, eg, TEA, N-methyl-nicotinamide (NMN), and choline; and (7) saturable as a function of concentration (apparent Km of 0.76 +/- 0.21 microM and a V(max) of 1.38 +/- 0.35 pmol/mg protein/10 sec). These results indicate the presence of a proton gradient-dependent specialized carrier-mediated exchange mechanism for thiamine transport across the human jejunum basolateral membranes.

Differential Regulation of Na+/H+ Exchange Isoform Activities by Enteropathogenic E. Coli in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Aug, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15075254

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important human intestinal foodborne pathogen associated with diarrhea, especially in infants and young children. Although EPEC produces characteristic attaching and effacing lesions and loss of microvilli, the pathophysiology of EPEC-associated diarrhea, particularly during early infection, remains elusive. The present studies were designed to examine the direct effects of EPEC infection on intestinal absorption via Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) isoforms. Caco-2 cells were infected with EPEC strain E2348/69 or nonpathogenic E. coli HB101 for a period of 60 to 120 min. Total NHE activity was significantly increased at 60 min, reaching approximately threefold increase after 90 min of EPEC infection. Similar findings were seen in HT-29 cells and T84 cells indicating that the response was not cell-line specific. Most surprising was the differential regulation of NHE2 and NHE3 by EPEC. Marked activation of NHE2 (300%) occurred, whereas significant inhibition ( approximately 50%) of NHE3 activity was induced. The activity of basolateral isoform NHE1 was also significantly increased in response to EPEC infection. Mutations that disrupted the type III secretion system (TTSS) ablated the effect of EPEC on the activity of both NHE2 and NHE3. These results suggest that EPEC, through a TTSS-dependent mechanism, exerts differential effects on NHE isoform activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, NHEs do not appear to play any role in EPEC-mediated inflammation, because the NHE inhibitors amiloride and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride did not prevent EPEC-mediated IkappaBalpha degradation.

Cholesterol Modulates Human Intestinal Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. May, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15604201

Bile acids are efficiently absorbed from the intestinal lumen via the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). ASBT function is essential for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. The molecular mechanisms of the direct effect of cholesterol on human ASBT function and expression are not entirely understood. The present studies were undertaken to establish a suitable in vitro experimental model to study human ASBT function and its regulation by cholesterol. Luminal membrane bile acid transport was evaluated by the measurement of sodium-dependent 3H-labeled taurocholic acid (3H-TC) uptake in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. The relative abundance of human ASBT (hASBT) mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Transient transfection and luciferase assay techniques were employed to assess hASBT promoter activity. Caco-2 cell line was found to represent a suitable model to study hASBT function and regulation. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-HCH; 2.5 microg/ml for 24 h) significantly inhibited Na(+)-dependent 3H-TC uptake in Caco-2 cells. This inhibition was associated with a 50% decrease in the V(max) of the transporter with no significant changes in the apparent K(m). The inhibition in hASBT activity was associated with reduction in both the level of hASBT mRNA and its promoter activity. Our data show the inhibition of hASBT function and expression by 25-HCH in Caco-2 cells. These data provide novel evidence for the direct regulation of human ASBT function by cholesterol and suggest that this phenomenon may play a central role in cholesterol homeostasis.

Involvement of C-Src and Protein Kinase C Delta in the Inhibition of Cl(-)/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco-2 Cells by Serotonin

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15637072

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is an important neurotransmitter and intercellular messenger regulating various gastrointestinal functions, including electrolyte transport. To date, however, no information is available with respect to its effects on the human intestinal apical anion exchanger Cl(-)/OH- (HCO3-). The present studies were therefore undertaken to examine the direct effects of serotonin on OH- gradient-driven 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid-sensitive 36Cl- uptake utilizing the post-confluent transformed human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. Our results demonstrate that serotonin inhibits Cl(-)/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells via both tyrosine kinase and Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C delta-mediated pathways involving either 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptor subtype. The data consistent with our inference are as follows. (i) The short term treatment of cells with 5-HT (0.1 microM) for 15-60 min significantly decreased Cl(-)/OH- exchange (50-70%, p < 0.05). (ii) The specific agonists for 5-HT3, m-chlorophenylbiguanide, and 5-HT4, 3-(4-allylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-quinoxaline chloronitrile, mimicked the effects of serotonin. (iii) Tropisetron dual inhibitor for both the 5-HT3/4 receptor subtypes significantly blocked the inhibition, whereas specific 5-HT3 (Y-25130) or 5-HT4 receptor (RS39604) antagonist failed to block the inhibitory effects of 5-HT. (iv) The Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl ester) had no effect on the serotonin-induced inhibition. (v) The specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors chelerythrine chloride or calphostin C completely blocked the inhibition by 5-HT. (vi) The specific inhibitor for PKC delta, rottlerin, significantly blocked the inhibition by 5-HT. (vii) The specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin, or Src family kinase inhibitor, PP1, abolished the 5-HT-mediated inhibition of Cl(-)/OH- exchange activity. (viii) 5-HT stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src kinase and PKC delta.

