In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (12)
- Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
- Human Molecular Genetics
- Cell and Tissue Research
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
- International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
- European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
- Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
- Oncology Reports
- Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
- Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
- Investigative Radiology
Articles by Dorde Komljenovic in JoVE
Multi-modal Imaging of Angiogenesis in a Nude Rat Model of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Volumetric Computed Tomography and Ultrasound Tobias Bäuerle1, Dorde Komljenovic1, Martin R. Berger2, Wolfhard Semmler1 1Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany, 2Unit of Chemotherapy and Toxicology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany In the pathogenesis of bone metastasis, angiogenesis is a crucial process and therefore represents a target for imaging and therapy. Here, we present a rat model of site-specific breast cancer bone metastasis and describe strategies to non-invasively image angiogenesis in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging, volumetric computed tomography and ultrasound.
Other articles by Dorde Komljenovic on PubMed
The Ether Lipid-deficient Mouse: Tracking Down Plasmalogen Functions Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17027098 Chemical and physico-chemical properties as well as physiological functions of major mammalian ether-linked glycerolipids, including plasmalogens were reviewed. Their chemical structures were described and their effect on membrane fluidity and membrane fusion discussed. The recent generation of mouse models with ether lipid deficiency offered the possibility to study ether lipid and particularly plasmalogen functions in vivo. Ether lipid-deficient mice revealed severe phenotypic alterations, including arrest of spermatogenesis, development of cataract and defects in central nervous system myelination. In several cell culture systems lack of plasmalogens impaired intracellular cholesterol distribution affecting plasma membrane functions and structural changes of ER and Golgi cisternae. Based on these phenotypic anomalies that were accurately described conclusions were drawn on putative functions of plasmalogens. These functions were related to cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions, formation of lipid raft microdomains and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. There are several human disorders, such as Zellweger syndrome, rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, and Niemann-Pick type C disease that are distinguished by altered tissue plasmalogen concentrations. The role plasmalogens might play in the pathology of these disorders is discussed.
Defects in Myelination, Paranode Organization and Purkinje Cell Innervation in the Ether Lipid-deficient Mouse Cerebellum Human Molecular Genetics. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19270340 Ether lipids (ELs), particularly plasmalogens, are essential constituents of the mammalian central nervous system. The physiological role of ELs, in vivo, however is still enigmatic. In the present study, we characterized a mouse model carrying a targeted deletion of the peroxisomal dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase gene that results in the complete lack of ELs. Investigating the cerebellum of these mice, we observed: (i) defects in foliation patterning and delay in precursor granule cell migration, (ii) defects in myelination and concomitant reduction in the level of myelin basic protein, (iii) disturbances in paranode organization by extending the Caspr distribution and disrupting axo-glial septate-like junctions, (iv) impaired innervation of Purkinje cells by both parallel fibers and climbing fibers and (v) formation of axon swellings by the accumulation of inositol-tris-phosphate receptor 1 containing smooth ER-like tubuli. Functionally, conduction velocity of myelinated axons in the corpus callosum was significantly reduced. Most of these phenotypes were already apparent at P20 but still persisted in 1-year-old animals. In summary, these data show that EL deficiency results in severe developmental and lasting structural alterations at the cellular and network level of the cerebellum, and reveal an important role of ELs for proper brain function. Common molecular mechanisms that may underlie these phenotypes are discussed.
Disruption of Blood-testis Barrier Dynamics in Ether-lipid-deficient Mice Cell and Tissue Research. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19495798 One of the major roles of Sertoli cells is to establish the blood-testis (Sertoli cell) barrier (BTB), which is permanently assembled and disassembled to accommodate the translocation of leptotene spermatocytes from the basal into the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium and to guarantee completion of meiosis and spermiogenesis. Recently, we have demonstrated spermatogenesis to be arrested before spermatid elongation in Gnpat-null mice with selective deficiency of ether lipids (ELs) whose functions are poorly understood. In this study, we have focused on the spatio-temporal expression of several BTB tight-junctional proteins in the first wave of spermatogenesis to obtain insights into the physiological role of ELs during BTB establishment and dynamics. Our data confirm the transient existence of Russell's intermediate or translocation compartment delineated by two separate claudin-3-positive luminal and basal tight junctions and reveal that EL deficiency blocks BTB remodeling. This block is associated with (1) downregulation and mistargeting of claudin-3 and (2) impaired BTB disassembly resulting in deficient sealing of the intermediate compartment as shown by increased BTB permeability to biotin. These results suggest that ELs are essential for cyclic BTB dynamics ensuring the sluice mechanism for leptotene translocation into the adluminal compartment.
