In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (8)

Articles by Diana Cash in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability

1Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, University of London, 2Department of Neuroimaging, James Black Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, University of London, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, Wellcome Surgical Institute, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 4Research Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 5Neurology Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 6Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Neuroscience Research Institute, Loyola University Chicago, 7Department of Oncology, The Gray Institute for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford

JoVE 53106

Other articles by Diana Cash on PubMed

Tracking Transplanted Stem Cell Migration Using Bifunctional, Contrast Agent-enhanced, Magnetic Resonance Imaging

NeuroImage. Oct, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12377155

The ability to track stem cell transplants in the brain by in vivo neuroimaging will undoubtedly aid our understanding of how these cells mediate functional recovery after neural transplantation. One major challenge for the development and refinement of stem cell transplantation is to map the spatial distribution and rate of migration in situ. Here we report a method for tracking transplanted stem cells in the ischemia-damaged rat hippocampus by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Before transplantation, stem cells were labeled in vitro either with a novel bifunctional contrast agent, gadolinium rhodamine dextran (GRID), identifiable by both MRI and fluorescence microscopy, or with PKH26, visible exclusively under fluorescence microscopy. At different time points following engraftment, the brains were evaluated by both histology and ex vivo MR imaging. Transplanted stem cells were identified by MRI only if prelabeled with GRID, whereas fluorescence microscopy detected transplanted cells using either label. The distribution of GRID-labeled stem cells identified by MRI corresponded to those detected using fluorescence microscopy. These results demonstrate that GRID-enhanced MRI can reliably identify transplanted stem cells and their migration in the brain.

Simultaneous PET and NMR

The British Journal of Radiology. Nov, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12519736

There is currently great interest in combining data from different imaging modalities, either by image registration methods that are performed after the data has been acquired or using new devices that can acquire data from two modalities simultaneously, or near simultaneously. In this paper a small prototype NMR-compatible PET scanner capable of acquiring PET images simultaneously with either NMR images or NMR spectra is described. In an associated paper [1], Pamela Garlick describes some investigations of cardiac metabolism that have been made using this system. One of the main challenges in constructing an NMR-compatible PET scanner is that photomultiplier tubes, which are an essential element of nearly all current PET systems, will not function in a high magnetic field. In collaboration with Simon Cherry and the Crump Institute of Biomedical Imaging at UCLA Medical School, a small (5.4 cm diameter) NMR-compatible PET scanner that will operate within the bore of an NMR magnet has been developed. Long optical fibres are used to transport light from the scintillation crystals that form the detector head to photomultiplier tubes situated in a low magnetic field region several metres from the magnet. This system has been used to perform simultaneous PET and NMR spectroscopy measurements with a 9.4T spectroscopy system, and has also been used to obtain simultaneous PET and MR images in several MRI scanners including a 4.7T small bore animal imaging system. Current efforts in the development of this technology are directed at experimental studies on small animals, both because this is less demanding technically and because it is in this area that applications are likely to appear first. However, there is no reason in principle why human PET-MR would not be feasible. Below, work with the prototype system and the next stage in its development are described, and some of the future possibilities and challenges are discussed.

Mapping Transplanted Stem Cell Migration After a Stroke: a Serial, in Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

NeuroImage. Jan, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14741669

Preferential migration of stem cells toward the site of a lesion is a highly desirable property of stem cells that allows flexibility in the site of graft implantation in the damaged brain. In rats with unilateral stroke damage, neural stem cells transplanted into the contralateral hemisphere migrate across to the lesioned hemisphere and populate the area around the ischaemic infarct. To date, the migration of neural stem cells in the damaged brain has been mainly inferred from snapshot histological images. In this study, we demonstrate that by pre-labelling neural stem cells with the bimodal contrast agent Gadolinium-RhodamIne Dextran [GRID, detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescent microscopy], the transhemispheric migration of transplanted neural stem cells contralateral to a stroke lesion can be followed in vivo by serial MRI and corroborated by subsequent histological analyses. Our results indicate that neural stem cells migrated from the injection tract mainly along the corpus callosum within 7 days of transplantation and extensively re-populated the peri-lesion area by 14 days following implantation. In contrast, neural stem cells transplanted into sham controls did not show any substantial migration outside of the injection tract, suggesting that the transcallosal migration observed in the stroke-lesioned animals is due to neural stem cells being attracted by the lesion site. In vivo tracking of the migration of neural stem cells responding to damage will greatly enhance our understanding of optimal transplantation strategies as well as how neural stem cells promote functional and anatomical recovery in neurological disorders.

