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Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.

What are Viruses?

JoVE 10821

A virus is a microscopic infectious particle that consists of an RNA or DNA genome enclosed in a protein shell. It is not able to reproduce on its own: it can only make more viruses by entering a cell and using its cellular machinery. When a virus infects a host cell, it removes its protein coat and directs the host’s machinery to transcribe and translate its genetic material. The hijacked cell assembles the replicated components into thousands of viral progeny, which can rupture and kill the host cell. The new viruses then go on to infect more host cells. Viruses can infect different types of cells: bacteria, plants, and animals. Viruses that target bacteria, called bacteriophages (or phages), are very abundant. Current research focuses on phage therapy to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in humans. Viruses that infect cultivated plants are also highly studied since epidemics lead to huge crop and economic losses. Viruses were first discovered in the 19th century when an economically-important crop, the tobacco plant, was plagued by a mysterious disease—later identified as Tobacco mosaic virus. Animal viruses are of great importance both in veterinary research and in medical research. Moreover, viruses underlie many human diseases, ranging from the common cold, chickenpox, and herpes, to more dangerous infection

 Core: Viruses

Phage Phenomics: Physiological Approaches to Characterize Novel Viral Proteins

1Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 2Computational Science Research Center, San Diego State University, 3Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, 4Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, 5Department of Computer Science, San Diego State University, 6Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 7SPARC Committee, Broad Institute

JoVE 52854

 Immunology and Infection

Retrovirus Life Cycles

JoVE 10825

Retroviruses have a single-stranded RNA genome that undergoes a special form of replication. Once the retrovirus has entered the host cell, an enzyme called reverse transcriptase synthesizes double-stranded DNA from the retroviral RNA genome. This DNA copy of the genome is then integrated into the host’s genome inside the nucleus via an enzyme called integrase. Consequently, the retroviral genome is transcribed into RNA whenever the host’s genome is transcribed, allowing the retrovirus to replicate. New retroviral RNA is transported to the cytoplasm, where it is translated into proteins that assemble new retroviruses. Particular drugs have been developed to fight retroviral infections. These drugs target specific aspects of the life cycle. One class of antiretroviral drugs, fusion inhibitors, prevents the entry of the retrovirus into the host cell by inhibiting the fusion of the retrovirus with the host cell membrane. Another class of antiretrovirals, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, inhibits the reverse transcriptase enzymes that make DNA copies of the retroviral RNA genome. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors are competitive inhibitors; during the process of reverse transcription, the drug molecules are incorporated into the growing DNA strand instead of the usual DNA bases. Once incorporated, the drug molecules block further progress by the r

 Core: Viruses

Establishment of Viral Infection and Analysis of Host-Virus Interaction in Drosophila Melanogaster

1The Joint Center for Infection and Immunity, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, 2CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3CAS Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity (CASKLII), Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

JoVE 58845

 Immunology and Infection

Correlative Light Electron Microscopy (CLEM) for Tracking and Imaging Viral Protein Associated Structures in Cryo-immobilized Cells

1European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, Heidelberg University, 3Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Ulm University, 4Heidelberg Partner Site, German Center for Infection Research

JoVE 58154

 Bioengineering

Generation, Amplification, and Titration of Recombinant Respiratory Syncytial Viruses

1UMR 1173 Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Université de Versailles St. Quentin, 2UR892 Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Unité de virologie et immunologie moléculaires, 3Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Laboratoire de Microbiologie

JoVE 59218

 Immunology and Infection

High-throughput Detection Method for Influenza Virus

1Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunotherapy, Blood Research Institute, 2Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 3Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Blood Research Institute, 4City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratory, 5Division of Hematology-Oncology/BMT, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin, 6Division of Hematology and Oncology, Dept Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 3623

 Immunology and Infection

Identification of Nucleolar Factors During HIV-1 Replication Through Rev Immunoprecipitation and Mass Spectrometry

1Molecular and Cellular Biology Department, Beckman Research Institute at the City of Hope, 2Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Molecular Immunology, Beckman Research Institute and the City of Hope

JoVE 59329

 Immunology and Infection

A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation

1Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 5Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 6Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 7Center for Neural Science, New York University School of Medicine

JoVE 3823

 Immunology and Infection

Detection of the Genome and Transcripts of a Persistent DNA Virus in Neuronal Tissues by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization Combined with Immunostaining

1Virus and Centromere Team, Centre de Génétique et Physiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 5534, 2Université de Lyon 1, 3Laboratoire d'excellence, LabEX DEVweCAN, 4Institut de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS UPR 3296, 5Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, INSERM U1052, CNRS UMR 5286

JoVE 51091

 Neuroscience

Prediction of HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage (Tropism) by Sequence Analysis using a Genotypic Approach

1Institute of Virology, University of Cologne, 2Max Planck Institute for Informatics, 3Institute for Immune genetics, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, University of Duesseldorf, 5Department of Dermatology, University of Essen, 6Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, 7Augustinerinnen Hospital

JoVE 3264

 Immunology and Infection

Use of Viral Entry Assays and Molecular Docking Analysis for the Identification of Antiviral Candidates against Coxsackievirus A16

1Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, 2School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, 5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 59920

 Immunology and Infection

Purification of High Yield Extracellular Vesicle Preparations Away from Virus

1Laboratory of Molecular Virology, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 2American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), 3ATCC Cell Systems, 4Ceres Nanosciences, Inc, 5Department of Immunology and Nano-medicine, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University

JoVE 59876

 Immunology and Infection

Measurement of In Vitro Integration Activity of HIV-1 Preintegration Complexes

1Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research, Meharry Medical College, 2Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, 3School of Graduate Studies and Research, Meharry Medical College, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Meharry Medical College, 5Tennessee Center for AIDS Research (TN-CFAR), Meharry Medical College

JoVE 54581

 Immunology and Infection

Generation of Two-color Antigen Microarrays for the Simultaneous Detection of IgG and IgM Autoantibodies

1Multi-Organ Transplant Program, University Health Network, 2Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, 3Divison of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, 4Division of Cardiac Surgery, University Health Network

JoVE 54543

 Immunology and Infection

Modeling The Lifecycle Of Ebola Virus Under Biosafety Level 2 Conditions With Virus-like Particles Containing Tetracistronic Minigenomes

1Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 2Research Technology Branch, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health

JoVE 52381

 Immunology and Infection
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