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Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of Blood from the Heart ventricles to the Heart atria or from the Pulmonary arteries or Aorta to the ventricles.

Protocol for Relative Hydrodynamic Assessment of Tri-leaflet Polymer Valves

1Tissue Engineered Mechanics, Imaging and Materials Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 3College of Medicine, University of Florida, 4King Faisal Specialty Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

JoVE 50335


 Bioengineering

Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS

JoVE 55762


 Biochemistry

Culturing Mouse Cardiac Valves in the Miniature Tissue Culture System

1Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2Department of Engineering Technology, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 3Department of Urology, Leiden University Medical Center, 4Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School

JoVE 52750


 Bioengineering

Cardiac Exam III: Abnormal Heart Sounds

JoVE 10135

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Having a fundamental understanding of normal heart sounds is the first step toward distinguishing the normal from the abnormal. Murmurs are sounds that represent turbulent and abnormal blood flow across a heart valve. They are caused either by stenosis (valve area too narrow) or regurgitation (backflow of blood across the valve) and are commonly heard as a "swishing" sound during auscultation. Murmurs are graded from 1 to 6 in intensity (1 being the softest and 6 the loudest) (Figure 1). The most common cardiac murmurs heard are left-sided murmurs of the aortic and mitral valves. Right-sided murmurs of the pulmonary and tricuspid valves are less common. Murmurs are typically heard loudest at the anatomical area that corresponds with the valvular pathology. Frequently, they also radiate to other areas. Figure 1. The Levine scale used to grade murmur intensity. In addition to the two main heart sounds, S1 and S2, which are normally produced by the closing of heart valves, there are two other abnormal heart sounds, known as S3 and S4. These are also known as


 Physical Examinations I

Isolation and Characterization of Primary Rat Valve Interstitial Cells: A New Model to Study Aortic Valve Calcification

1Developmental Biology, The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh, 2Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, 3Clinical Sciences and R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh

JoVE 56126


 Developmental Biology

Reprogramming Primary Amniotic Fluid and Membrane Cells to Pluripotency in Xeno-free Conditions

1Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, 2College of Medicine, University of South Alabama, 3Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Zurich, 4Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich, 5Center for Applied Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine (CABMM), University of Zurich - Irchel Campus

JoVE 56003


 Developmental Biology

Processing of Human Cardiac Tissue Toward Extracellular Matrix Self-assembling Hydrogel for In Vitro and In Vivo Applications

1Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, 2Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), 3German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), 4Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (DHZB), 5Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health

JoVE 56419


 Developmental Biology

Cardiac Exam I: Inspection and Palpation

JoVE 10071

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

The cardiac assessment is one of the core examinations performed by almost every physician whenever encountering a patient. Disorders of the cardiac system are among the most common reasons for hospital admission, with conditions ranging from myocardial infarction to congestive heart failure. Learning a complete and thorough cardiac examination is therefore crucial for any practicing physician. If there is pathology in the heart or circulatory system, the consequences can also be manifested in other bodily areas, including the lungs, abdomen, and legs. Many physicians instinctively reach straight for their stethoscopes when performing cardiac exams. However, a large amount of information is gained before auscultation by going through the correct sequence of examination, starting with inspection and palpation.


 Physical Examinations I

Use of Anti-Phospho-Girdin Antibodies to Visualize Intestinal Tuft Cells in Free-Floating Mouse Jejunum Cryosections

1Division of Perinatology, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, 2Surgery Department, Anjo Kosei Hospital, 3Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57475


 JoVE In-Press

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