Using the BOLD MR Signal to Differentiate the Stereoisomers of Ketamine in the Rat

NeuroImage. Oct, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16815040

Ketamine is a chiral molecule that is reported to model aspects of schizophrenia.

Proteomic Analysis of Rat Plasma Following Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia

Biomarkers in Medicine. Dec, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22103620

This study aimed to identify plasma protein changes in a rat model of ischemic stroke using a proteomic approach.

Sulforaphane Preconditioning of the Nrf2/HO-1 Defense Pathway Protects the Cerebral Vasculature Against Blood-brain Barrier Disruption and Neurological Deficits in Stroke

Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Dec, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24017972

Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral edema are the major pathogenic mechanisms leading to neurological dysfunction and death after ischemic stroke. The brain protects itself against infarction via activation of endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms, and we here report the first evidence that sulforaphane-mediated preactivation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream target heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cerebral vasculature protects the brain against stroke. To induce ischemic stroke, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 70 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 4, 24, or 72 h reperfusion. Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression was upregulated in cerebral microvessels of peri-infarct regions after 4-72 h, with HO-1 preferentially associated with perivascular astrocytes rather than the cerebrovascular endothelium. In naïve rats, treatment with sulforaphane increased Nrf2 expression in cerebral microvessels after 24h. Upregulation of Nrf2 by sulforaphane treatment prior to transient MCAo (1h) was associated with increased HO-1 expression in perivascular astrocytes in peri-infarct regions and cerebral endothelium in the infarct core. BBB disruption, lesion progression, as analyzed by MRI, and neurological deficits were reduced by sulforaphane pretreatment. As sulforaphane pretreatment led to a moderate increase in peroxynitrite generation, we suggest that hormetic preconditioning underlies sulforaphane-mediated protection against stroke. In conclusion, we propose that pharmacological or dietary interventions aimed to precondition the brain via activation of the Nrf2 defense pathway in the cerebral microvasculature provide a novel therapeutic approach for preventing BBB breakdown and neurological dysfunction in stroke.

Brainstem Structures Are Primarily Affected in an Experimental Model of Severe Scorpion Envenomation

Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24105889

Severe scorpion envenoming (SSE) is more frequent in children and is characterized by systemic dysfunctions with a mortality rate of up to 9%. Recent evidence shows that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a key role in triggering the cascade of symptoms present in SSE. The age-dependent role of the CNS in SSE lethality may be summarized in 3 hypotheses: (1) the shown increased blood brain barrier permeability of infants to the toxins would especially and primarily compromise neurovegetative control areas, (2) the neurons within these areas have high affinity to the toxins, and (3) the neurovascular interaction is such that SSE metabolically compromises proper function of toxin-targeted areas. A pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to evaluate localized hemodynamic changes in relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) for 30 min after the injection of TsTX, the most lethal toxin from the venom of the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. The brainstem showed significant rCBV reduction 1 min after TsTX administration, whereas rostral brain areas had delayed increase in rCBV (confirmed by laser Doppler measurements of cortical cerebral blood flow). Moreover, metabolic activity by 14C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography showed the highest relative increase at the brainstem. To test whether TsTX has high affinity to brainstem neurons, the lateral ventricle was injected with Alexa Fluor 568 TsTX. Although some neurons showed intense fluorescence, the labeling pattern suggests that specific neurons were targeted. Altogether, these results suggest that brainstem areas involved in neurovegetative control are most likely within the primary structures triggering the cascade of symptoms present in SSE.

Delayed Intramuscular Human Neurotrophin-3 Improves Recovery in Adult and Elderly Rats After Stroke

Brain : a Journal of Neurology. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26614754

There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke.

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