In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (9)

Articles by Edward J. Murray in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Open Source High Content Analysis Utilizing Automated Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

1Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 2Institute for Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 3MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, 4Chemical Biology Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 5Retroscreen Virology Ltd, 6Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Limited, Sandwich, Kent, UK, 7Centre for Histopathology, Imperial College London

JoVE 55119

Other articles by Edward J. Murray on PubMed

A Low-molecular-weight Entry Inhibitor of Both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic Strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Targets a Novel Site on Gp41

Journal of Virology. Jul, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20427524

A low-molecular-weight human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) inhibitor, PF-68742 (molecular weight, 573), has been identified in a high-throughput screen for compounds that block HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-mediated fusion. The compound is shown to be potent against R5 and X4 isolates in both cell-cell fusion and antiviral assays (50% effective concentrations of approximately 0.1 to 1 muM). Postfusion and HIV-1 pseudotyping control experiments confirm that PF-68742 is an entry inhibitor with Env as the specific target for antiviral action. PF-68742 was not able to block binding of monomeric gp120 to soluble CD4 or the binding of gp120:CD4 complexes to cell-associated CCR5, thus distinguishing PF-68742 from described gp120 antagonists and coreceptor binders. Escape variants of HIV-1(NL4-3) were selected, and all resistant viruses were found to contain a common G514R (HxB2 numbering) mutation in Env, located proximal to the furin cleavage site in the fusion peptide of gp41. When introduced into wild-type NL4-3 gp41, G514R conferred resistance to PF-68742. Resistance via G514R is shown to be associated with enhancement of virion infectivity by PF-68742 that may result from altered properties of inhibitor-bound Env, rather than from a loss of compound binding. Wild-type viruses and those with substitutions in the disulfide loop (DSL) region of gp41 were also examined for PF-68742 sensitivity. Here, complete resistance to PF-68742 was found to occur through changes outside of position 514, including in the gp41 DSL region. The results highlight PF-68742 as a starting point for novel therapies against HIV-1 and provide new insights into models of Env-mediated fusion.

Use of a Highly Sensitive Strand-specific Quantitative PCR to Identify Abortive Replication in the Mouse Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease

Virology Journal. Sep, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20860795

The BALB/c mouse is commonly used to study RSV infection and disease. However, despite the many advantages of this well-characterised model, the inoculum is large, viral replication is restricted and only a very small amount of virus can be recovered from infected animals. A key question in this model is the fate of the administered virus. Is replication really being measured or is the model measuring the survival of the virus over time? To answer these questions we developed a highly sensitive strand-specific quantitative PCR (QPCR) able to accurately quantify the amount of RSV replication in the BALB/c mouse lung, allowing characterisation of RSV negative and positive strand RNA dynamics.

FLIM FRET Technology for Drug Discovery: Automated Multiwell-plate High-content Analysis, Multiplexed Readouts and Application in Situ

Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21337485

A fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) technology platform intended to read out changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency is presented for the study of protein interactions across the drug-discovery pipeline. FLIM provides a robust, inherently ratiometric imaging modality for drug discovery that could allow the same sensor constructs to be translated from automated cell-based assays through small transparent organisms such as zebrafish to mammals. To this end, an automated FLIM multiwell-plate reader is described for high content analysis of fixed and live cells, tomographic FLIM in zebrafish and FLIM FRET of live cells via confocal endomicroscopy. For cell-based assays, an exemplar application reading out protein aggregation using FLIM FRET is presented, and the potential for multiple simultaneous FLIM (FRET) readouts in microscopy is illustrated.

Automated Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Plate Reader and Its Application to Förster Resonant Energy Transfer Readout of Gag Protein Aggregation

Journal of Biophotonics. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23184449

Fluorescence lifetime measurements can provide quantitative readouts of local fluorophore environment and can be applied to biomolecular interactions via Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) can therefore provide a high content analysis (HCA) modality to map protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with applications in drug discovery, systems biology and basic research. We present here an automated multiwell plate reader able to perform rapid unsupervised optically sectioned FLIM of fixed and live biological samples and illustrate its potential to assay PPIs through application to Gag protein aggregation during the HIV life cycle. We demonstrate both hetero-FRET and homo-FRET readouts of protein aggregation and report the first quantitative evaluation of a FLIM HCA assay by generating dose response curves through addition of an inhibitor of Gag myristoylation. Z' factors exceeding 0.6 are realised for this FLIM FRET assay.

Non-benzimidazole Containing Inhibitors of Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23265891

Several non-benzimidazole containing inhibitors of respiratory syncytial virus are described. Core template modification, analysis of antiviral activity, physicochemistry and optimisation of properties led to the thiazole-imidazole 13, that showed a good potency and pharmacokinetic profile in the rat.

Use of Qualitative Integrative Cycler PCR (qicPCR) to Identify Optimal Therapeutic Dosing Time-points in a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Human Viral Challenge Model (hVCM)

Journal of Virological Methods. Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26335961

Retroscreen (hVIVO) have developed an RSV human viral challenge model (hVCM) for testing the efficacy of novel antiviral therapies by monitoring changes in viral load and symptoms. The integrated cycler technology and Simplexa™ kits (Focus Diagnostics) currently provide fast, qualitative and sensitive diagnostic testing in hospitals and other healthcare facilities for patients with well-established respiratory illness. We have developed a novel use of qualitative integrated cycler PCR (qicPCR) technology to identify onset of RSV infection enabling an informed dosing clinical protocol in the RSV hVCM. We have validated qicPCR detection of RSV in spiked nasal wash aspirates and demonstrate that the qicPCR assay is 94% concordant with RSV plaque assay data in nasal wash samples from 53 RSV inoculated human volunteers in the hVCM. The use of qicPCR for informed dosing was successfully implemented in a recent clinical trial demonstrating efficacy of the RSV entry inhibitor GS-5806 in the hVCM (NCT01756482). Comparison of qicPCR positivity in relation to nasal wash viral load measured by both RT-qPCR and plaque assay shows that the therapeutic exposure was correctly initiated prior to onset and peak of RSV viral shedding and symptoms in the majority of volunteers.

Accelerating Influenza Research: Vaccines, Antivirals, Immunomodulators and Monoclonal Antibodies. The Manufacture of a New Wild-Type H3N2 Virus for the Human Viral Challenge Model

PloS One. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26761707

Influenza and its associated diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends influenza vaccination for everyone over 6 months of age. The failure of the flu vaccine in 2014-2015 demonstrates the need for a model that allows the rapid development of novel antivirals, universal/intra-seasonal vaccines, immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies and other novel treatments. To this end we manufactured a new H3N2 influenza virus in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice for use in the Human Viral Challenge Model.

Correction: Accelerating Influenza Research: Vaccines, Antivirals, Immunomodulators and Monoclonal Antibodies. The Manufacture of a New Wild-Type H3N2 Virus for the Human Viral Challenge Model

PloS One. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27280602

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145902.].

A Tool for Investigating Asthma and COPD Exacerbations: A Newly Manufactured and Well Characterised GMP Wild-Type Human Rhinovirus for Use in the Human Viral Challenge Model

PloS One. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27936016

Human Rhinovirus infection is an important precursor to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations and the Human Viral Challenge model may provide a powerful tool in studying these and other chronic respiratory diseases. In this study we have reported the production and human characterisation of a new Wild-Type HRV-16 challenge virus produced specifically for this purpose.

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