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World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.

What is a Nervous System?

JoVE 10838

The nervous system is the collection of specialized cells responsible for maintaining an organism’s internal environment and coordinating the interaction of an organism with the external world—from the control of essential functions such as heart rate and breathing to the movement needed to escape danger.

The vertebrate nervous system is divided into two major parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain, spinal cord, and retina—the sensory tissue of the visual system. The PNS contains the sensory receptor cells for all of the other sensory systems—such as the touch receptors in the skin—as well as the nerves that carry information between the CNS and the rest of the body. Additionally, part of both the CNS and PNS contribute to the autonomic nervous system (also known as the visceral motor system). The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands that govern involuntary actions, such as digestion. The vertebrate brain is primarily divided into the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The cerebrum is the largest, most anterior part of the brain that is divided into left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere is further divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal. The outermost layer of the cerebrum is called

 Core: Biology

Determining and Controlling External Power Output During Regular Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion

1Center for Human Movement Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, 2Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Center Reade, Amsterdam, 3Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Behavioral and Human Movement Sciences, VU University, 43M, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 5Center for Rehabilitation, University Medical Center Groningen

JoVE 60492

 Medicine

VirWaTest, A Point-of-Use Method for the Detection of Viruses in Water Samples

1Laboratory of Viruses Contaminants of Water and Food (VIRCONT), Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, Section of Microbiology, Virology and Biotechnology, University of Barcelona, 2Grupo de Investigación Biodiversidad, Medio Ambiente y Salud (BIOMAS), Facultad de Ingenierías y Ciencias Agropecuarias (FICA), Ingeniería en Biotecnología, Universidad de las Américas, 3Municipal Laboratory - Waters of Mataró, 4GenIUL

JoVE 59463

 Immunology and Infection

Processing of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Matched Blood for Alveolar Macrophage and CD4+ T-cell Immunophenotyping and HIV Reservoir Assessment

1Research Institute McGill University Health Centre, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Université de Québec à Montréal, 3Department of Microbiology & Immunology, McGill University, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, McGill University, 5Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, 6Département de microbiologie, infectiologie et immunologie, Université de Montréal

JoVE 59427

 Immunology and Infection

Laser Capture Microdissection of Highly Pure Trabecular Meshwork from Mouse Eyes for Gene Expression Analysis

1Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 2Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 3Integrated Laboratory Systems Inc., 4Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc.

JoVE 57576

 Biology

Multiplexed Fluorescent Immunohistochemical Staining, Imaging, and Analysis in Histological Samples of Lymphoma

1Department of Laboratory Medicine, AnSteel Group General Hospital, 2Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 3Department of Pathology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 4Department of Haematology-Oncology, National University Health System

JoVE 58711

 Immunology and Infection

Generation of Escape Variants of Neutralizing Influenza Virus Monoclonal Antibodies

1Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3The Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, The Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology Research, The University of Chicago

JoVE 56067

 Immunology and Infection

Long-term Video Tracking of Cohoused Aquatic Animals: A Case Study of the Daily Locomotor Activity of the Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus)

1Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 2Institute of Marine Sciences, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), 3Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), 4Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries

JoVE 58515

 Environment

Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London

JoVE 52773

 Neuroscience

Measuring Intracellular Ca2+ Changes in Human Sperm using Four Techniques: Conventional Fluorometry, Stopped Flow Fluorometry, Flow Cytometry and Single Cell Imaging

1Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2Math and Sciences Department, Edison State College

JoVE 50344

 Biology

Humanized NOG Mice for Intravaginal HIV Exposure and Treatment of HIV Infection

1Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, 3Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital, 5Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha

JoVE 60723

 Immunology and Infection

Building Up a High-throughput Screening Platform to Assess the Heterogeneity of HER2 Gene Amplification in Breast Cancers

1Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 2School of Medicine, University of Milan, 3School of Biology, University of Pavia, 4Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 5Division of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 6Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, University of Milan

JoVE 56686

 Immunology and Infection

Sucrose Preference and Novelty-Induced Hypophagia Tests in Rats using an Automated Food Intake Monitoring System

1Charité Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Department for Psychosomatic Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Helios Clinic, 3Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tübingen, 4Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School

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JoVE 60953

 JoVE In-Press
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