In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (17)

Articles by John S. Beech in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability

1Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, University of London, 2Department of Neuroimaging, James Black Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, University of London, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, Wellcome Surgical Institute, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 4Research Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 5Neurology Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 6Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Neuroscience Research Institute, Loyola University Chicago, 7Department of Oncology, The Gray Institute for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford


JoVE 53106

Other articles by John S. Beech on PubMed

The Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor, TRIM, As a Neuroprotective Agent: Effects in Models of Cerebral Ischaemia Using Histological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques

Brain Research. Dec, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 14642829

Most neuroprotective compounds that appear promising in the pre-clinical phase of testing are subsequently dismissed as relatively ineffective when entered into large-scale clinical trials. Many pre-clinical studies of potential neuroprotective candidates evaluate efficacy in only one or possibly two different models of ischaemia. In this study we examined the effects of 1,2-trifluoromethylphenyl imidazole (TRIM), a novel neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, in three models of cerebral ischaemia (global gerbil, global rat and focal rat). In addition, to follow the progression of the pathology, we also compared traditional histology methods with more advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as endpoint measures for neurological damage and neuroprotection. TRIM (50 mg/kg i.p.) prevented ischaemia-induced hippocampal damage following global ischaemia in gerbils when administered before or immediately post-occlusion, but failed to protect when administration was delayed until 30 min post-occlusion. Further studies indicated that the compound (administered at 50 mg/kg, i.p., immediately after occlusion) also protected in a rat four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) model using both histological and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging techniques. In a final study, TRIM (50 mg/kg i.p. 30 min after occlusion) provided a significant reduction in infarct volume at 4 and 24 h as measured using diffusion-weighted (DW) and proton density (PD)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This was confirmed using histological techniques. These studies confirm that nNOS inhibitors may have utility in stroke and provide evidence that combined magnetic resonance and histological methods can provide a powerful method of assessing neuronal damage in rodent models of cerebral ischaemia.

Imaging of Brain Hypoxia in Permanent and Temporary Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in the Rat Using 18F-fluoromisonidazole and Positron Emission Tomography: a Pilot Study

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Apr, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17033692

In acute stroke, the target of therapy is the severely hypoxic but salvageable tissue. Previous human studies using 18F-fluoromisonidazole and positron emission tomography (18F-FMISO PET) have shown high tracer retention indicative of tissue hypoxia, which had normalized at repeat scan >48 h later. In the only validation study of 18F-FMISO, using ex vivo autoradiography in thread middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAo) rats, there was unexpected high uptake as late as 22 h after reperfusion, raising questions about the use of 18F-FMISO as a hypoxia tracer. Here we report a pilot study of 18F-FMISO PET in experimental stroke. Spontaneous hypertensive rats were subjected to distal clip MCAo. Three-hour dynamic PET was performed in 7 rats: 3 normals, 1 with permanent MCAo (two sessions: 30 mins and 48 h after clip), and 3 with temporary MCAo (45 mins, n=1; 120 mins, n=2; scanning started 30 mins after clip removal). Experiments were terminated by perfusion-fixation for standard histopathology. Late tracer retention was assessed by both compartmental modelling and simple side-to-side ratios. In the initial PET session of the permanent MCAo rat, striking trapping of 18F-FMISO was observed in the affected cortex, which had normalized 48 h later; histopathology revealed pannecrosis. In contrast, there was no demonstrable tracer retention in either temporary MCAo models, and histopathology showed ischemic changes only. These results document elevated 18F-FMISO uptake in the stroke area only in the early phase of MCAo, but not after early reperfusion nor when tissue necrosis has developed. These findings strongly support the validity of 18F-FMISO as a marker of viable hypoxic tissue/penumbra after stroke.

