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Spontaneità
A spontaneous process is one that occurs naturally under certain conditions. A nonspontaneous process, on the other hand, will not take place unless…
Entropia
Salt particles that have dissolved in water never spontaneously come back together in solution to reform solid particles. Moreover, a gas that has…
Seconda legge della termodinamica
In the quest to identify a property that may reliably predict the spontaneity of a process, a promising candidate has been identified: entropy.…
Terza legge della termodinamica
A pure, perfectly crystalline solid possessing no kinetic energy (that is, at a temperature of absolute zero, 0 K) may be described by a single…
Modifica dell'entropia standard per una reazione
Entropy is a state function, so the standard entropy change for a chemical reaction (ΔS°rxn) can be calculated from the difference in…
Energia libera di Gibbs
One of the challenges of using the second law of thermodynamics to determine if a process is spontaneous is that it requires measurements of the…
Effetti della temperatura sull'energia libera
The spontaneity of a process depends upon the temperature of the system. Phase transitions, for example, will proceed spontaneously in one direction…
Calcolo della variazione di energia libera standard
The free energy change for a reaction that occurs under the standard conditions of 1 bar pressure and at 298 K is called the standard free energy…
Cambiamenti liberi di energia per condizioni non standard
The free energy change for a process taking place with reactants and products present under nonstandard conditions (pressures other than 1 bar;…
Energia libera ed equilibrio
The free energy change for a process may be viewed as a measure of its driving force. A negative value for ΔG represents a driving force for the…
Termodinamica di Folding delle proteine ​​di membrana Misurato in spettroscopia di fluorescenza
Membrane protein folding is an emerging topic with both fundamental and health-related significance. The abundance of membrane proteins in cells…
Svelare entropico velocità di accelerazione indotta da solventi Dynamics a membrana Enzimi
Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and…
Formazione di strutture biomolecolari ordinate dalla Self-assemblaggio di piccoli peptidi
In nature, complex functional structures are formed by the self-assembly of biomolecules under mild conditions. Understanding the forces that control…

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