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Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of Cardiac muscle disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (Hypertrophy, Left ventricular; Hypertrophy, Right ventricular), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the Heart septum, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include Hypertension; Aortic stenosis; and gene Mutation; (Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy).
 JoVE Biology

Scanning Electron Microscopy of Macerated Tissue to Visualize the Extracellular Matrix

1Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Cardiovascular Institute, Maine Medical Center


JoVE 54005

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Cardiac Exam III: Abnormal Heart Sounds

JoVE Science Education

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Having a fundamental understanding of normal heart sounds is the first step toward distinguishing the normal from the abnormal. Murmurs are sounds that represent turbulent and abnormal blood flow across a heart valve. They are caused either by stenosis (valve area too narrow) or regurgitation (backflow of blood across the valve) and are commonly heard as a "swishing" sound during auscultation. Murmurs are graded from 1 to 6 in intensity (1 being the softest and 6 the loudest) (Figure 1). The most common cardiac murmurs heard are left-sided murmurs of the aortic and mitral valves. Right-sided murmurs of the pulmonary and tricuspid valves are less common. Murmurs are typically heard loudest at the anatomical area that corresponds with the valvular pathology. Frequently, they also radiate to other areas. Figure 1. The Levine scale used to grade murmur intensity. In addition to the two main heart sounds, S1 and S2, which are normally produced by the closing of heart valves, there are two other abnormal heart sounds, known as S3 and S4. These are also known as

 JoVE In-Press

Assessment of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Reserve and Intracellular Diastolic Calcium Removal in Isolated Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

1Department of Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 3Department of Cardiology, The Third Hospital of Hangzhou City

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JoVE 55797

 JoVE Medicine

Quantitative Analysis of Chromatin Proteomes in Disease

1Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 2Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 3Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute, University of Utah


JoVE 4294

 JoVE Medicine

A Model of Cardiac Remodeling Through Constriction of the Abdominal Aorta in Rats

1Graduate Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, 3Mackay Medicine, Nursing and Management College, 4School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hosptial


JoVE 54818

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 JoVE Developmental Biology

Chondrogenic Pellet Formation from Cord Blood-derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

1CiSTEM Laboratory, Convergent Research Consortium for Immunologic Disease, Division of Rheumatology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 2Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Institute of Medical Science, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea


JoVE 55988

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 JoVE Medicine

Phosphorus-31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Tool for Measuring In Vivo Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Capacity in Human Skeletal Muscle

1Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, 2Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute on Aging, 3Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The Ohio State University, 4Department of Human Sciences, Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, 5Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 54977

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Construction of Defined Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues to Study Mechanisms of Cardiac Cell Therapy

1Cardiovascular Research Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong


JoVE 53447

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 JoVE In-Press

Three-Dimensional Tissue Engineered Aligned Astrocyte Networks to Recapitulate Developmental Mechanisms and Facilitate Nervous System Regeneration

1Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University, 4Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, 5Neuroscience Graduate Group, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

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JoVE 55848

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 JoVE Biology

High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong University, 5Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Cardiovascular Research Center, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Center, Medical College of Wisconsin


JoVE 52010

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