Other Publications (1)
Articles by Omar Alvarado in JoVE
Screening Assay for Oxidative Stress in a Feline Astrocyte Cell Line, G355-5 Maria Pia Testa1, Omar Alvarado1, Andrea Wournell1, Jonathan Lee2, Frederick T. Guilford3, Steven H. Henriksen2, Tom R. Phillips1,2 1College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, 2Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, 3ReadiSorb, Products A screening method to detect oxidative cellular environments is to measure the oxidation of CM-H2DCFDA. Once oxidized within a cell, CM-H2DCFDA changes from non-fluorescent into a fluorescent compound. This change in fluorescence is measured by flow cytometry and indicates the number of cells in an oxidative environment.
Other articles by Omar Alvarado on PubMed
Pharmacogenomic Approach Reveals a Role for the X(c)- Cystine/glutamate Antiporter in Growth and Celastrol Resistance of Glioma Cell Lines The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20007406 The x(c)(-) cystine/glutamate antiporter has been implicated in GSH-based chemoresistance because it mediates cellular uptake of cystine/cysteine for sustenance of intracellular GSH levels. Celastrol, isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb, is a novel heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor with potent anticancer activity against glioma in vitro and in vivo. In search of correlations between growth-inhibitory potency of celastrol in NCI-60 cell lines and microarray expression profiles of most known transporters, we found that expression of SLC7A11, the gene encoding the light chain subunit of x(c)(-), showed a strong negative correlation with celastrol activity. This novel gene-drug correlation was validated. In celastrol-resistant glioma cells that highly expressed SLC7A11, sensitivity to celastrol was consistently increased via treatment with x(c)(-) inhibitors, including glutamate, (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine, sulfasalazine, and SLC7A11 small interfering RNA. The GSH synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine, also increased celastrol sensitivity, whereas the GSH booster, N-acetylcysteine, suppressed its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the glioma cell lines were dependent on x(c)(-)-mediated cystine uptake for viability, because cystine omission from the culture medium resulted in cell death and treatment with sulfasalazine depleted GSH levels and inhibited their growth. Combined treatment of glioma cells with sulfasalazine and celastrol led to chemosensitization, as suggested by increased celastrol-induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and down-regulation of the Hsp90 client protein, epidermal growth factor receptor. These results indicate that the x(c)(-) transporter provides a useful target for glioma therapy. x(c)(-) inhibitors such as sulfasalazine, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, may be effective both as an anticancer drug and as an agent for sensitizing gliomas to celastrol.