Serotonin Inhibits Na+/H+ Exchange Activity Via 5-HT4 Receptors and Activation of PKC Alpha in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Gastroenterology. Apr, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15825078

Increased serotonin levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diarrhea associated with celiac and inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of serotonin on Na+ /H+ exchange (NHE) activity in the human intestine have not been investigated fully. The present studies examined the acute effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on NHE activity using Caco-2 cells as an in vitro model.

Taurodeoxycholate Modulates Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Caco2 Cells

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. May, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17387613

Bile acid malabsorption has been shown to be associated with diarrhea in cases such as ileal resection Crohn's disease of the ileum, and radiation enteritis. The mechanisms of bile acid-induced diarrhea are not fully understood. Although the induction of colonic chloride secretion in response to bile acids has been extensively investigated, to date the direct effect of bile acids on intestinal chloride absorption has not been well defined. Therefore, the current studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of bile acids on the apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange process utilizing Caco2 monolayers as an in vitro cellular model. Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive pH gradient-driven (36)Cl uptake. The results are summarized as follows: (i) short-term exposure (20 min) of Caco2 cells to taurodeoxycholate (TDC; 200 microM) and glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC; 200 microM) acids significantly inhibited apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange (by approximately 60-70%); (ii) the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM blocked the inhibition by TDC; (iii) the reduction in Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange by TDC was reversed by the PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride; (iv) functional and inhibitor studies indicated that TDC induced inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange was mediated via the activation of the PKC beta I isoform; (v) the effect of TDC on apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange was completely blocked by the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 (5 microM); and (vi) the PKA inhibitor, RpcAMP, had no effect on TDC induced inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange. In conclusion, our studies provide direct evidence for inhibition of human intestinal apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity by bile acids via Ca(2+)-, PI3 kinase-, and PKC beta I-dependent pathways in Caco2 cells.

Role of Fyn and PI3K in H2O2-induced Inhibition of Apical Cl-/OH- Exchange Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

The Biochemical Journal. Nov, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18564062

H(2)O(2) is a highly reactive oxygen metabolite that has been implicated as an important mediator of inflammation-induced intestinal injury associated with ischaemia/reperfusion, radiation and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies have shown that H(2)O(2) inhibits NaCl absorption and activates Cl(-) secretion in the rat and rabbit colon. To date, however, almost no information is available with respect to its effect on the human intestinal apical anion exchanger Cl(-)/OH(-) (HCO(3)(-)). The present studies were, therefore, undertaken to examine the direct effects of H(2)O(2) on OH(-) gradient-driven DIDS (4,4'-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate)-sensitive (36)Cl(-) uptake utilizing a post-confluent transformed human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2. Our results demonstrate that H(2)O(2) (1 mM for 60 min) significantly inhibited (approx. 60%; P<0.05) Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity in Caco-2 cells. H(2)O(2)-mediated inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity involved the Src kinase Fyn and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent pathways. H(2)O(2) also induced phosphorylation of Fyn and p85 (the regulatory subunit of PI3K) in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, an increased association of Fyn and p85 was observed in response to H(2)O(2), resulting in the activation of the downstream target PLCgamma1 (phospholipase Cgamma1). Elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels and PKCalpha (protein kinase Calpha) functioned as downstream effectors of H(2)O(2)-induced PLCgamma1 activation. Our results, for the first time, provide evidence for H(2)O(2)-induced Src kinase Fyn/PI3K complex association. This complex association resulted in the subsequent activation of PLCgamma1 and Ca(2+)-dependent PKCalpha, resulting in the inhibition of Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity. These findings suggest that H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of the Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange process may play an important role in the pathophysiology of diarrhoea associated with inflammatory disorders, where the amount of reactive oxygen species is markedly elevated.

The Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus Stimulates Chloride/hydroxyl Exchange Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

The Journal of Nutrition. Jul, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18567760

Probiotics are viable nonpathogenic microorganisms that are considered to confer health benefits to the host. Recent studies indicated that some Lactobacillus species function as probiotics and have been used as alternative treatments for diarrhea, which occurs due to increased secretion, decreased absorption, or both. However, the direct effects of probiotics on intestinal electrolyte absorption are not known. Therefore, we examined the effects of Lactobacillus on luminal chloride/hydroxyl (Cl(-)/OH(-)) exchange activity in human intestinal epithelial cells. Postconfluent Caco-2 cells were treated with the Lactobacillus species Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) for 3 h at a multiplicity of infection of 50. Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was measured as 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid-sensitive (36)Cl uptake in base-loaded cells. Treatment with live, but not heat-killed, LA and LR significantly increased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity (approximately 50%), whereas other species were ineffective. Similarly, the conditioned medium (supernatant) of live LA increased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange. The ability of LA or its conditioned culture medium to enhance Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity was blocked by PI-3 kinase inhibition but was unaffected by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Corresponding to the increased Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity, LA treatment increased the surface expression of the apical anion exchanger, SLC26A3 [Down Regulated in Adenoma (DRA)]. The increased DRA membrane localization might contribute to the increased Cl(-) absorption by LA. Our results suggest that LA secretes soluble effector molecule(s) into the culture medium that stimulate apical Cl(-)/OH(-) exchange activity via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase mediated mechanism.

Characterization of the 5'-flanking Region and Regulation of Expression of Human Anion Exchanger SLC26A6

Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18655181

SLC26A6 (putative anion transporter 1, PAT1) has been shown to play an important role in mediating the luminal Cl(-)/OH(-)(HCO(3)(-)) exchange process in the intestine. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of intestinal SLC26A6 gene expression in the intestine. Current studies were, therefore, designed to clone and characterize the 5'-regulatory region of the human SLC26A6 gene and determine the mechanisms involved in its regulation. A 1,120 bp (p-964/+156) SLC26A6 promoter fragment cloned upstream to the luciferase reporter gene in pGL2-basic exhibited high promoter activity when transfected in Caco2 cells. Progressive deletions of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated that -214/-44 region of the promoter harbors cis-acting elements important for maximal SLC26A6 promoter activity. Since, diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel diseases is attributed to increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we examined the effects of IFNgamma (30 ng/ml, 24 h) on SLC26A6 function, expression and promoter activity. IFNgamma decreased both SLC26A6 mRNA and function and repressed SLC26A6 promoter activity. Deletion analysis indicated that IFNgamma response element is located between -414/-214 region and sequence analysis of this region revealed the presence of potential Interferon Stimulated Responsive Element (ISRE), a binding site (-318/-300 bp) for interferon regulatory factor-1 transcription factor (IRF-1). Mutations in the potential ISRE site abrogated the inhibitory effects of IFNgamma. These studies provided novel evidence for the involvement of IRF-1 in the regulation of SLC26A6 gene expression by IFNgamma in the human intestine.

Mechanisms Underlying Modulation of Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) by Somatostatin in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Nov, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 20501436

Somatostatin (SST), an important neuropeptide of the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to stimulate sodium chloride absorption and inhibit chloride secretion in the intestine. However, the effects of SST on luminal butyrate absorption in the human intestine have not been investigated. Earlier studies from our group and others have shown that monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) plays an important role in the transport of butyrate in the human intestine. The present studies were undertaken to examine the effects of SST on butyrate uptake utilizing postconfluent human intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells. Apical SST treatment of Caco-2 cells for 30-60 min significantly increased butyrate uptake in a dose-dependent manner with maximal increase at 50 nM ( approximately 60%, P < 0.05). SST receptor 2 agonist, seglitide, mimicked the effects of SST on butyrate uptake. SST-mediated stimulation of butyrate uptake involved the p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. Kinetic studies demonstrated that SST increased the maximal velocity (V(max)) of the transporter by approximately twofold without any change in apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)). The higher butyrate uptake in response to SST was associated with an increase in the apical membrane levels of MCT1 protein parallel to a decrease in the intracellular MCT1 pool. MCT1 has been shown to interact specifically with CD147 glycoprotein/chaperone to facilitate proper expression and function of MCT1 at the cell surface. SST significantly enhanced the membrane levels of CD147 as well as its association with MCT1. This association was completely abolished by the specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Our findings demonstrate that increased MCT1 association with CD147 at the apical membrane in response to SST is p38 MAP kinase dependent and underlies the stimulatory effects of SST on butyrate uptake.

