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Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
 JoVE Neuroscience

Functional Interrogation of Adult Hypothalamic Neurogenesis with Focal Radiological Inhibition

1Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, and Ophthalamology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Radiation Oncology & Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, University Of Washington Medical Center, 5Institute for Cell Engineering and High-Throughput Biology Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


JoVE 50716

 JoVE In-Press

A Unified Methodological Framework for Vestibular Schwannoma Research

1Eaton Peabody Laboratories, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, 4Program in Speech and Hearing Bioscience and Technology, Harvard Medical School

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JoVE 55827

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi

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 JoVE Behavior

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki


JoVE 51869

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 JoVE In-Press

Preparation of Giant Vesicles Exhibiting Visible-light-induced Morphological Changes

1Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Applied Science, National Defense Academy of Japan, 2Department of Applied Physics, School of Applied Science, National Defense Academy of Japan, 3Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University

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JoVE 54817

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 JoVE Neuroscience

In Vivo Two-photon Imaging Of Experience-dependent Molecular Changes In Cortical Neurons

1Unit on Neural Circuits and Adaptive Behaviors, Genes Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 2Department of Neuroscience, Brown University - National Institutes of Health Graduate Partnership Program, 3Section on Synaptic Pharmacology, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 4Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme, Champalimaud Center for the Unknown


JoVE 50148

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 JoVE Medicine

Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy for the Quantitative Assessment of Acute Ionizing Radiation Induced Skin Toxicity Using a Mouse Model

1Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 2Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 4Ontario Cancer Institute / Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research


JoVE 53573

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 JoVE Medicine

Voluntary Breath-hold Technique for Reducing Heart Dose in Left Breast Radiotherapy

1Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, 2Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, 3Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit (ICR-CTSU), Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, UK, 4Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, UK


JoVE 51578

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Computed Tomography and Optical Imaging of Osteogenesis-angiogenesis Coupling to Assess Integration of Cranial Bone Autografts and Allografts

1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, The Hebrew University–Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center


JoVE 53459

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 JoVE Medicine

Ultrasound-guided Botulinum Toxin-A Injections: A Method of Treating Sialorrhea

1Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Neurology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 2Oncology Department, Radiology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 3Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Dietologic and Nutrition Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital


JoVE 54606

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Fabrication of a Dipole-assisted Solid Phase Extraction Microchip for Trace Metal Analysis in Water Samples

1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 2Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 3National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 4Department of Chemistry, National Changhua University of Education


JoVE 53500

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