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Neuroscience

Elimination of Serotonergic Neurons by Stereotaxic Injection of 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine in the Dorsal Raphe Nuclei of Mice

doi: 10.3791/60968 Published: May 1, 2020
Lining Cao1, Zhiqiang Zhang1, Xinyu Lu1, Guanhao Wang1, Du Meng1, Chang Liu1, Ji Yun1, Ting Xu1, Chun Zhao2, Jianfeng Lu1

Abstract

Stereotaxic injection has been widely used for direct delivery of compounds or viruses to targeted brain areas in rodents. Direct targeting of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) can cause excessive bleeding and animal death, due to its location below the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). This protocol describes the generation of a DRN serotonergic neuron-lesioned mouse model (>90% survival rate) with stable loss of >70% 5-HT-positive cells in the DRN. The lesion is induced by stereotaxic injection of a selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) into the DRN using an angled approach (30° in the anterior/posterior direction) to avoid injury to the SSS. DRN serotonergic neuron-lesioned mice display anxiety-associated behavior alterations, which helps to confirm success of the DRN lesion surgery. This method is used here for DRN lesions, but it can also be used for other stereotaxic injections that require angular injections to avoid midline structures. This DRN serotonergic neuron-lesioned mouse model provides a valuable tool for understanding the role of serotonergic neurons in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder.

Introduction

Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is an important neurotransmitter mainly produced in the intestines and brain and impacts a variety of psychological functions. In the central nervous system (CNS), the serotonergic system plays a central role in the regulation of mood and social behavior, sleep and waking, appetite, memory, and sexual desire. In the CNS, serotonin is synthesized by serotonergic neurons, which can be separated into the following two groups: the rostral group, which has ascending projections innervating virtually the whole brain; and the caudal group, which mainly projects to the spinal cord1. The rostral group, which contains about 85% of serotonergic neurons in the brain, is composed of the caudal linear nucleus, median raphe nucleus, and DRN, in which the largest population of serotonergic neurons in the brain is located.

Dysregulation of the serotonergic system is generally believed to be linked with the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorders (GAD)2. This is due to the fact that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective pharmacological treatment for these psychiatric disorders3,4. In addition, accumulative evidences suggest that mania5 and suicidal behavior6 may be associated with lower levels of serotonin functioning in the DRN. It has also been reported that Pet1-Cre;Lmx1bflox/flox mice and hTM-DTAiPet1 mice (genetic mouse models lacking most central serotonergic neurons from late embryonic stage7 and adulthood8, respectively) display enhanced contextual fear memory. However, despite extensive research, the exact involvement of DRN serotonergic neurons in these psychiatric disorders remains to be elucidated.

In order to explore the mechanisms by which DRN serotonergic neurons regulate the pathogenesis of the serotonin-associated psychiatric disorders, animal models have been generated. Optogenetic tools have been applied to inhibit serotonergic neurons in rat DRN, and these animals display increased anxiety-like behaviors9. However, optogenetics has limitations. For example, a light-delivery device must be implanted into the targeted region deep within the brain, and the surrounding tissue may be injured during implantation surgery or by heat emitted from the light device. Even if temperature alteration may not cause detectable brain tissue damage, it can still induce remarkable physiological and behavioral effects10.

Pharmacological manipulation may be an easier approach to create DRN serotonergic neuron-lesioned animal models. Some groups have generated DRN serotonergic neuron-lesioned rats by stereotaxic microinjection of serotonin neurotoxin 5,7-DHT in the DRN. However, these rat models display different behavioral alterations, such as anxiolytic behavior11, increased anxiety-like behavior12, and impaired object memory13. Despite many studies in rats, fewer studies have been performed on the influences of 5,7-DHT on mice. One group reported excessive mortality (>50%) and limited serotonin depletion in experimental mice that received stereotaxic microinjections of 5,7-DHT in the DRN14. Another group reported that unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) can induce significant attack latency alteration in 5,7-DHT-induced DRN-lesioned mice. However, no histological results were provided to confirm the exact serotonergic neuron loss in the DRN15. Stereotaxic injection in the DRN using standard procedures may lead to massive bleeding and high mortality to mice, given the fact that the anatomical location of DRN is below the SSS16.