B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10) is Required for NF-kappaB Production by Both Canonical and Noncanonical Pathways and for NF-kappaB-inducing Kinase (NIK) Phosphorylation

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jan, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19897484

B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10), the caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing protein involved in the etiology of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas, has been implicated in inflammatory processes in epithelial cells, as well as in immune cells. Experiments in this report indicate that BCL10 is required for activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB by both canonical and noncanonical pathways, following stimulation by the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan (CGN). In wild type and IkappaB-kinase (IKK)alpha(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, increases in phospho-IkappaBalpha, nuclear NF-kappaB p65 (RelA) and p50, and KC, the mouse analog of human interleukin-8, were markedly reduced by silencing BCL10 or by exposure to the free radical scavenger Tempol. In IKKbeta(-/-) cells, BCL10 silencing, but not Tempol, reduced the CGN-induced increases in KC, phospho-NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK), cytoplasmic NF-kappaB p100, and nuclear NF-kappaB p52 and RelB, suggesting a BCL10 requirement for activation of the noncanonical pathway. In NCM460 cells, derived from normal, human colonic epithelium, the CGN-induced increases in NF-kappaB family members, p65, p50, p52, and RelB, were inhibited by BCL10 silencing. Although enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confocal images demonstrated no change in total NIK following CGN, increases in phospho-NIK in the wild type, IKKbeta(-/-) and IKKalpha(-/-) cells were inhibited by silencing BCL10. These findings indicate an upstream signaling role for BCL10, in addition to its effects on IKKgamma, the regulatory component of the IKK signalosome, and a requirement for BCL10 in both canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-kappaB activation. Also, the commonly used food additive carrageenan can be added to the short list of known activators of both pathways.

Stimulation of Apical Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) Exchanger, SLC26A3 by Neuropeptide Y is Lipid Raft Dependent

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Dec, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20884887

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an important proabsorptive hormone of the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to inhibit chloride secretion and stimulate NaCl absorption. However, mechanisms underlying the proabsorptive effects of NPY are not fully understood. The present studies were designed to examine the direct effects of NPY on apical Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity and the underlying mechanisms involved utilizing Caco2 cells. Our results showed that NPY (100 nM, 30 min) significantly increased Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity (∼2-fold). Selective NPY/Y1 or Y2 receptor agonists mimicked the effects of NPY. NPY-mediated stimulation of Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity involved the ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. Cell surface biotinylation studies showed that NPY does not alter DRA (apical Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchanger) surface expression, ruling out the involvement of membrane trafficking events. Interestingly, DRA was found to be predominantly expressed in the detergent-insoluble (DI) and low-density fractions (LDF) of human colonic apical membrane vesicles (AMVs) representing lipid rafts. Depletion of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, 10 mM, 1 h) remarkably decreased DRA expression in the DI fractions. Similar results were obtained in Triton-X 100-treated Caco2 plasma membranes. DRA association with lipid rafts in the DI and LDF fractions of Caco2 cells was significantly enhanced (∼45%) by NPY compared with control. MβCD significantly decreased Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity in Caco2 cells as measured by DIDS- or niflumic acid-sensitive ³⁶Cl⁻ uptake (∼50%). Our results demonstrate that NPY modulates Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity by enhancing the association of DRA with lipid rafts, thereby resulting in an increase in Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻(OH⁻) exchange activity. Our findings suggest that the alteration in the association of DRA with lipid rafts may contribute to the proabsorptive effects of NPY in the human intestine.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Represses the Expression of NHE2 Through NF-κB Activation in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Model, C2BBe1

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Mar, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20722069

High levels of proinflammatory cytokines are linked to pathogenesis of diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Na(+) absorption is compromised in IBD. The studies were designed to determine the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on the expression and activity of NHE2, a Na(+) /H(+) exchanger (NHE) that is involved in transepithelial Na(+) absorption in intestinal epithelial cells.

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