Control of Postnatal Apoptosis in the Neocortex by RhoA-subfamily GTPases Determines Neuronal Density The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20335457 Apoptosis of neurons in the maturing neocortex has been recorded in a wide variety of mammals, but very little is known about its effects on cortical differentiation. Recent research has implicated the RhoA GTPase subfamily in the control of apoptosis in the developing nervous system and in other tissue types. Rho GTPases are important components of the signaling pathways linking extracellular signals to the cytoskeleton. To investigate the role of the RhoA GTPase subfamily in neocortical apoptosis and differentiation, we have engineered a mouse line in which a dominant-negative RhoA mutant (N19-RhoA) is expressed from the Mapt locus, such that all neurons of the developing nervous system are expressing the N19-RhoA inhibitor. Postnatal expression of N19-RhoA led to no major changes in neocortical anatomy. Six layers of the neocortex developed and barrels (whisker-related neural modules) formed in layer IV. However, the density and absolute number of neurons in the somatosensory cortex increased by 12-26% compared with wild-type littermates. This was not explained by a change in the migration of neurons during the formation of cortical layers but rather by a large decrease in the amount of neuronal apoptosis at postnatal day 5, the developmental maximum of cortical apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of RhoA in cortical neurons was seen to cause high levels of apoptosis. These results demonstrate that RhoA-subfamily members play a major role in developmental apoptosis in postnatal neocortex of the mouse but that decreased apoptosis does not alter cortical cytoarchitecture and patterning.
Drug-induced Vessel Remodeling in Bone Metastases As Assessed by Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Vessel Size Imaging: a Longitudinal in Vivo Study Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20530698 The aim of this study was to assess the antiangiogenic treatment effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) and sunitinib malate (SM) noninvasively in experimental breast cancer bone metastases by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and vessel size imaging.
Cilengitide Inhibits Progression of Experimental Breast Cancer Bone Metastases As Imaged Noninvasively Using VCT, MRI and DCE-MRI in a Longitudinal in Vivo Study International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20648558 The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibiting Î±vÎ²(3)/Î±(v) Î²(5) integrins by cilengitide in experimentally induced breast cancer bone metastases using noninvasive imaging techniques. For this purpose, nude rats bearing established breast cancer bone metastases were treated with cilengitide, a small molecule inhibitor of Î±vÎ²(3) and Î±vÎ²(5) integrins (75 mg/kg, five days per week; n = 12 rats) and compared to vehicle-treated control rats (n = 12). In a longitudinal study, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and flat panel volumetric computed tomography were used to assess the volume of the soft tissue tumor and osteolysis, respectively, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI was performed to determine functional parameters of the tumor vasculature reflecting blood volume and blood vessel permeability. In rats treated with cilengitide, VCT and MRI showed that osteolytic lesions and the respective bone metastatic soft tissue tumors progressed more slowly than in vehicle-treated controls. DCE-MRI indicated a decrease in blood volume and an increase in vessel permeability and immunohistology revealed increased numbers of immature vessels in cilengitide-treated rats compared to vehicle controls. In conclusion, treatment of experimental breast cancer bone metastases with cilengitide resulted in pronounced antiresorptive and antitumor effects, suggesting that Î±vÎ²(3)/Î±vÎ²(5) inhibition may be a promising therapeutic approach for bone metastases.
Sorafenib Tosylate and Paclitaxel Induce Anti-angiogenic, Anti-tumour and Anti-resorptive Effects in Experimental Breast Cancer Bone Metastases European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20863686 In this study we investigated sorafenib tosylate and paclitaxel as single and combination therapies regarding their effects on tumour growth and vasculature as well as their potency to inhibit osteolysis in experimental breast cancer bone metastases.
Evaluation of Treatment Response of Cilengitide in an Experimental Model of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis Using Dynamic PET with 18F-FDG Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Jan-Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21512659 The purpose of this study was the assessment of the feasibility of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) studies with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) to quantify effects of the cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide cilengitide, which targets the Î±Î½Î² 3 and Î±Î½Î² 5 integrin receptors in rats with breast cancer bone metastases. Rats were inoculated with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, followed by the development of lytic lesions in the hind leg. Rats with lytic lesions were treated with cilengitide five times weekly on a continuous basis from days 30 to 55 after tumor cell inoculation. Dynamic PET studies with (18)F-FDG were performed in untreated (n=9), controlled (n=4) and treated rats (n=6). The data were assessed using learning-machine two-tissue compartmental analysis. The (18)F-FDG kinetic parameters obtained by two-tissue compartmental model learning-machine showed significant differences when individual parameters were compared between the control group and treated animals. Quantitative assessment of the tracer kinetics and the application of classification analysis to the data provided us with evidence to identify those tumors that demonstrated effect of cilengitide treatment. The transport rate K1 and the phosphorylation rate k3 were significantly different (P=0.033 and 0.038, respectively). Classification analysis based on support vector machines ranking feature elimination of the combination of PET parameters revealed an overall accuracy of 80.0% between treated animals and the control group. We were able to identify 83.3% treated animals compared with the control group based on k2 and VB. In conclusion, the results revealed that cilengitide treatment of experimental breast cancer bone metastases had a significant therapeutic impact on (18)F-FDG kinetics.
