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von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor Viii/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in Von willebrand diseases is due to the deficiency of this factor.

Paracrine Signaling

JoVE 10716

Paracrine signaling allows cells to communicate with their immediate neighbors via secretion of signaling molecules. The signal only triggers a response in nearby target cells as the signal molecules degrade quickly or are inactivated by nearby cells if not taken up. Prominent examples of paracrine signaling include nitric oxide signaling in blood vessels, synaptic signaling of neurons, the blood clotting system, tissue repair/wound healing, and local allergic skin reactions. One of the essential paracrine signaling molecules is the gas nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is produced by a family of enzymes known as nitric oxide synthases. Blood vessels contain several layers of cells. The innermost layer of cells is the endothelium. Endothelial cells have nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide that diffuses in all directions. The nitric oxide that reaches the blood does not contribute to signaling but immediately reacts with biochemicals, such as hemoglobin. Nitric oxide molecules that diffuse in the opposite direction, towards the next layer of the blood vessel, participate in some important signaling. The layer just exterior to the endothelium is made up of smooth muscle cells. The function of smooth muscle cells is to contract. When these cells contract, they clamp down on the blood vessel, narrowing its diameter and consequently rais

 Core: Cell Signaling

Fluorescence Biomembrane Force Probe: Concurrent Quantitation of Receptor-ligand Kinetics and Binding-induced Intracellular Signaling on a Single Cell

1Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 3Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, 4Institute of Biophysics, Laboratory of RNA Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 6School of Medicine and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University

JoVE 52975

 Bioengineering

Adult Mouse Digit Amputation and Regeneration: A Simple Model to Investigate Mammalian Blastema Formation and Intramembranous Ossification

1Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, 3Department of Neurosurgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center

JoVE 59749

 Developmental Biology

Measurement of the Hepatic Venous Pressure Gradient and Transjugular Liver Biopsy

1Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, 2Hepatic Hemodynamic Laboratory, Medical University of Vienna, 3Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology (IMuG), Klinikum Klagenfurt am Woerthersee

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JoVE 58819

 JoVE In-Press

An In Vitro Model of a Parallel-Plate Perfusion System to Study Bacterial Adherence to Graft Tissues

1Cardiovascular Developmental Biology, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, 2Centre for Molecular and Vascular Biology, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, 3Department of Biohybrid & Medical Textiles, AME - Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, 4European Homograft Bank, Saint Jean Clinique, 5Division of Clinical Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven

JoVE 58476

 Developmental Biology

Isolation of Human Endothelial Cells from Normal Colon and Colorectal Carcinoma - An Improved Protocol

1Division of Molecular and Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 2Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 3Division of Nephropathology, Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 4Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg

JoVE 57400

 Cancer Research

Fabrication and Validation of an Organ-on-chip System with Integrated Electrodes to Directly Quantify Transendothelial Electrical Resistance

1BIOS Lab on a Chip group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology and Max Planck Center for Complex Fluid Dynamics, University of Twente, 2Microsystems, Eindhoven University of Technology, 3Applied Stem Cell Technologies, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente

JoVE 56334

 Bioengineering

A Microfluidic Flow Chamber Model for Platelet Transfusion and Hemostasis Measures Platelet Deposition and Fibrin Formation in Real-time

1Transfusion Research Center, Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, 2Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, 3Blood Service, Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, 4Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KULeuven - University of Leuven

JoVE 55351

 Bioengineering

A Murine Model of Stent Implantation in the Carotid Artery for the Study of Restenosis

1Institute for Molecular Cardiovascular Research, RWTH Aachen University, 2Institute for Textile Technology and Mechanical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, 3Institute for Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz-Institute of RWTH Aachen University, 4Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University, 5Department of Oral and Maxillofacila Surgery, RWTH Aachen University

JoVE 50233

 Medicine

Pneumococcus Infection of Primary Human Endothelial Cells in Constant Flow

1Institut für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 2Devision of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Science, Lund University, 3Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology, Max von Pettenkofer Institute, LMU, 4Department of Molecular Infection Biology, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research

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JoVE 60323

 JoVE In-Press
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