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Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of Blood from the Heart ventricles to the Heart atria or from the Pulmonary arteries or Aorta to the ventricles.
 JoVE Bioengineering

Protocol for Relative Hydrodynamic Assessment of Tri-leaflet Polymer Valves

1Tissue Engineered Mechanics, Imaging and Materials Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 3College of Medicine, University of Florida, 4King Faisal Specialty Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


JoVE 50335

 JoVE Biochemistry

Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS


JoVE 55762

 JoVE Bioengineering

Culturing Mouse Cardiac Valves in the Miniature Tissue Culture System

1Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2Department of Engineering Technology, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 3Department of Urology, Leiden University Medical Center, 4Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School


JoVE 52750

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Cardiac Exam III: Abnormal Heart Sounds

JoVE Science Education

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Having a fundamental understanding of normal heart sounds is the first step toward distinguishing the normal from the abnormal. Murmurs are sounds that represent turbulent and abnormal blood flow across a heart valve. They are caused either by stenosis (valve area too narrow) or regurgitation (backflow of blood across the valve) and are commonly heard as a "swishing" sound during auscultation. Murmurs are graded from 1 to 6 in intensity (1 being the softest and 6 the loudest) (Figure 1). The most common cardiac murmurs heard are left-sided murmurs of the aortic and mitral valves. Right-sided murmurs of the pulmonary and tricuspid valves are less common. Murmurs are typically heard loudest at the anatomical area that corresponds with the valvular pathology. Frequently, they also radiate to other areas. Figure 1. The Levine scale used to grade murmur intensity. In addition to the two main heart sounds, S1 and S2, which are normally produced by the closing of heart valves, there are two other abnormal heart sounds, known as S3 and S4. These are also known as

 JoVE Medicine

Assessment of Pulmonary Capillary Blood Volume, Membrane Diffusing Capacity, and Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses During Exercise

1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Alberta, 2Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, 3Divisions of Critical Care and Cardiology, University of Alberta, 4Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, 5G.F. MacDonald Centre for Lung Health


JoVE 54949

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Cardiac Exam II: Auscultation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Proficiency in the use of a stethoscope to listen to heart sounds and the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal heart sounds are essential skills for any physician. Correct placement of the stethoscope on the chest corresponds to the sound of cardiac valves closing. The heart has two main sounds: S1 and S2. The first heart sound (S1) occurs as the mitral and tricuspid valves (atrioventricular valves) close after blood enters the ventricles. This represents the start of systole. The second heart sound (S2) occurs when the aortic and pulmonary valves (semilunar valves) close after blood has left the ventricles to enter the systemic and pulmonary circulation systems at the end of systole. Traditionally, the sounds are known as a "lub-dub." Auscultation of the heart is performed using both diaphragm and bell parts of the stethoscope chest piece. The diaphragm is most commonly used and is best for high-frequency sounds (such as S1 and S2) and murmurs of mitral regurgitation and aortic stenosis. The diaphragm should be pressed firmly against the chest wall. The bell best transmits low-frequency sounds (such as S3 and S4) and the murmur of mitral stenosis. The bell should be applied

 JoVE Medicine

Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets

1Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Hypertension Research Group (CRIUCPQ), Laval University, 2Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 3Université Diderot Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 4Hôpital Lariboisière, Physiologie clinique Explorations Fonctionnelles, 5INSERM U 965, 6Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Tours


JoVE 52571

 JoVE In-Press

Assessment of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Reserve and Intracellular Diastolic Calcium Removal in Isolated Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

1Department of Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 3Department of Cardiology, The Third Hospital of Hangzhou City

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55797

 JoVE Bioengineering

Nonhuman Primate Lung Decellularization and Recellularization Using a Specialized Large-organ Bioreactor

1Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, 2Division of Regenerative Medicine, Tulane National Primate Research Center, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pharmacology, Tulane University School of Medicine


JoVE 50825

 JoVE Medicine

Primary Outcome Assessment in a Pig Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

1Department of Experimental Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 2Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3Department of Clinical Chemistry and Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 4Interuniversity Cardiology Institutes of the Netherlands (ICIN)


JoVE 54021

 JoVE Chemistry

CN-GELFrEE - Clear Native Gel-eluted Liquid Fraction Entrapment Electrophoresis

1Departments of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Proteomics Center of Excellence, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, 2Institute of Chemistry, Proteomics Unit, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 3Department of Cell Biology, Brazilian Center for Protein Research, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Protein Chemistry, University of Brasilia


JoVE 53597

 JoVE In-Press

Evaluation of Vascular Control Mechanisms Utilizing Video Microscopy of Isolated Resistance Arteries of Rats

1Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, 2Medical College of Wisconsin, 3Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia, Texas Wesleyan University, 5Biomedical Resource Center, Medical College of Wisconsin

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56133

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Vasodilation of Isolated Vessels and the Isolation of the Extracellular Matrix of Tight-skin Mice

1Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Research Institute, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 5Deptarment of Anesthesiology, Clement J Zblocki Veteran Affairs Medical Center, 6Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Medical College of Wisconsin


JoVE 55036

 JoVE In-Press

Near-infrared Navigation System for Real-time Visualization of Blood Flow in Vascular Grafts

1Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, 2Office of Animal Resources, University of Missouri, 3Bioengineering, University of Missouri, 4Biomedical Science, University of Missouri, 5Surgery - Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Missouri, 6MU-iCATS, University of Missouri, 7Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 54927

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