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Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the Nasal septum. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the Nasopharynx, are lined with ciliated Nasal mucosa.

Nose, Sinuses, Oral Cavity and Pharynx Exam

JoVE 10152

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA


This video provides an overview of sinus, nose, and throat examinations. The demonstration begins with a brief overview of the anatomy of the region. The upper third of the nose is bony, and…

 Physical Examinations II

Olfaction

JoVE 10852

The sense of smell is achieved through the activities of the olfactory system. It starts when an airborne odorant enters the nasal cavity and reaches olfactory epithelium (OE). The OE is protected by a thin layer of mucus, which also serves the purpose of dissolving more complex compounds into simpler chemical odorants. The size of the OE and the density of sensory neurons varies among species; in humans, the OE is only about 9-10 cm2. The olfactory receptors are embedded in the cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons. Each neuron expresses only one type of olfactory receptor. However, each type of olfactory receptor is broadly tuned and can bind to multiple different odorants. For example, if receptor A binds to odorants 1 and 2, receptor B may bind to odorants 2 and 3, while receptor C binds to odorants 1 and 3. Thus, the detection and identification of an odor depend on the combination of olfactory receptors that recognize the odor; this is called combinatorial diversity. Olfactory sensory neurons are bipolar cells with a single long axon that sends olfactory information up to the olfactory bulb (OB). The OB is a part of the brain that is separated from the nasal cavity by the cribriform plate. Because of this convenient proximity between the nose and brain, the development of nasal drug applications is widely studied, especially in cases

 Core: Sensory Systems

The Respiratory System

JoVE 10881

The respiratory system is comprised of the organs that enable breathing. Air enters the nostrils and mouth, followed by the pharynx (throat) and larynx (voice box), which lead to the trachea (windpipe). In the thoracic cavity, the trachea splits into two bronchi that allow air to enter the lungs. The bronchi split into progressively smaller bronchioles and terminate in small groups of tiny sacs in the lungs called alveoli, where gas exchange occurs. Air is cleansed in the nasal cavity, but anything that passes those defenses or enters through the mouth can be caught in the lungs. The lungs produce mucus that traps foreign particles, and the bronchi and bronchioles are lined with cilia that beat mucus and debris upward toward the throat for disposal (i.e., swallowing). Smoking damages the cilia, making removal of the excess mucus produced by smoking more difficult. This is one of the reasons smokers are more susceptible to respiratory infections. The trachea is a 10-12 cm long tube located in front of the esophagus that allows air to enter and exit the lungs. Its C-shaped hyaline cartilage keeps the trachea open. When the smooth muscle of the trachea contracts, the diameter of the trachea decreases and exhaled air is pushed out with great force (e.g., coughing). In cases of damage to the throat or mouth that blocks breathing, a tracheostomy, a surgica

 Core: Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

Physiology of the Circulatory System- Concept

JoVE 10625

Homeostasis

Conditions in the external environment of an organism can change rapidly and drastically. To survive, organisms must maintain a fairly constant internal environment, which involves continuous regulation of temperature, pH, and other factors. This balanced state is known as homeostasis, which describes the processes by which organisms maintain their optimal internal…

 Lab Bio

What is a Sensory System?

JoVE 10849

Sensory systems detect stimuli—such as light and sound waves—and transduce them into neural signals that can be interpreted by the nervous system. In addition to external stimuli detected by the senses, some sensory systems detect internal stimuli—such as the proprioceptors in muscles and tendons that send feedback about limb position.

