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October, 2006
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Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which Electric stimulation is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.

Performing Behavioral Tasks in Subjects with Intracranial Electrodes

1Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Department of Neurosciences and Center for Neurological Restoration, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 51947


Environmentally-controlled Microtensile Testing of Mechanically-adaptive Polymer Nanocomposites for ex vivo Characterization

1Advanced Platform Technology Center, Rehabilitation Research and Development, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University

JoVE 50078


Description of a Novel, Surgically Implanted Neuromodulatory Technique Known As Bilateral Epidural Prefrontal Cortical Stimulation (Epcs) for Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD)

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 5American University of Beirut Medical Center

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JoVE 56043

 JoVE In-Press

Just-noticeable Differences

JoVE 10229

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Psychophysics is a branch of psychology and neuroscience that tries to explain how physical quantities are translated into neural firing and mental representations of magnitude. One set of questions in this area pertains to just-noticeable differences (JND): How much does something need to change in order for the change to be perceivable? To pump intuitions about this, consider the fact that small children grow at an enormous rate, relatively speaking, but one rarely notices growth taking place on a daily basis. However, when the child returns from sleep-away camp or when a grandparent sees the child after a prolonged absence, just a few weeks of growing is more than perceptible. It can seem enormous! Changes in height are only noticed after an absence because the small changes that take place on a day-to-day basis are too small to be perceivable. But after an absence, many small changes add up. So how much growth needs to take place to be noticeable? The minimal amount is the JND. Psychologists and neuroscientists measure JND in many domains. How much brighter does a light need to be to be noticed? How much louder does a sound need to be? They often obtain the measurements by employing a forced-choice paradigm. This video w

 Sensation and Perception

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