Comparison of Lorazepam [7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one] Occupancy of Rat Brain Gamma-aminobutyric Acid(A) Receptors Measured Using in Vivo [3H]flumazenil (8-fluoro 5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester) Binding and [11C]flumazenil Micro-positron Emission Tomography

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Mar, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17164474

The occupancy by lorazepam of the benzodiazepine binding site of rat brain GABA(A) receptors was compared when measured using either in vivo binding of [(3)H]flumazenil (8-fluoro 5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester) in terminal studies or [(11)C]flumazenil binding in anesthetized animals assessed using a small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner (micro-PET). In addition, as a bridging study, lorazepam occupancy was measured using [(3)H]flumazenil in vivo binding in rats anesthetized and dosed under micro-PET conditions. Plasma lorazepam concentrations were also determined, and for each occupancy method, the concentration required to produce 50% occupancy (EC(50)) was calculated because this parameter is independent of the route of lorazepam administration. For the in vivo binding assay, lorazepam was dosed orally (0.1-10 mg/kg), whereas for the micro-PET study, lorazepam was given via the i.v. route as a low dose (0.75 mg/kg bolus) and then a high dose (0.5 mg/kg bolus then 0.2 mg/ml infusion). The lorazepam plasma EC(50) in the [(11)C]flumazenil micro-PET study was 96 ng/ml [95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 74-124 ng/ml], which was very similar to the [(3)H]flumazenil micro-PET simulation study (94 ng/ml; 95% CI = 63-139 ng/ml), which in turn was comparable with the [(3)H]flumazenil in vivo binding study (134 ng/ml; 95% CI = 119-151 ng/ml). These data clearly show that despite the differences in dosing (i.v. in anesthetized versus orally in conscious rats) and detection (in vivo dynamic PET images versus ex vivo measurements in filtered and washed brain homogenates), [(11)C]flumazenil micro-PET produces results similar to [(3)H]flumazenil in vivo binding.

Small Animal, Whole Brain FMRI: Innocuous and Nociceptive Forepaw Stimulation

NeuroImage. Apr, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17300960

Supra-spinal pain processing involves a number of extensive networks. An examination of these networks using small animal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is difficult. While prior studies have successfully delineated regions consistent with known pain processing pathways, they have been restricted to acquisitions of limited spatial extent with coarse in-plane resolution to achieve a high temporal resolution. An isotropic, whole brain fMRI protocol has been developed for the examination of the supra-spinal consequences of innocuous and nociceptive electrical stimulation of the rat forepaw. Innocuous electrical stimulation of the rat forepaw delineated BOLD contrast responses consistent with known somatosensory processing pathways (contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1), a region consistent with secondary somatosensory cortex, the ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus and ipsilateral cuneate nucleus), providing face validity for the technique. The putative noxious stimulus delineated additional regions consistent with the classical lateral and medial pain systems as well as secondarily associated areas: the aversion and descending inhibition systems. These included the ipsilateral inferior colliculus, anterior pretectal nucleus, mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, with regions in the pre-frontal, cingulated, ventral orbital and infra-limbic cortices, nucleus accumbens all exhibiting negative BOLD changes. Such regions are in agreement with, and extend, those previously reported. Acquisition, post-processing and analysis methodologies undertaken in this study constitute a marked extension of previous fMRI in the rat, enabling whole brain coverage at a spatial resolution sufficient to delineate regional changes in BOLD contrast consistent with somatosensory and nociceptive networks.

Multi-modal Characterisation of the Neocortical Clip Model of Focal Cerebral Ischaemia by MRI, Behaviour and Immunohistochemistry

Brain Research. May, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17320839

The neocortical clip model of focal cerebral ischaemia has previously been used with success in neuroprotection studies. To further improve its translational qualities, we have characterised this model using a combination of serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), neurological assessment, the bilateral asymmetry test (BAT) and immunohistochemistry. The right MCA was occluded in spontaneously hypertensive rats for 0, 60 and 120 min. MRI was performed pre-surgery, 1, 3 and 7 days post-surgery. Behavioural assessment was performed 2 days before and 3 and 7 days post-surgery whilst neurological deficits were monitored daily. Neuroimaging results showed that 0 min of MCA occlusion did not produce a lesion, whereas occlusion for 60 min produced a lesion that remained stable over time. Occlusion for 120 min caused a more severe lesion 1 day post-surgery, but decreased by 7 days. Behaviour, neurological scores and histological lesion volumes correlated strongly with MRI lesion volume. Immunohistochemistry revealed neuronal loss, astrogliosis and macrophage infiltration in lesioned cortices. The neocortical clip model produced ischaemic lesions that are restricted to cortical territories of the MCA. The duration of occlusion dictates lesion severity which may prove useful for probing therapeutic interventions at different stages of stroke progression. The correlation of MRI with two different behavioural measures and post-mortem histology strengthens the basis for MRI providing an in vivo surrogate marker for structural and behavioural deficits caused by a cortical stroke.