This protocol describes the protocol to generate a DRN serotonergic neuron-lesioned mouse model (>90% survival rate of the experimental mice) with stable loss of DRN serotonergic neurons by stereotaxic injection of 5,7-DHT. The injection in DRN uses an angled approach to prevent the injury to the SSS. This surgery consistently causes >70% loss of serotonergic neuron in the DRN of mice, and it produces anxiety-associated behavior alterations. The protocol used here is for inducing DRN lesions, but it can also be useful to researchers who want to perform stereotaxic injections in other midline structures. In addition, this DRN serotonergic neuron-lesioned mouse model provides a valuable tool for understanding the role of serotonergic neurons in psychiatric disorders (i.e., MDD and GAD) and assessing potential neuroprotective agents or therapeutic strategies for these conditions.

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Protocol

All surgical interventions and animal care procedures have been approved by the Animal Committee of School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

1. Housing of animals

  1. Maintain male C57BL/6NCrl mice (10 weeks old, 25 g, n = 21) in standard conditions (24 °C temperature; 55% humidity) under a 12 h/12 h light/dark cycle.
  2. Provide food and water ad libitum.
    NOTE: Here, three of the mice are used for confirming the needle track.

2. Preparation of reagents

NOTE: All drug preparation steps must be performed in a laminar flow hood to avoid contamination. All prepared solutions are stored in a -80 °C freezer. It is recommended to use one aliquot at a time, thaw completely, mix well before use, discard the leftovers in the tube, and avoid repeated freezing and thawing.

  1. Dissolve 0.25 g of desipramine hydrochloride in 100 mL of 0.9% saline to yield a 2.5 mg/mL solution. Sterilize the solution using a syringe filter with 0.22 μm pore size hydrophilic PES membrane. Then, aliquot the solution (1.8 mL/tube) in 2 mL microcentrifuge (EP) tubes. Label, date, and store in a -80 °C freezer immediately. The recommended dosage for animal use is 25 mg/kg.
  2. Dissolve 5 mg of 5,7-DHT in 1.67 mL of 0.9% saline containing 0.1% ascorbic acid to yield a 3 μg/μL solution. Vortex gently to mix, sterilize the solution using a syringe filter (0.22 μm pore size), and aliquot the solution (10 μL/tube) in 0.5 mL EP tubes. Label, date, and freeze at -80 °C immediately. The recommended dosage for animal use is 2 μL/mouse.
  3. Dissolve ketoprofen (analgesic) following the previously described method17. Dissolve 250 mg of ketoprofen in 15 mL of water and 1 mL of 1 M NaOH, adjust the pH to 7.3 and make up the final volume to 125 mL, which will result in a final concentration of 2 mg/mL. Sterilize the solution using a 0.22 μm syringe filter and aliquot the solution (0.4 mL/tube) in 1.5 mL EP tubes. Label, date, and freeze at -80 °C until use. The recommended dosage for animal use is 5 mg/kg.

3. Preparation of instruments and mice

  1. Prepare a surgical pack (containing a scalpel, pair of tissue forceps, pair of scissors, needle holder, 3-0 sutures, ear tags, and ear tag applicator) previously sterilized in high temperature autoclaves. Place 75% ethanol, povidone-iodine, 3% hydrogen peroxide, vehicle solution (0.1% ascorbic acid in 0.9% saline), a cotton swab, ofloxacin eye ointment, and a mouse recovery cage on top of a heating pad, using a Hamilton syringe with a 32 G needle and 1 cc syringe.
  2. h prior to 5,7-DHT injection, weigh and record body weights of the mice, then subject them to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of desipramine (2.5 mg/mL, 10 μL/g weight).
    NOTE: The purpose of desipramine administration 1 h prior to 5,7-DHT injection is to prevent catacholaminergic cell loss18.
  3. Anesthetize mice using isoflurane inhalation anesthesia (3% during induction, 1.5% during maintenance, flow rate = 2 L/min). Administer ketoprofen (2 mg/mL, 2.5 μL/g weight) via subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Confirm adequate anesthesia depth by the absence of tail pinch response.

