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Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.

A Murine Model of Cervical Spinal Cord Injury to Study Post-lesional Respiratory Neuroplasticity

1UFR des sciences de la santé - Simone Veil, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 2Service de Physiologie - Explorations fonctionnelles, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, 3Services de Physiologie, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Réanimation Médicale et Centre d'Investigation Clinique et d'Innovation Technologique (Unité Inserm 805), Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines

JoVE 51235


 Medicine

Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension and Assessment of Right Ventricular Function in the Piglet

1Surgical Research Lab, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 2Department of Pathology, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 3Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 4Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Rennes, 5INSERM U999 Paris-Sud University

JoVE 53133


 Medicine

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A Novel Method: Super-selective Adrenal Venous Sampling

1Department of Radiology, Nerima Hikarigaoka Hospital, 2Department of Uro-Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 3Endocrinology & Diabetes Center, Yokohama Rosai Hospital, 4Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, 5Department of Medical Education, School of Medicine, California University of Science and Medicine, 6Department of Pathology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 7Department of Radiology, Yokohama Rosai Hospital

JoVE 55716


 Medicine

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In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments

1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2Visceral Pain Group, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, 4Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital

JoVE 54576


 Neuroscience

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Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia

1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Therese Pei Fong Chow Research Centre for Prevention of Dementia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Memory Aging and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, 6Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, 7Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 8Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore

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JoVE 56137


 JoVE In-Press

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Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a


 Physical Examinations III

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Loading a Calcium Dye into Frog Nerve Endings Through the Nerve Stump: Calcium Transient Registration in the Frog Neuromuscular Junction

1Laboratory of Biophysics of Synaptic Processes, Kazan Scientific Centre, Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2Open Laboratory of Neuropharmacology, Kazan Federal University, 3Department of Radiophotonics and Microwave Technologies, A.N. Tupolev Kazan National Research Technical University, 4Department of Medical and Biological Physics, Kazan State Medical University

JoVE 55122


 Neuroscience

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Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 4Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan

JoVE 50998


 Bioengineering

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Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE 10005

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi


 Physical Examinations III

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Motor Exam I

JoVE 10052

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Abnormalities in the motor function are associated with a wide range of diseases, from movement disorders and myopathies to strokes. The motor assessment starts with observation of the patient. When the patient enters the examination area, the clinician observes the patient's ability to walk unassisted and the speed and coordination while moving. Taking the patient's history provides an additional opportunity to observe for evidence of tremors or other abnormal movements, such as chorea or tardive dyskinesia. Such simple but important observations can yield valuable clues to the diagnosis and help to focus the rest of the examination. The motor assessment continues in a systematic fashion, including inspection for muscle atrophy and abnormal movements, assessment of muscle tone, muscle strength testing, and finally the examination of the muscle reflexes and coordination. The careful systematic testing of the motor system and the integration of all the findings provide insight to the level at which the motor pathway is affected, and also help the clinician to formulate the differential diagnosis and determine the course of the subsequent evaluation and treatment.


 Physical Examinations III

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A Unified Methodological Framework for Vestibular Schwannoma Research

1Eaton Peabody Laboratories, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, 4Program in Speech and Hearing Bioscience and Technology, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 55827


 Cancer Research

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