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Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the Nasal septum. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the Nasopharynx, are lined with ciliated Nasal mucosa.
 JoVE Neuroscience

Olfactory Neurons Obtained through Nasal Biopsy Combined with Laser-Capture Microdissection: A Potential Approach to Study Treatment Response in Mental Disorders

1Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Howard University, 3Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, 4Department of Psychiatry, Sheppard Pratt Hospital, 5Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University


JoVE 51853

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Nose, Sinuses, Oral Cavity and Pharynx Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

This video provides an overview of sinus, nose, and throat examinations. The demonstration begins with a brief overview of the anatomy of the region. The upper third of the nose is bony, and the bottom two-thirds are cartilaginous. Air entering the nares passes through the nasal vestibules and into the narrow passageway between the nasal septum medially and the bony turbinates laterally. Beneath each curving turbinate is a groove or meatus. The nasolacrimal duct and most of the air-filled paranasal sinuses drain into the inferior and middle meatuses, respectively. Of the three sets of paranasal sinuses, only the maxillary and frontal can be readily examined. A continuous, highly vascular mucosa lines the entire nasal cavity and sinuses. Figure 1. Anatomy of the Nose. Figure 2. Location of the Major Sinuses. Muscular folds of the lips mark the entrance

 JoVE Medicine

Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage

1Respiratory Infection Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, 2Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen, University Hospital Trust, 3Comprehensive Local Research Network, 4NIHR Biomedical Research Centre in Microbial Diseases, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust, 5Institute of Lung Health, Respiratory Biomedical Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust & University of Leicester, 6Department of Clinical Infection Microbiology & Immunology, Institute of Infection & Global Health, University of Liverpool


JoVE 50115

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolating Nasal Olfactory Stem Cells from Rodents or Humans

1NICN, Aix Marseille University, 2LNPM, Aix Marseille University, 3ENT Department, Aix Marseille University, 4Gene expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 5Laboratory of Speech and Language, Aix Marseille University, 6Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Aix Marseille University


JoVE 2762

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration III

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. However, certain protocols may require the use of less commonly used routes, including intradermal, intranasal, and intracranial injections. Specialized training is essential for these procedures to be performed successfully. Justification for these routes may need to be provided to gain Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis

1Institute of Neurophysiology and Cellular Biophysics, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 2Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 3DFG Excellence Cluster 171, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 4German Hearing Center Hannover


JoVE 54108

 Science Education: Essentials of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Tube Thoracostomy

JoVE Science Education

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Tube thoracostomy (chest tube placement) is a procedure during which a hollow tube is inserted into the thoracic cavity for drainage of fluid or air. Emergency chest tube insertion is performed for definitive treatment of tension pneumothorax, traumatic hemothorax, large-volume pleural effusions, and empyemas. Irrespective of the cause of air and fluid accumulation in the pleural space, the drainage relieves lung compression and enables lung re-expansion. In pneumothorax, air accumulation in the pleural cavity separates pleural layers, which prevents lung expansion during the respiration. Abnormal fluid accumulation, such as in case of hemothorax or empyema, causes separation of the visceral pleura that adheres to lung tissue from the parietal pleura that forms the lining of the chest cavity. The uncoupling of the pleural layers leads to disconnection of chest wall movement from the lung movement, causing respiratory distress. In addition, excessive pressure from overwhelming amounts of air or fluid in the pleura may push the mediastinum away from the central chest, causing inability of blood to return to the heart. In the trauma setting, a chest tube may

 Science Education: Essentials of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Needle Thoracostomy

JoVE Science Education

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

A tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening situation in which excess air is introduced into the pleural space surrounding the lung, either through trauma to the chest cavity or as a spontaneous leak of air from the lung itself. Air trapped within the pleural space causes separation of the lung from the chest wall, disrupting normal breathing mechanisms. Pneumothorax may be small without conversion to tension, but when there is a significant and expanding amount of air trapped in the pleural cavity, the increasing pressure from this abnormal air causes the lung to shrink and collapse, leading to respiratory distress. This pressure also pushes the mediastinum (including the heart and great vessels) away from its central position, causing inability of blood to return to the heart and diminishing the cardiac output. Tension pneumothoraces cause chest pain, extreme shortness of breath, respiratory failure, hypoxia, tachycardia, and hypotension. They need to be relieved emergently when a patient is in extremis. Tension pneumothoraces are definitively managed by procedures that allow removal of trapped air, such as insertion of a chest tube. However, materials for chest tube placement are typically

 JoVE Medicine

Basic Surgical Techniques in the Göttingen Minipig: Intubation, Bladder Catheterization, Femoral Vessel Catheterization, and Transcardial Perfusion

1Department of Neurosurgery, Aarhus University Hospital, 2Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aarhus University, 3Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Centre, Aarhus University Hospital


JoVE 2652

 JoVE Neuroscience

Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells to Evaluate Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury

1UPRES EA3830, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, 2Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 3Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Rouen University Hospital, 4Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Amiens University Hospital


JoVE 50590

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Non-surgical Intratracheal Instillation of Mice with Analysis of Lungs and Lung Draining Lymph Nodes by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Immunology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Division of Cell Biology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, 4Department of Immunology, National Jewish Health


JoVE 2702

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Investigating the Effects of Probiotics on Pneumococcal Colonization Using an In Vitro Adherence Assay

1Pneumococcal Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, 2Allergy & Immune Disorders, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, 3Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne, 4Department of Microbiology & Immunology at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection & Immunity, The University of Melbourne


JoVE 51069

 JoVE Medicine

Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly

1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto


JoVE 50887

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