Cilengitide Inhibits Metastatic Bone Colonization in a Nude Rat Model Oncology Reports. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21725616 Integrins Î±vÎ²3 and Î±vÎ²5 are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer bone metastases. This study investigates the effects of the Î±vÎ²3/Î±vÎ²5 integrin-specific inhibitor cilengitide during early metastatic bone colonization. The impact of cilengitide on the migration, invasion and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells as well as on bone resorption by osteoclasts was investigated in vitro. For in vivo experiments, nude rats were treated with cilengitide for 30 days starting one day after site-specific tumor cell inoculation in the hind leg, and the course of metastatic changes in bone was followed using flat-panel volumetric computed tomography (VCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Vascular changes in bone metastases were investigated using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI-derived parameters amplitude A and exchange rate coefficient kep. In vitro, cilengitide treatment resulted in a decrease in proliferation, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells, as well as of osteoclast activity. In vivo, the development of bone metastasis in the hind leg of rats was not prevented by adjuvant cilengitide treatment, but cilengitide reduced the volumes of osteolytic lesions and respective soft tissue tumors of developing bone metastases as assessed with VCT and MRI, respectively. DCE-MRI revealed significant changes in the A and kep parameters including decreased relative blood volume and increased vessel permeability after cilengitide treatment indicating vessel remodeling. In conclusion, during early pathogenic processes of bone colonization, cilengitide treatment exerted effects on tumor cells, osteoclasts and vasculature reducing the skeletal lesion size of experimental skeletal metastases.
A Novel PET Tracer for the Imaging of Î±vÎ²3 and Î±vÎ²5 Integrins in Experimental Breast Cancer Bone Metastases Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging. Nov-Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22162137 The aim of this study was the evaluation of (68)Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)](2) as a novel PET tracer to image Î±vÎ²3 and Î±vÎ²5 integrins. For this purpose, DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)](2) was labeled with (68)Ga, which was obtained from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator, purified by solid-phase extraction and the radiochemical purity analyzed by radio-RP-HPLC. (68) Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)](2) was obtained reproducibly in radiochemical yields of 60 Â± 6% and with an excellent radiochemical purity of >99%. In nude rats bearing bone metastases after injection of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, biodistribution studies were performed to evaluate the accumulation of the radiotracer in selected organs, blood and bone metastases 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h post injection. A rapid uptake into the bone metastases and rapid blood clearance was observed, resulting in tumor-blood ratios of up to 26.6 (3 h post injection) and tumor-muscle ratios of up to 7.9 (3 h post injection). A blocking experiment with coinjected Î±vÎ²3/Î±vÎ²5 antagonist showed the tumor uptake to be receptor-specific. In an initial in vivo micro PET evaluation of the tracer using the same animal model, the bone metastasis was clearly visualized. These results suggest that (68)Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)](2) is a promising PET tracer suitable for the imaging of Î±vÎ²3 and Î±vÎ²5 integrins in bone metastases. This novel PET tracer should be further evaluated concerning its usefulness for early detection of bone metastases and monitoring treatment response of these lesions.
Monitoring Molecular, Functional and Morphologic Aspects of Bone Metastases Using Non-invasive Imaging Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22214500 Bone is among the most common locations of metastasis and therefore represents an important clinical target for diagnostic follow-up in cancer patients. In the pathogenesis of bone metastases, disseminated tumor cells proliferating in bone interact with the local microenvironment stimulating or inhibiting osteoclast and osteoblast activity. Non-invasive imaging methods monitor molecular, functional and morphologic changes in both compartments of these skeletal lesions - the bone and the soft tissue tumor compartment. In the bone compartment, morphologic information on skeletal destruction is assessed by computed tomography (CT) and radiography. Pathogenic processes of osteoclast and osteoblast activity, however, can be imaged using optical imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission CT (SPECT) and skeletal scintigraphy. Accordingly, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT as well as diffusion- weighted MRI and optical imaging are used to assess morphologic aspects on the macroscopic and cellular level of the soft tissue tumor compartment. Imaging methods such as PET, MR spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced techniques and vessel size imaging further elucidate on pathogenic processes in this compartment including information on metabolism and vascularization. By monitoring these aspects in bone lesions, new insights in the pathogenesis of skeletal metastases can be gained. In translation to the clinical situation, these novel methods for the monitoring of bone metastases might be applied in patients to improve follow-up of these lesions, in particular after therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes established and experimental imaging techniques for the monitoring of tumor and bone cell activity including molecular, functional and morphological aspects in bone metastases.
Quantitative Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound for Imaging Antiangiogenic Treatment Response in Experimental Osteolytic Breast Cancer Bone Metastases Investigative Radiology. Jul, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22659593 The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in experimental breast cancer bone metastases and its utilization for assessment of early antiangiogenic treatment response in these lesions.