4. Stereotaxic injection

  1. Place the anesthetized mouse on the stereotaxic platform, then fix its head with the ear bars and incisor bar of the stereotaxic apparatus.
  2. Shave the mouse's head, then clean the exposed scalp with one scrub of 75% ethanol followed by one scrub of povidone-iodine.
  3. Apply lidocaine ointment on the scalp using a cotton swab to provide local analgesia. Put ofloxacin eye ointment on the eyes to protect the cornea.
  4. Make an incision on the scalp along the midline using a scalpel from 1 mm posterior to the eyes to the interaural line.
  5. Use a 3% hydrogen peroxide-soaked swab to remove the periosteum, then dry the skull and expose the cranial sutures. Mark the location of the bregma and lambda.
  6. Adjust the head position using the incisor bar until the bregma and lambda lay in the same horizontal plane. Adjust the needle tip to touch the bregma or lambda, record the medial/lateral (ML) and dorsal/ventral (DV) coordinates, and adjust the incisor bar so that the DV and ML coordinates of bregma and lambda are equal, respectively.
  7. Unlock the perpendicular positioning button and lock screw, then set the manipulator arm (z-axis) to 30° in the anterior/posterior (AP) direction as shown in Figure 1A,B. Lock the button.
  8. Fix the Hamilton syringe filled with 2 μL of 5,7-DHT (3 μg/μL) onto the holder (for the sham group, mice are injected with 0.9% saline containing 0.1% ascorbic acid). Adjust the needle tip to touch the bregma landmark, then zero the ML, AP, and DV values using the digital display module.
    NOTE: The 5,7-DHT solution is brown colored liquid, making it easy to determine whether the Hamilton syringe is properly filled. If there is no access to a digital display module, record the number displayed on three axes when the needle tip touches the bregma, and the final coordinates represent “the recorded number plus the coordinate provided in this protocol”. For example, if the recorded number on the y-axis (A/P direction) manipulator arm is “a”, then the final coordinate in the A/P direction should be “a - 6.27”.
  9. Move the manipulator arm to adjust the needle tip to the injection position (APa = -6.27, ML = 0; formula for calculating the final coordinates is listed in Figure 1B). Mark the target position using a marker pen.
  10. Drill the burr hole using portable micromotor high-speed drill, then move the manipulator arm to lower the needle tip to the target (DVa = -4.04). Inject 2 μL of the solution into the brain slowly (0.5 μL/3 min), keeping the needle in situ for an additional 5 min to prevent solution leakage. Remove the needle gently after injection.
  11. Apply interrupted sutures over the incision using 3-0 sutures. Wrap the sutured incision with a cotton swab soaked in povidone-iodine to avoid infection.
  12. Clean the right ear with a povidone-iodine cotton swab, then apply the sterilized ear tag to the base of the ear for identification.
  13. Remove experimental mice from the stereotaxic apparatus and place in a mice recovery cage on top of a heating pad until full recovery from anesthesia is observed.

5. Postoperative care of mice

  1. Subject mice to s.c. injections of ketoprofen 1x/day up to 2 days after surgery.
  2. Inspect mice daily up to 7 days after surgery.

6. Elevated T-maze test

NOTE: Perform the test as described previously19,20.

  1. Ensure that the elevated T-maze (ETM) test is comprised of two open arms (30 cm x 5 cm x 0.5 cm) perpendicular to two enclosed arms (30 cm x 5 cm x 16 cm x 0.5 cm) with a center platform (5.0 cm x 5.0 cm x 0.5 cm). One of the enclosed arms is blocked by an opaque plastic sheet to form a T-shape (Figure 2A).
  2. Three days before the ETM test, habituate the animals by handling daily for 5 min.
  3. On day 30 after surgery, perform the ETM test.
  4. On the day of behavioral testing, expose mice to one of the open arms for 10 min.
  5. For inhibitory avoidance testing, place each mouse in the distal end of the enclosed arm and record the time taken to leave this arm with four paws in three trials. The first trial is baseline avoidance, the second trial is avoidance 1, and the third trial is avoidance 2.
  6. Keep mice in their cages for 30 s between trails and establish a cutoff time (here, 300 s is used for each trial).

