Articles by Kalyani Gampa in JoVE
Generation of High-Throughput Three-Dimensional Tumor Spheroids for Drug Screening Lesley Mathews Griner1, Kalyani Gampa1, Toan Do2, Huyen Nguyen2, David Farley2, Christopher J. Hogan2, Douglas S. Auld2, Serena J. Silver1 1Oncology Drug Discovery: Molecular Pharmacology, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 2Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research Across a wide variety of disease indications, more physiologically relevant models are being developed and implemented into drug discovery programs. The new model system described here demonstrates how three-dimensional tumor spheroids can be cultured and screened in a high-throughput 1536-well plate-based system to search for new oncology drugs.
Other articles by Kalyani Gampa on PubMed
Design and Discovery of N-(2-Methyl-5'-morpholino-6'-((tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)oxy)-[3,3'-bipyridin]-5-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (RAF709): A Potent, Selective, and Efficacious RAF Inhibitor Targeting RAS Mutant Cancers Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Jun, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28557458 RAS oncogenes have been implicated in >30% of human cancers, all representing high unmet medical need. The exquisite dependency on CRAF kinase in KRAS mutant tumors has been established in genetically engineered mouse models and human tumor cells. To date, many small molecule approaches are under investigation to target CRAF, yet kinase-selective and cellular potent inhibitors remain challenging to identify. Herein, we describe 14 (RAF709) [ Aversa , Biaryl amide compounds as kinase inhibitors and their preparation . WO 2014151616, 2014 ], a selective B/C RAF inhibitor, which was developed through a hypothesis-driven approach focusing on drug-like properties. A key challenge encountered in the medicinal chemistry campaign was maintaining a balance between good solubility and potent cellular activity (suppression of pMEK and proliferation) in KRAS mutant tumor cell lines. We investigated the small molecule crystal structure of lead molecule 7 and hypothesized that disruption of the crystal packing would improve solubility, which led to a change from N-methylpyridone to a tetrahydropyranyl oxy-pyridine derivative. 14 proved to be soluble, kinase selective, and efficacious in a KRAS mutant xenograft model.
Project DRIVE: A Compendium of Cancer Dependencies and Synthetic Lethal Relationships Uncovered by Large-Scale, Deep RNAi Screening Cell. Jul, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28753431 Elucidation of the mutational landscape of human cancer has progressed rapidly and been accompanied by the development of therapeutics targeting mutant oncogenes. However, a comprehensive mapping of cancer dependencies has lagged behind and the discovery of therapeutic targets for counteracting tumor suppressor gene loss is needed. To identify vulnerabilities relevant to specific cancer subtypes, we conducted a large-scale RNAi screen in which viability effects of mRNA knockdown were assessed for 7,837 genes using an average of 20 shRNAs per gene in 398 cancer cell lines. We describe findings of this screen, outlining the classes of cancer dependency genes and their relationships to genetic, expression, and lineage features. In addition, we describe robust gene-interaction networks recapitulating both protein complexes and functional cooperation among complexes and pathways. This dataset along with a web portal is provided to the community to assist in the discovery and translation of new therapeutic approaches for cancer.