Metabolic Acidosis and Other Determinants of Hemoglobin-oxygen Dissociation in Severe Childhood Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Aug, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17690396

Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of severe malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The factors contributing to the acidosis were assessed in 62 children with severe falciparum malaria (cases) and in 29 control children who had recently recovered from mild or moderate malaria. The acidosis was largely caused by the accumulation of both lactic and 3-hydroxybutyric acids. The determinants of oxygen release to the tissues were also examined; although there was no difference between cases and controls in respect of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, there was a marked increase in P(50) in the cases, caused by pyrexia, low pH, and base deficit. There was substantial relative or actual hypoglycemia in many cases. The relationship of these observations to therapeutic strategy is discussed.

A Method for Removing Global Effects in Small-animal Functional MRI

NMR in Biomedicine. Jan, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17436355

Global effects in functional MRI are temporal modulations in signal intensity resulting from various scanner and subject phenomena. These effects contribute to the overall variance, reducing the effect size associated with an experimental paradigm. Statistical estimations that include an approximation for concurrent global effects will reduce the residual error within the model and so improve statistical power of the study. Conventionally, estimates of global effects are derived from mean intracerebral signal intensities, but these may be prone to contributions from localised experimentally evoked signal changes. In such cases, inaccurate estimates of global effects may result in erroneous inferences of neural modulations based on statistical artefact. A novel, computationally simple, method of estimating global effects is proposed using muscle tissue acquired within the same acquisition volume. Quantitative improvements in sensitivity are reported for a somatosensory stimulation paradigm using global muscle signal intensities as a covariate of no-interest. The method is independent of local neurogenic signal changes and, under particular experimental conditions, may be more representative of true global effects. The utility of this strategy to applications in small-animal functional MRI that evoke systemic physiological changes as a result of the experimental manipulation is critically discussed.

Neither in Vivo MRI nor Behavioural Assessment Indicate Therapeutic Efficacy for a Novel 5HT(1A) Agonist in Rat Models of Ischaemic Stroke

BMC Neuroscience. 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19607699

5HT1A agonists have previously been shown to promote recovery in animal models of stroke using ex vivo outcome measures which have raised the hopes for a potential clinical implementation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential neuroprotective properties of a novel 5HT1A agonist DU123015 in 2 different models of transient focal ischaemic stroke of varying severities using both in vivo neuroimaging and behavioural techniques as primary outcome measures. For these studies, the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 was also utilized as a positive control to further assess the effectiveness of the stroke models and techniques used.

Benzodiazepine Binding Site Occupancy by the Novel GABAA Receptor Subtype-selective Drug 7-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (TPA023) in Rats, Primates, and Humans

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Jan, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19779131

The GABA(A) receptor alpha2/alpha3 subtype-selective compound 7-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (TPA023; also known as MK-0777) is a triazolopyridazine that has similar, subnanomolar affinity for the benzodiazepine binding site of alpha1-, alpha2-, alpha3-, and alpha5-containing GABA(A) receptors and has partial agonist efficacy at the alpha2 and alpha3 but not the alpha1 or alpha5 subtypes. The purpose of the present study was to define the relationship between plasma TPA023 concentrations and benzodiazepine binding site occupancy across species measured using various methods. Thus, occupancy was measured using either in vivo [(3)H]flumazenil binding or [(11)C]flumazenil small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) in rats, [(123)I]iomazenil gamma-scintigraphy in rhesus monkeys, and [(11)C]flumazenil PET in baboons and humans. For each study, plasma-occupancy curves were derived, and the plasma concentration of TPA023 required to produce 50% occupancy (EC(50)) was calculated. The EC(50) values for rats, rhesus monkeys, and baboons were all similar and ranged from 19 to 30 ng/ml, although in humans, the EC(50) was slightly lower at 9 ng/ml. In humans, a single 2-mg dose of TPA023 produced in the region of 50 to 60% occupancy in the absence of overt sedative-like effects. Considering that nonselective full agonists are associated with sedation at occupancies of less than 30%, these data emphasize the relatively nonsedating nature of TPA023.

