In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (17)

Articles by Remigiusz A. Serwa in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Open Source High Content Analysis Utilizing Automated Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

1Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 2Institute for Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 3MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, 4Chemical Biology Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 5Retroscreen Virology Ltd, 6Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Limited, Sandwich, Kent, UK, 7Centre for Histopathology, Imperial College London

JoVE 55119

Other articles by Remigiusz A. Serwa on PubMed

Phosphoramidate-peptide Synthesis by Solution- and Solid-phase Staudinger-phosphite Reactions

Journal of Peptide Science : an Official Publication of the European Peptide Society. Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20862723

The chemoselective incorporation of phosphoramidate moieties into peptides by a Staudinger-phosphite reaction of azides can be performed in many solvents, including water. In this report, we present two strategies for an efficient synthesis of phosphoramidate-containing peptides, in which the Staudinger-phosphite reaction is performed either on the solid support or in solution with aryl azido-containing peptides. The corresponding Staudinger reactions proceed in high conversion rates and deliver phosphoramidate peptides, in which the modification site is located in the middle of the peptide sequence.

A New Chemical Handle for Protein AMPylation at the Host-pathogen Interface

Chembiochem : a European Journal of Chemical Biology. Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22213418

Automated Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Plate Reader and Its Application to Förster Resonant Energy Transfer Readout of Gag Protein Aggregation

Journal of Biophotonics. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23184449

Fluorescence lifetime measurements can provide quantitative readouts of local fluorophore environment and can be applied to biomolecular interactions via Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) can therefore provide a high content analysis (HCA) modality to map protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with applications in drug discovery, systems biology and basic research. We present here an automated multiwell plate reader able to perform rapid unsupervised optically sectioned FLIM of fixed and live biological samples and illustrate its potential to assay PPIs through application to Gag protein aggregation during the HIV life cycle. We demonstrate both hetero-FRET and homo-FRET readouts of protein aggregation and report the first quantitative evaluation of a FLIM HCA assay by generating dose response curves through addition of an inhibitor of Gag myristoylation. Z' factors exceeding 0.6 are realised for this FLIM FRET assay.

Chemical Proteomics: a Powerful Tool for Exploring Protein Lipidation

Biochemical Society Transactions. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23356258

The study of post-translational modifications such as protein lipidation is a non-trivial challenge of the post-genomic era. In recent years the field of chemical proteomics has greatly advanced our ability to identify and quantify protein lipidation. In the present review, we give a brief overview of the tools available to study protein acylation, prenylation and cholesterylation, and their application in the identification and quantification of protein lipidation in health and disease.

Stabilization of Peptides for Intracellular Applications by Phosphoramidate-linked Polyethylene Glycol Chains

Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). Nov, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24039043

Validation of N-myristoyltransferase As an Antimalarial Drug Target Using an Integrated Chemical Biology Approach

Nature Chemistry. Feb, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24451586

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which leads to approximately one million deaths per annum worldwide. Chemical validation of new antimalarial targets is urgently required in view of rising resistance to current drugs. One such putative target is the enzyme N-myristoyltransferase, which catalyses the attachment of the fatty acid myristate to protein substrates (N-myristoylation). Here, we report an integrated chemical biology approach to explore protein myristoylation in the major human parasite P. falciparum, combining chemical proteomic tools for identification of the myristoylated and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteome with selective small-molecule N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors. We demonstrate that N-myristoyltransferase is an essential and chemically tractable target in malaria parasites both in vitro and in vivo, and show that selective inhibition of N-myristoylation leads to catastrophic and irreversible failure to assemble the inner membrane complex, a critical subcellular organelle in the parasite life cycle. Our studies provide the basis for the development of new antimalarials targeting N-myristoyltransferase.