7. Perfusion, fixation, immunohistochemical staining, and quantification

  1. At the end of the study (35 days after surgery, after the behavioral test), perform whole body perfusion and fixation once the mouse is under general anesthesia.
    1. Anesthetize the mouse as described in step 3.3. Place the deeply anesthetized mouse in dorsal recumbency.
    2. Wet the fur with 75% alcohol over the entire ventral area.
    3. Make a cut below the sternum followed by a V-shape incision in the rib cage. Grasp the rib cage using the clamp to expose the heart.
    4. Insert the venous infusion needle into the left ventricle, then cut the atrial appendage immediately with scissors to let the blood flow out.
    5. Turn on the peristaltic pump to perfuse saline into the whole body through the circulatory system. Switch from saline to 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) when fluid exiting the right atrium becomes clear and when the liver changes from red to pale red in color. Perfuse another 5 mL of 4% PFA when the mouse tail moves, and the body is stiff.
      NOTE: Swaying of the mouse tail is the sign of adequate perfusion.
  2. Isolation of the brain after intracardiac perfusion with 4% PFA
    1. Decapitate the mouse using large scissors, then cut the skin to expose the skull.
    2. Make two cuts at the base of the skull (connected to the neck), make one cut along the line linking the eyes, then cut the skull along the sagittal suture. Grasp and peel the skull of each hemisphere outward to expose the brain using forceps.
      NOTE: Cutting the skull along the sagittal suture must be performed carefully, otherwise the brain may be damaged and separate into parts.
    3. Remove the brain and place it in 4% PFA at 4 °C overnight for post-fixation, then transfer the brain into 30% sucrose until it sinks to the bottom.
      NOTE: Dehydration using 30% sucrose is not necessary if sections are cut with a vibratome.
  3. Absorb any excess liquid around the tissue using a paper towel prior to embedding. Embed the brain tissue in OCT with the rostral face on the chuck.
    NOTE: Orientation of the sample is important. The rostral face of the brain must be attached to the chuck to make sure that the cutting edge is the caudal portion.
  4. Cut a coronal section of the DRN (4.0–4.8 mm posterior from bregma) at 30 μm thickness (four-section intervals) using a cryostat and collect the sections in PBS. Store in brain section cryopreservation solution (SCS) at -20 °C.
    NOTE: Identification of the DRN is very important. The consecutive anatomical structures are shown as Figure 3AH. The characteristic structures are as follows: lateral recess of the fourth ventricle (LR4V, red dash line in Figure 3A,E), fourth ventricle (4V, red dash triangle in Figure 3B,F), second cerebellar lobule (2Cb, red dash diamond-shape structure in Figure 3C/G), and aqueduct (Aq, red dash hole in Figure 3D,H). Start to collect the tissues when structures are observed as shown in Figure 3D,H, then cut in 30 μm thick sections (four-section intervals) to yield 24 total coronal sections. H&E staining of the sections is shown in (Figure 3EH). The fourth section of each of the four sections will be selected to perform immunofluorescent staining. The remaining sections are stored in the SCS. If it is difficult to recognize the structures, mounting one piece of the sections on the slide is helpful.
  5. Perform immunohistochemical assay as described previously21,22.
  6. Count 5-HT-positive cells at different section levels throughout the entire DRN using ImageJ.

8. Statistical analysis

  1. Use statistical software for data analysis. Express the results as means ± SEM.
  2. Process the values for statistical analysis by two-way ANOVA or unpaired t-test and consider the differences significant at **p < 0.01.

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Representative Results

In a coronal section, the location of the DRN is just below the SSS and aqueduct (Figure 1B,C); thus, targeting the DRN using standard procedures can lead to massive bleeding and high mortality in mice16. Therefore, stereotaxic injections were performed here using an angled approach instead of the standard vertical approach to avoid damage to the SSS (Figure 1A,B). To confirm the location of the needle entering the brain, mice that received stereotaxic injections were sacrificed immediately after surgery, and the perfused brains were isolated for histological examination. As shown in Figure 1C, the lesion (the needle track) was localized just to the DRN, below the aqueduct.

It has been reported that inhibitory avoidance in the ETM may be a suitable behavioral task to assess anxiety19. Mice tend to avoid the open arms of an elevated maze and prefer enclosed arms; thus, mice spending less time in enclosed arms demonstrate anxiolytic behavior20. Results from this protocol showed that 5,7-DHT-lesioned mice displayed remarkable lower avoidance latencies than the sham group (Figure 2B, p < 0.05), suggesting that the treatment with 2 μL of 5,7-DHT (3 μg/μL) may have impaired inhibitory avoidance.

Thirty-five days after surgery, the effects of 5,7-DHT on DRN serotonergic neurons were histologically analyzed (Figure 4A,B), and quantification of 5-HT-positive cells in DRN were performed (Figure 4C). Serotonergic neurons were stained positively with anti-5-HT antibody. Remarkable loss of >70% 5-HT-positive cells was observed in the DRN of 5,7-DHT-lesioned mice (Nlesion= 7, cell number = 305 ± 32) compared to the sham group (Nsham= 5, cell number = 1164 ± 95) (Figure 4C), suggesting that stereotaxic injection of 5,7-DHT in the DRN destroyed >70% of serotonergic neurons without inducing animal death, since no animal was found dead until perfusion.

