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October, 2006
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Hypotonic Solutions: Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.

Tonicity in Animals

JoVE 10702

The tonicity of a solution determines if a cell gains or loses water in that solution. The tonicity depends on the permeability of the cell membrane for different solutes and the concentration of nonpenetrating solutes in the solution within and outside of the cell. If a semipermeable membrane hinders the passage of some solutes but allows water to follow its concentration gradient, water moves from the side with low osmolarity (i.e., less solute) to the side with higher osmolarity (i.e., higher solute concentration). Tonicity of the extracellular fluid determines the magnitude and direction of osmosis and results in three possible conditions: hypertonicity, hypotonicity, and isotonicity. In biology, the prefix “iso” means equal or being of equal measurements. When extracellular and intracellular fluid have an equal concentration of nonpenetrating solute inside and outside, the solution is isotonic. Isotonic solutions have no net movement of water. Water will still move in and out, just in equal proportions. Therefore, no change in cell volume occurs. The prefix “hypo” means lower or below. Whenever there is a low concentration of nonpenetrating solute and a high concentration of water outside relative to inside, the environment is hypotonic. Water will move into the cell, causing it to swell. In animal cells, the swelling ul

 Core: Membranes and Cellular Transport

Diffusion and Osmosis- Concept

JoVE 10622

Cell Membranes and Diffusion

In order to function, cells are required to move materials in and out of their cytoplasm via their cell membranes. These membranes are semipermeable, meaning that certain molecules are allowed to pass through, but not others. This movement of molecules is mediated by the phospholipid bilayer and its embedded proteins, some of which act as transport channels…

 Lab Bio

Flexible Colonoscopy in Mice to Evaluate the Severity of Colitis and Colorectal Tumors Using a Validated Endoscopic Scoring System

1Division of Gastroenterology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, 2Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, 3Digestive Health Research Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland

JoVE 50843

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