Site-specifically Phosphorylated Lysine Peptides

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Oct, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25196693

Protein phosphorylation controls major processes in cells. Although phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine and also recently histidine and arginine are well-established, the extent and biological significance of lysine phosphorylation has remained elusive. Research in this area has been particularly limited by the inaccessibility of peptides and proteins that are phosphorylated at specific lysine residues, which are incompatible with solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) due to the intrinsic acid lability of the P(═O)-N phosphoramidate bond. To address this issue, we have developed a new synthetic route for the synthesis of site-specifically phospholysine (pLys)-containing peptides by employing the chemoselectivity of the Staudinger-phosphite reaction. Our synthetic approach relies on the SPPS of unprotected ε-azido lysine-containing peptides and their subsequent reaction to phosphoramidates with phosphite esters before they are converted into the natural modification via UV irradiation or basic deprotection. With these peptides in hand, we demonstrate that electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry can be used for unambiguous assignment of phosphorylated-lysine residues within histone peptides and that these peptides can be detected in cell lysates using a bottom-up proteomic approach. This new tagging method is expected to be an essential tool for evaluating the biological relevance of lysine phosphorylation.

Global Profiling of Co- and Post-translationally N-myristoylated Proteomes in Human Cells

Nature Communications. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25255805

Protein N-myristoylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification that has been implicated in the development and progression of a range of human diseases. Here, we report the global N-myristoylated proteome in human cells determined using quantitative chemical proteomics combined with potent and specific human N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) inhibition. Global quantification of N-myristoylation during normal growth or apoptosis allowed the identification of >100 N-myristoylated proteins, >95% of which are identified for the first time at endogenous levels. Furthermore, quantitative dose response for inhibition of N-myristoylation is determined for >70 substrates simultaneously across the proteome. Small-molecule inhibition through a conserved substrate-binding pocket is also demonstrated by solving the crystal structures of inhibitor-bound NMT1 and NMT2. The presented data substantially expand the known repertoire of co- and post-translational N-myristoylation in addition to validating tools for the pharmacological inhibition of NMT in living cells.

New Chemical Probes Targeting Cholesterylation of Sonic Hedgehog in Human Cells and Zebrafish

Chemical Science. May, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25574372

Sonic Hedgehog protein (Shh) is a morphogen molecule important in embryonic development and in the progression of many cancer types in which it is aberrantly overexpressed. Fully mature Shh requires attachment of cholesterol and palmitic acid to its C- and N-termini, respectively. The study of lipidated Shh has been challenging due to the limited array of tools available, and the roles of these posttranslational modifications are poorly understood. Herein, we describe the development and validation of optimised alkynyl sterol probes that efficiently tag Shh cholesterylation and enable its visualisation and analysis through bioorthogonal ligation to reporters. An optimised probe was shown to be an excellent cholesterol biomimetic in the context of Shh, enabling appropriate release of tagged Shh from signalling cells, formation of multimeric transport complexes and signalling. We have used this probe to determine the size of transport complexes of lipidated Shh in culture medium and expression levels of endogenous lipidated Shh in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines through quantitative chemical proteomics, as well as direct visualisation of the probe by fluorescence microscopy and detection of cholesterylated Hedgehog protein in developing zebrafish embryos. These sterol probes provide a set of novel and well-validated tools that can be used to investigate the role of lipidation on activity of Shh, and potentially other members of the Hedgehog protein family.

Global Analysis of Protein N-myristoylation and Exploration of N-myristoyltransferase As a Drug Target in the Neglected Human Pathogen Leishmania Donovani

Chemistry & Biology. Mar, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25728269

N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) modulates protein function through the attachment of the lipid myristate to the N terminus of target proteins, and is a promising drug target in eukaryotic parasites such as Leishmania donovani. Only a small number of NMT substrates have been characterized in Leishmania, and a global picture of N-myristoylation is lacking. Here, we use metabolic tagging with an alkyne-functionalized myristic acid mimetic in live parasites followed by downstream click chemistry and analysis to identify lipidated proteins in both the promastigote (extracellular) and amastigote (intracellular) life stages. Quantitative chemical proteomics is used to profile target engagement by NMT inhibitors, and to define the complement of N-myristoylated proteins. Our results provide new insight into the multiple pathways modulated by NMT and the pleiotropic effects of NMT inhibition. This work constitutes the first global experimental analysis of protein lipidation in Leishmania, and reveals the extent of NMT-related biology yet to be explored for this neglected human pathogen.