Figure 1
Figure 1: Stereotaxic injection using an angled approach and verification of the target area in the DRN. (A) Mouse placed in the stereotaxic apparatus with the z-axis manipulator arm set to 30°. (B) Schematic illustration of the injection using an angled approach and the formula needed to calculate the target coordinates (SSS = superior sagittal sinus). (C) The remaining needle track in the coronal section of the brain at the level of -4.6 mm from the bregma. (n = 3, scale bar = 1 mm, APa = adjusted AP, DVa = adjusted DV). Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

Figure 2
Figure 2: Behavioral assessment of 5,7-DHT-lesioned mice. (A) Schematic representation of the experimental procedures measuring inhibitory avoidance in the elevated T-maze (ETM). (B) Effects of 5,7-DHT lesion on inhibitory avoidance latencies as measured by the ETM. (n = 9 per strain, **p < 0.01, two-way ANOVA). Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

Figure 3
Figure 3: Identification of DRN during sectioning. (A,B,C,D) Brain structures shown in the caudal to rostral direction. (E,F,G,H) Brain sections of the structures shown in (A–D), respectively. (I,J,K,L) H&E staining of the sections shown in (E–H), respectively. Scale bar = 1 mm (LR4V = lateral recess of the fourth ventricle, 4V = fourth ventricle, 2Cb = second cerebellar lobule, Aq = aqueduct). Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

Figure 4
Figure 4: Loss of serotonergic neurons in the DRN after 5,7-DHT lesion. Immunofluorescence images showing 5-HT-positive cells in the (A) lesion and (B) sham groups at different levels of the entire DRN from the rostral to caudal regions (left to right, 4.04.8 mm posterior from the bregma). Scale bar = 100 μm. (B) Quantification of serotonergic neurons in the DRN (values are presented as mean ± SEM, Nlesion = 7, Nsham = 5, **p < 0.01, unpaired t-test). Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

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Discussion

This protocol successfully describes production of a reliable DRN serotonergic neuron-lesioned mouse model with high lesion reproducibility and low mortality rate. Targeting the DRN is a complex task, since it can damage the SSS located just above the DRN16 and lead to excessive bleeding and even death14. Therefore, stereotaxic injections were performed by setting the manipulation arm at 30° in the AP direction to avoid injury to the SSS (Figure 1A,B). The needle track shown below the aqueduct (Figure 1C) confirms accurate targeting of the DRN. One month after surgery, the DRN serotonergic neuron-lesioned mice display significantly lower latencies in ETM test, indicative of anxiolytic behavior (Figure 2B), with loss of >70% serotonergic neurons in the lesioned DRN (Figure 4).

Although an angled approach while performing stereotaxic injections helps to avoid midline structures, there are still some limitations to this technique. Some factors (i.e., anatomical variability, localization of the bregma and lambda, size of the mice, etc.) may affect the targeting accuracy and lead to unsuccessful damage to DRN serotonergic neurons. Increasing the injection volume of the neurotoxin (5,7-DHT) may help overcome the problem. Indeed, some mice that received 1 μL of 5,7-DHT (3 μg/μL) in a preliminary study showed insufficient DRN serotonergic neurons loss (data not shown), which may have been caused by inaccurate targeting due to variable factors. In contrast, 2 μL of 5,7-DHT (applied in this study) stably induced more than 70% loss of serotonergic neurons in the DRN.

It has been reported that 5,7-DHT is a selective serotonergic neurotoxin23. In the present study, 5,7-DHT-lesioned mice display anxiolytic behavior (Figure 2B). Consistent with these results, Sena et al. found that rats treated with 5,7-DHT in DRN showed impaired inhibitory avoidance indicative of anxiolytic behavior11. Jia et al. also reported that the central 5-HT-deficient (conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b) mice showed reduced anxiety-like behavior24. However, contradictory results have reported that 5,7-DHT-induced DRN lesion led to increased anxiety or other behavioral alterations in rats. In the same study, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of 5,7-DHT led to increased anxiety in rats12. Lieben et al. reported that 5,7-DHT lesions in the DRN of rats impaired object memory instead of anxiety-associated behavior13. Optogenetic inhibition of serotonergic neurons in DRN have also been shown to increase anxiety-like behaviors in rats9.