Parametric Mapping of [18F]fluoromisonidazole Positron Emission Tomography Using Basis Functions

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20736963

In this study, we show a basis function method (BAFPIC) for voxelwise calculation of kinetic parameters (K(1), k(2), k(3), K(i)) and blood volume using an irreversible two-tissue compartment model. BAFPIC was applied to rat ischaemic stroke micro-positron emission tomography data acquired with the hypoxia tracer [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole because irreversible two-tissue compartmental modelling provided good fits to data from both hypoxic and normoxic tissues. Simulated data show that BAFPIC produces kinetic parameters with significantly lower variability and bias than nonlinear least squares (NLLS) modelling in hypoxic tissue. The advantage of BAFPIC over NLLS is less pronounced in normoxic tissue. K(i) determined from BAFPIC has lower variability than that from the Patlak-Gjedde graphical analysis (PGA) by up to 40% and lower bias, except for normoxic tissue at mid-high noise levels. Consistent with the simulation results, BAFPIC parametric maps of real data suffer less noise-induced variability than do NLLS and PGA. Delineation of hypoxia on BAFPIC k(3) maps is aided by low variability in normoxic tissue, which matches that in K(i) maps. BAFPIC produces K(i) values that correlate well with those from PGA (r(2)=0.93 to 0.97; slope 0.99 to 1.05, absolute intercept <0.00002 mL/g per min). BAFPIC is a computationally efficient method of determining parametric maps with low bias and variance.

Single-subject Statistical Mapping of Acute Brain Hypoxia in the Rat Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion: a MicroPET Study

Experimental Neurology. Jun, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21335004

No study so far has attempted to map the 3D topography of brain hypoxia in the individual rat in vivo following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). In a previous microPET study, we reported that (18)F-fluoromisonidazole ((18)F-MISO) trapping in the brain after MCAo was specific for the hypoxic viable tissue. Here, we used (18)F-MISO microPET to map the 3D topography of brain hypoxia in the acute stage of permanent distal MCAo in individual spontaneously hypertensive rats. Normal rats were also studied. (18)F-MISO was intravenously injected approximately 1 h after clip placement and PET data were acquired for 2 hours. Animals were sacrificed and the brains harvested 48 h later for infarct mapping using standard histopathology. As expected, continuous (18)F-MISO trapping was found over the affected relative to unaffected and control MCA cortex. Using single-subject voxel-based statistical mapping, tracer accumulation 90-120 min after injection was consistently significantly higher in the anterior MCA cortex (proximal relative to clip site) and gradually decreased towards posterior areas, a pattern consistent with the classic penumbra concept. The data also suggested that (i) a portion of the significant (18)F-MISO trapping area may sit outside the contours of the final infarct despite the permanent MCAo, suggesting that (18)F-MISO may be a marker not only of severe (penumbral) but also of milder (oligemic) hypoxia, and (ii) small portions of the final infarct may not exhibit early tracer trapping, suggesting that by the time the tracer was administered this tissue had already progressed to irreversible damage. This study shows the feasibility of single-subject mapping of brain hypoxia following MCAo in the rat, which has potential applications in pathophysiological investigations.

Anaesthetic Impairment of Immune Function is Mediated Via GABA(A) Receptors

PloS One. 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21390329

GABA(A) receptors are members of the Cys-loop family of neurotransmitter receptors, proteins which are responsible for fast synaptic transmission, and are the site of action of wide range of drugs. Recent work has shown that Cys-loop receptors are present on immune cells, but their physiological roles and the effects of drugs that modify their function in the innate immune system are currently unclear. We are interested in how and why anaesthetics increase infections in intensive care patients; a serious problem as more than 50% of patients with severe sepsis will die. As many anaesthetics act via GABA(A) receptors, the aim of this study was to determine if these receptors are present on immune cells, and could play a role in immunocompromising patients.