Sensory systems include the visual, auditory, gustatory (taste), olfactory (smell), somatosensory (touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception), and vestibular (balance, spatial orientation) systems. All sensory systems have receptor cells that are specialized to detect a particular type of stimulus. For example, hair cells in the inner ear have cilia that move in the presence of sound waves, while olfactory receptor neurons in the nasal cavity have receptors that bind to odorant molecules. The presence of an appropriate stimulus triggers electrochemical changes in the nervous system. This stimulus typically changes the membrane potential of a sensory neuron, triggering an action potential. The information is then transmitted from the sensory organ to the spinal cord and then the brain, or directly to the brain (as in the visual system). The different types of sensory information—also called modalities—travel in different pathways through the central nervous system, but most

 Core: Sensory Systems

Compound Administration III

JoVE 10215

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. However, certain protocols may require the use of less commonly used routes, including intradermal, intranasal, and intracranial injections.…

 Lab Animal Research

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA


During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might…

 Physical Examinations III

Physiology of the Circulatory System - Prep Student

JoVE 10569

Measuring Blood Pressure
To prepare for the blood pressure exercise, simply place the appropriate number of alcohol swabs, sphygmomanometers, and stethoscopes at the front of the classroom.
Be sure to check over each of the component parts of the sphygmomanometers, including the tubing, cuff, manometer, and bulb to ensure they are undamaged.…

 Lab Bio

Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis

1Institute of Neurophysiology and Cellular Biophysics, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 2Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 3DFG Excellence Cluster 171, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 4German Hearing Center Hannover

JoVE 54108

 Neuroscience

Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly

1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto

JoVE 50887

 Medicine

Tracking Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells using MRI after Intranasal Delivery in a Traumatic Brain Injury Murine Model

1Ph.D. Program for Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University and National Health Research Institutes, 2Center for Neurotrauma and Neuroregeneration, Taipei Medical University, 3TMU Neuroscience Research Center, Taipei Medical University, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 5Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60450

 JoVE In-Press

Brachial Artery Catheterization in Swine

1Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, 2Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, 3Sensory Motor Adaptive Rehabilitation Technology (SMART) Network, University of Alberta, 4Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alberta, 5Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, 6Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alberta

JoVE 59365

 Medicine

Intramucosal Inoculation of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells in Mice for Tumor Immune Profiling and Treatment Response Assessment

1Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, 3Division of Radiology, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus

JoVE 59195

 Cancer Research

Identification of OTX1 and OTX2 As Two Possible Molecular Markers for Sinonasal Carcinomas and Olfactory Neuroblastomas

1Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, 2Department of Surgical and Morphological Science, University of Insubria, 3Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, University of Insubria

JoVE 56880

 Cancer Research

Methodology for the Study of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Staphylococcus aureus

1Division of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 2Department of Basic Biomedical Science, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 3Human Biology Program, School of Integrative and Global Majors, University of Tsukuba, 4Laboratory of Nosocomial Infections, Department of Bacteriology, Centro Nacional de MicrobiologÍa, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 5Division of Microbiology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, 6Biology of Gram-Positive Pathogens, Department of Microbiology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, 7ERL3526, CNRS, Paris, France

JoVE 55087

 Immunology and Infection

Absorption of Nasal and Bronchial Fluids: Precision Sampling of the Human Respiratory Mucosa and Laboratory Processing of Samples

1National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary's Hospital, 2St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare Trust

JoVE 56413

 Medicine

Olfactory Neurons Obtained through Nasal Biopsy Combined with Laser-Capture Microdissection: A Potential Approach to Study Treatment Response in Mental Disorders

1Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Howard University, 3Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, 4Department of Psychiatry, Sheppard Pratt Hospital, 5Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University

JoVE 51853

 Neuroscience

Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells to Evaluate Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury

1UPRES EA3830, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, 2Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 3Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Rouen University Hospital, 4Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Amiens University Hospital

JoVE 50590

 Neuroscience

Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage

1Respiratory Infection Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, 2Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen, University Hospital Trust, 3Comprehensive Local Research Network, 4NIHR Biomedical Research Centre in Microbial Diseases, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust, 5Institute of Lung Health, Respiratory Biomedical Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust & University of Leicester, 6Department of Clinical Infection Microbiology & Immunology, Institute of Infection & Global Health, University of Liverpool

JoVE 50115

 Medicine
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