Despite many studies on rats, few articles reported the influences of 5,7-DHT on mice. Martin et al. reported >50% excessive mortality of experimental mice and limited serotonin depletion (15%) occurring in 5,7-DHT-induced DRN-lesioned mice14. Yalcin et al. reported that UCMS could induce significant attack latency alteration in 5,7-DHT-induced DRN-lesioned mice15. In fact, variances in the route of 5,7-DHT administration, the target of 5,7-DHT delivered to, and the type of animal used for research can all lead to different behavioral alterations13. Different volumes of 5,7-DHT can also lead to behavioral alterations. For example, moderate deletion of serotonergic neurons may lead to increased or normal extracellular serotonin levels because of the compensatory function of remaining neurons12.

Another reason for these contradictory results may be due to the elongated structure of the DRN and its extensive projections. Marcinkiewcz et al. reported that stimulation of mouse BNST-projecting DRN serotonergic neurons is anxiogenic25, while Ohmura et al.26, Nishitani et al.9, and Correia et al.27 showed that activation of DRN serotonergic neurons has no effect on anxiety-associated behavior. DRN serotonergic neurons in different projected areas may encode anxiogenic or anxiolytic signals; thus, manipulation of DRN serotonergic neurons in different projected areas can induce different behavioral alterations. The mechanisms underlying animal behaviors caused by the loss of DRN serotonergic neurons remains enigmatic, and further research is needed.

Despite many DRN lesion studies using rat models have been published, fewer are available that involve mice. This protocol contributes to the field by providing histological and behavioral data from a 5,7-DHT-induced DRN lesion mouse model. Great success in animal survival rates as well as the elimination of serotonergic neurons in the DRN could is achievable using a 30° angle in the A/P direction. It may be helpful to distinguish some of the contradictory results found in the existing literature by using a reliable method for administering 5,7-DHT in the DRN.

Furthermore, this method is used here for DRN lesions, but it may also provide useful data for the researchers who want to perform stereotaxic injections in other midline structures of the brain. Given that this protocol generates a DRN serotonergic neuron-lesioned mouse model that displays decreased anxiety-like behavior, it may be a valuable tool to delineate the role of serotonergic neurons in psychiatric disorders (i.e., MDD and GAD) and assess new therapeutic approach to treat these conditions.

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Disclosures

The authors have nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China [Grant numbers 2017YFA0104100]; the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant numbers 31771644, 81801331 and 31930068]; and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

Materials

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
0.22micron syringe filter Millipore SLGPRB
3% hydrogen peroxide Caoshanhu Co.,Ltd, Jiangxi, China
5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine Sigma-Aldrich SML2058 3ug/ul, 2ul
Compact small animal anesthesia machine RWD Life Science Co., Ltd R500 series
Cryostat Leica Biosystems, Wetzlar, Germany CM1950
Cy 3 AffiniPure Donkey Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) Jackson ImmunoResearch 705-165-003 1:2,000
dapi Sigma-Aldrich D8417
desipramine hydrochloride Sigma-Aldrich PHR1723 25mg/kg
Eppendorf tube Quality Scientific Plastics 509-GRD-Q
goat anti-5-HT antibody Abcam ab66047 1:800
GraphPad Prism Graphpad Software Inc, CA, US
Hamilton Microliter syringe Hamilton 87943
Ketoprofen Sigma-Aldrich K1751-1G 5mg/kg
L-ascorbic acid BBI Life Sciences A610021-0500 0.10%
lidocaine ointment Tsinghua Tongfang Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd H20063466
ofloxacin eye ointment Shenyang Xingqi Pharmaceutical Co.Ltd, China H10940177
peristaltic pump Huxi Analytical Instrument Factory Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China HL-1D
stereotaxic apparatus RWD Life Science Co., Ltd 68018
ultra-low temperature freezer Haier DW-86L388
Vortex Kylin-bell VORTEX-5

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Cao, L., Zhang, Z., Lu, X., Wang, G., Meng, D., Liu, C., Yun, J., Xu, T., Zhao, C., Lu, J. Elimination of Serotonergic Neurons by Stereotaxic Injection of 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine in the Dorsal Raphe Nuclei of Mice. J. Vis. Exp. (159), e60968, doi:10.3791/60968 (2020).More

Cao, L., Zhang, Z., Lu, X., Wang, G., Meng, D., Liu, C., Yun, J., Xu, T., Zhao, C., Lu, J. Elimination of Serotonergic Neurons by Stereotaxic Injection of 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine in the Dorsal Raphe Nuclei of Mice. J. Vis. Exp. (159), e60968, doi:10.3791/60968 (2020).

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