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Visual Cortex: Area of the occipital lobe concerned with vision.

Simultaneous Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1Department of Cognitive Neurology, University Medicine Goettingen, 2Department of Neurology, University Medicine Goettingen, 3German Primate Center, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, 4DFG Center for Nanoscale Microscopy & Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CNMPB)

JoVE 55866


 Behavior

Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario

JoVE 50872


 Neuroscience

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki

JoVE 51869


 Behavior

In vivo Imaging of Optic Nerve Fiber Integrity by Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Mice

1Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, 2Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena, 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Physics Group, Jena University Hospital

JoVE 51274


 Neuroscience

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota

JoVE 51631


 Neuroscience

Description of a Novel, Surgically Implanted Neuromodulatory Technique Known As Bilateral Epidural Prefrontal Cortical Stimulation (Epcs) for Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD)

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 5American University of Beirut Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56043


 JoVE In-Press

Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on the Primary Motor Cortex by Online Combined Approach with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1School of Psychology, Centre for Cognition and Decision Making, National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Unit of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Brain Investigation & Neuromodulation Lab. (Si-BIN Lab), Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria of Siena, 3Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, 4Centre for Cognition and Decision Making, National Research University Higher School of Economics

JoVE 55839


 Neuroscience

Mental Rotation

JoVE 10115

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Visual mental imagery refers to the ability to conjure images in one’s mind’s eye. This allows people to process visual material above and beyond the constraints of a current point-of-view; for example, a person could imagine, using their mind’s eye, how something might look in a different color, or what it would look like if it were made from a different material or rotated and seen from a different perspective. Mental imagery seems to support important human behaviors in many contexts. For example, people report visualizing routes and maps when planning a route or giving directions. They report visualizing movements, such as swinging a bat, to prepare for an actual action. They also report the mental rotation of objects in order to consider how an object might fit into a receptacle or clear a barrier. This video demonstrates how to use the mental rotation procedure in order to investigate visual mental imagery.


 Cognitive Psychology

A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain

1Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3Office of Planning, Finance, and Information Technology, National Center for Toxicological Research

JoVE 4285


 Neuroscience

Non-invasive Imaging and Analysis of Cerebral Ischemia in Living Rats Using Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-FDG

1W. M. Keck Center for Transgene Research, University of Notre Dame, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 3Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, University of Notre Dame, 4Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 5Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame

JoVE 51495


 Medicine

Visual Attention: fMRI Investigation of Object-based Attentional Control

JoVE 10272

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel— University of Southern California

The human visual system is incredibly sophisticated and capable of processing large amounts of information very quickly. However, the brain's capacity to process information is not an unlimited resource. Attention, the ability to selectively process information that is relevant to current goals and to ignore information that is not, is therefore an essential part of visual perception. Some aspects of attention are automatic, while others are subject to voluntary, conscious control. In this experiment we explore the mechanisms of voluntary, or "top-down" attentional control on visual processing. This experiment leverages the orderly organization of visual cortex to examine how top-down attention can selectively modulate the processing of visual stimuli. Certain regions of the visual cortex appear to be specialized for processing specific visual items. Specifically, work by Kanwisher et al.1 has identified an area in the fusiform gyrus of the inferior temporal lobe that is significantly more active when subjects view faces compared to when they observe other common objects. This area has come to be known as the Fusiform Face Area (FFA). Another brain region, known as the Para


 Neuropsychology

Simultaneous EEG Monitoring During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), 3Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4De Montfort University

JoVE 50426


 Behavior

Decoding Auditory Imagery with Multivoxel Pattern Analysis

JoVE 10267

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Imagine the sound of a bell ringing. What is happening in the brain when we conjure up a sound like this in the "mind's ear?" There is growing evidence that the brain uses the same mechanisms for imagination that it uses for perception.1 For example, when imagining visual images, the visual cortex becomes activated, and when imagining sounds, the auditory cortex is engaged. However, to what extent are these activations of sensory cortices specific to the content of our imaginations? One technique that can help to answer this question is multivoxel pattern analysis (MPVA), in which functional brain images are analyzed using machine-learning techniques.2-3 In an MPVA experiment, we train a machine-learning algorithm to distinguish among the various patterns of activity evoked by different stimuli. For example, we might ask if imagining the sound of a bell produces different patterns of activity in auditory cortex compared with imagining the sound of a chainsaw, or the sound of a violin. If our classifier learns to tell apart the brain activity patterns produced by these three stimuli, then we can conclude that the auditory cortex is activated in a distinct


 Neuropsychology

Color Afterimages

JoVE 10194

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Human color vision is impressive. People with normal color vision can tell apart millions of individual hues. Most amazingly, this ability is achieved with fairly simple hardware.

Part of the power of human color vision comes from a clever bit of engineering in the human brain. There, color perception relies on what is known as an 'opponent system.' This means that the presence of one kind of stimulus is treated as evidence for the absence of another, and vice versa; absence of one kind of stimulus is taken as evidence for the presence of the other. In particular, in the human brain there are cells that fire both when they receive signals to suggest that blue light is present, or when they do not receive signals suggesting yellow light. Similarly, there are cells that fire in the presence of yellow or the absence of blue. Blue and yellow are thus treated as opponent values in one dimension, and can be thought of as negative versus positive values on one axis of a Cartesian plane. If a stimulus is characterized as having a negative value on that axis, it can't also have a positive value. So, if it is characterized as yellow, it can't also be characterized as blue. Similarly, green and red (or really, magenta), o


 Sensation and Perception

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