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Espontaneidade
A spontaneous process is one that occurs naturally under certain conditions. A nonspontaneous process, on the other hand, will not take place unless…
Entropia
Salt particles that have dissolved in water never spontaneously come back together in solution to reform solid particles. Moreover, a gas that has…
Segunda Lei da Termodinâmica
In the quest to identify a property that may reliably predict the spontaneity of a process, a promising candidate has been identified: entropy.…
Terceira Lei da Termodinâmica
A pure, perfectly crystalline solid possessing no kinetic energy (that is, at a temperature of absolute zero, 0 K) may be described by a single…
Alteração da Entropia Padrão para uma Reação
Entropy is a state function, so the standard entropy change for a chemical reaction (ΔS°rxn) can be calculated from the difference in…
Energia Livre de Gibbs
One of the challenges of using the second law of thermodynamics to determine if a process is spontaneous is that it requires measurements of the…
Efeitos da Temperatura na Energia Livre
The spontaneity of a process depends upon the temperature of the system. Phase transitions, for example, will proceed spontaneously in one direction…
Cálculo de Alterações de Energia Livre Padrão
The free energy change for a reaction that occurs under the standard conditions of 1 bar pressure and at 298 K is called the standard free energy…
Alterações de Energia Livre para Estados Não Padrão
The free energy change for a process taking place with reactants and products present under nonstandard conditions (pressures other than 1 bar;…
Energia Livre e Equilíbrio
The free energy change for a process may be viewed as a measure of its driving force. A negative value for ΔG represents a driving force for the…
Termodinâmica de enovelamento de proteínas de membrana Medido por espectroscopia de fluorescência
Membrane protein folding is an emerging topic with both fundamental and health-related significance. The abundance of membrane proteins in cells…
Desvendando Aceleração Entropic Taxa Induzida por solventes Dynamics na membrana Enzimas
Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and…
A formação de estruturas biomoleculares ordenada pelo auto-montagem de pequenos peptídeos
In nature, complex functional structures are formed by the self-assembly of biomolecules under mild conditions. Understanding the forces that control…

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