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Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- Lymphocytes following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by Immunologic memory. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (Immunity, Active), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (Immunization, Passive).

What is the Immune System?

JoVE 10895

The immune system comprises diverse biological structures and processes that protect the body from disease. These processes can be classified into innate and adaptive immunity. To work effectively, the immune system needs to detect pathogens by distinguishing the body’s own structures from foreign elements. If this determination fails, autoimmune diseases occur in which the immune system reacts against the body’s own tissue. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infection. It comprises physical barriers and a variety of cells that act quickly and non-specifically against elements that are foreign to the host (i.e., non-self). Examples of physical barriers in mammals are skin, the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, and secretions, such as mucus or saliva. Once an invader overcomes physical barriers, cells of the inflammatory response are recruited to the entry site: mast cells release a plethora of chemicals that attract other cells of the innate immune system and activates the adaptive immune system. Phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, ingest and destroy pathogens. Natural killer cells, a special type of white blood cell, destroy virus-infected cells. Together, cells of the innate immune system eradicate the invader or hinder its spread, and activate the adaptive immune system. How can an organism

 Core: Immune System

Humoral Immune Responses

JoVE 10897

The humoral immune response, also known as the antibody-mediated immune response, targets pathogens circulating in “humors,” or extracellular fluids, such as blood and lymph. Antibodies target invading pathogens for destruction via multiple defense mechanisms, including neutralization, opsonization, and activation of the complement system. Patients that are impaired in the production of antibodies suffer from severe and frequent infections by common pathogens and unusual pathogens. B lymphocytes, also called B cells, detect pathogens in the blood or lymph system. Although B cells originate in the bone marrow, their name is derived from a specialized organ in birds in which B cells were first discovered, the bursa of Fabricius. After release from the bone marrow, B cells mature in secondary lymphoid tissues, such as the spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue throughout the body. B cells bind to specific parts of a pathogen, called antigens, via their B cell receptors. In addition to antigen binding, B cells require a second signal for activation. This signal can be provided by helper T cells or, in some cases, by the antigen itself. When both stimuli are present, B cells form germinal centers, where they proliferate into plasma cells and memory B cells. All cells that are derived from a common ancestral B c

 Core: Immune System

Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting (MACS): Isolation of Thymic T Lymphocytes

JoVE 10495

Source: Meunier Sylvain1,2,3, Perchet Thibaut1,2,3, Sophie Novault4, Rachel Golub1,2,3
1 Unit for Lymphopoiesis, Department of Immunology, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France
2 INSERM U1223, Paris, France
3 Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cellule Pasteur, Paris, France
4 Flow Cytometry Platfrom, Cytometry and Biomarkers UtechS, …

 Immunology

An In Vivo Mouse Model to Measure Naïve CD4 T Cell Activation, Proliferation and Th1 Differentiation Induced by Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells

1LamImSys Lab, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), 2LamImSys Lab, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre (imas12), 3CIBER de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares

JoVE 58118

 Immunology and Infection

CRISPR Guide RNA Cloning for Mammalian Systems

1Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 2Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 4Institute for Medical Engineering & Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Synthetic Biology Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 6Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7Broad Institute

JoVE 57998

 Genetics

Identification of Mediators of T-cell Receptor Signaling via the Screening of Chemical Inhibitor Libraries

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 2Singapore Immunology Network, A*STAR, 3Curiox Biosystems, 4Department of Immunobiology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit (KU) Leuven

JoVE 58946

 Immunology and Infection

A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation

1Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 5Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 6Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 7Center for Neural Science, New York University School of Medicine

JoVE 3823

 Immunology and Infection

Use of the Invertebrate Galleria mellonella as an Infection Model to Study the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex

1Section of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, 2Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 3MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London

JoVE 59703

 Immunology and Infection

An Advanced Murine Model for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Association with Type 2 Diabetes

1Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), 3Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 4DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), 5Institute of Medical Immunology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 6Julius Wolff Institute (JWI) and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

JoVE 59470

 Immunology and Infection

A Three-dimensional Thymic Culture System to Generate Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Tumor Antigen-specific Thymic Emigrants

1Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 2Center for Cell-Based Therapy, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 3Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH

JoVE 58672

 Cancer Research

Quantifying Leukocyte Egress via Lymphatic Vessels from Murine Skin and Tumors

1Department of Cell, Developmental, & Cancer Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, 2Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health and Science University, 4Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University

JoVE 58704

 Biology
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