Subcutaneous Tumor Volume Measurement in the Awake, Manually Restrained Mouse Using MRI

Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging : JMRI. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23023925

To describe a combination of techniques using the excellent volumetric capacities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while avoiding anesthesia and maintaining high-throughput capability for tumor volume measurement in the awake mouse. This approach presents an alternative to calipers which, although cheap, fast, and easy to use, introduce many biases for tumor volume estimation.

Ultrasonography-guided Intracardiac Injection: an Improvement for Quantitative Brain Colonization Assays

The American Journal of Pathology. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23665347

Brain metastasis is a frequent occurrence in patients with cancer, with devastating consequences. The current animal models for brain metastasis are highly variable, leading to a need for improved in vivo models that recapitulate the clinical disease. Herein, we describe an experimental brain metastasis model that uses ultrasonographic guidance to perform intracardiac injections. This method is easy to perform, giving consistent and quantitative results. Demonstrating the utility of this method, we have assessed a variety of metastatic cell lines for their ability to develop into brain metastases. Those cell lines that were competent at brain colonization could be detected in the brain vasculature 4 hours after intracardiac injection, and a few adherent cells persisted until colonization occurred. In contrast, those cell lines that were deficient in brain colonization were infrequently found 4 hours after introduction into the arterial circulation and were not detected at later time points. All of these cells were capable of brain colonization after intraparenchymal injection. We propose that adherence to the brain vasculature may be the key limiting step that determines the ability of a cancer cell to form brain metastases successfully. Identifying brain endothelium-specific adhesion molecules may enable development of screening modalities to detect brain-colonizing cancer cells and therapies to prevent these metastatic cells from seeding the brain.

A Resistive Heating System for Homeothermic Maintenance in Small Animals

Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Jul, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25863135

To develop an MR-compatible resistive heater for temperature maintenance of anaesthetized animals.

Improving In Vivo High-Resolution CT Imaging of the Tumour Vasculature in Xenograft Mouse Models Through Reduction of Motion and Bone-Streak Artefacts

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26046526

Preclinical in vivo CT is commonly used to visualise vessels at a macroscopic scale. However, it is prone to many artefacts which can degrade the quality of CT images significantly. Although some artefacts can be partially corrected for during image processing, they are best avoided during acquisition. Here, a novel imaging cradle and tumour holder was designed to maximise CT resolution. This approach was used to improve preclinical in vivo imaging of the tumour vasculature.

Paracrine Effect of GTP Cyclohydrolase and Angiopoietin-1 Interaction in Stromal Fibroblasts on Tumor Tie2 Activation and Breast Cancer Growth

Oncotarget. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26814432

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a key role in promoting tumor growth, acting through complex paracrine regulation. GTP cyclohydrolase (GTPCH) expression for tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis in tumor stroma is implicated in angiogenesis and tumor development. However, the clinical significance of GTPCH expression in breast cancer is still elusive and how GTPCH regulates stromal fibroblast and tumor cell communication remains unknown. We found that GTPCH was upregulated in breast CAFs and epithelia, and high GTPCH RNA was significantly correlated with larger high grade tumors and worse prognosis. In cocultures, GTPCH expressing fibroblasts stimulated breast cancer cell proliferation and motility, cancer cell Tie2 phosphorylation and consequent downstream pathway activation. GTPCH interacted with Ang-1 in stromal fibroblasts and enhanced Ang-1 expression and function, which in turn phosphorylated tumor Tie2 and induced cell proliferation. In coimplantation xenografts, GTPCH in fibroblasts enhanced tumor growth, upregulating Ang-1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin mainly in fibroblast-like cells. GTPCH inhibition resulted in the attenuation of tumor growth and angiogenesis. GTPCH/Ang-1 interaction in stromal fibroblasts and activation of Tie2 on breast tumor cells could play an important role in supporting breast cancer growth. GTPCH may be an important mechanism of paracrine tumor growth and hence a target for therapy in breast cancer.

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