Multifunctional Reagents for Quantitative Proteome-wide Analysis of Protein Modification in Human Cells and Dynamic Profiling of Protein Lipidation During Vertebrate Development

Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). May, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25807930

Novel multifunctional reagents were applied in combination with a lipid probe for affinity enrichment of myristoylated proteins and direct detection of lipid-modified tryptic peptides by mass spectrometry. This method enables high-confidence identification of the myristoylated proteome on an unprecedented scale in cell culture, and allowed the first quantitative analysis of dynamic changes in protein lipidation during vertebrate embryonic development.

Chemoproteomic Evaluation of the Polyacetylene Callyspongynic Acid

Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany). Jul, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26079733

Polyacetylenes are a class of alkyne-containing natural products. Although potent bioactivities and thus possible applications as chemical probes have already been reported for some polyacetylenes, insights into the biological activities or molecular mode of action are still rather limited in most cases. To overcome this limitation, we describe the application of the polyacetylene callyspongynic acid in the development of an experimental roadmap for characterizing potential protein targets of alkyne-containing natural products. To this end, we undertook the first chemical synthesis of callyspongynic acid. We then used in situ chemical proteomics methods to demonstrate extensive callyspongynic acid-mediated chemical tagging of endoplasmic reticulum-associated lipid-metabolizing and modifying enzymes. We anticipate that an elucidation of protein targets of natural products may serve as an effective guide to the development of subsequent biological assays that aim to identify chemical phenotypes and bioactivities.

Myristoylation Profiling in Human Cells and Zebrafish

Data in Brief. Sep, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26217820

Human cells (HEK 293, HeLa, MCF-7) and zebrafish embryos were metabolically tagged with an alkynyl myristic acid probe, lysed with an SDS buffer and tagged proteomes ligated to multifunctional capture reagents via copper-catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition (CuAAC). This allowed for affinity enrichment and high-confidence identification, by delivering direct MS/MS evidence for the modification site, of 87 and 61 co-translationally myristoylated proteins in human cells and zebrafish, respectively. The data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2014 Nat. Biotechnol., 32, 223-6) (PXD001863 and PXD001876) and are described in detail in Multifunctional reagents for quantitative proteome-wide analysis of protein modification in human cells and dynamic protein lipidation during vertebrate development׳ by Broncel et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.

Systems Analysis of Protein Fatty Acylation in Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Cells Using Chemical Proteomics

Chemistry & Biology. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26256475

Protein fatty acylation regulates diverse aspects of cellular function and organization and plays a key role in host immune responses to infection. Acylation also modulates the function and localization of virus-encoded proteins. Here, we employ chemical proteomics tools, bio-orthogonal probes, and capture reagents to study myristoylation and palmitoylation during infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Using in-gel fluorescence imaging and quantitative mass spectrometry, we demonstrate a generalized reduction in myristoylation of host proteins, whereas palmitoylation of host proteins, including regulators of interferon and tetraspanin family proteins, was selectively repressed. Furthermore, we found that a significant fraction of the viral proteome undergoes palmitoylation; we identified a number of virus membrane glycoproteins, structural proteins, and kinases. Taken together, our results provide broad oversight of protein acylation during HSV infection, a roadmap for similar analysis in other systems, and a resource with which to pursue specific analysis of systems and functions.

Remote Activation of Host Cell DNA Synthesis in Uninfected Cells Signaled by Infected Cells in Advance of Virus Transmission

Journal of Virology. Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26311877

Viruses modulate cellular processes and metabolism in diverse ways, but these are almost universally studied in the infected cell itself. Here, we study spatial organization of DNA synthesis during multiround transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV) using pulse-labeling with ethynyl nucleotides and cycloaddition of azide fluorophores. We report a hitherto unknown and unexpected outcome of virus-host interaction. Consistent with the current understanding of the single-step growth cycle, HSV suppresses host DNA synthesis and promotes viral DNA synthesis in spatially segregated compartments within the cell. In striking contrast, during progressive rounds of infection initiated at a single cell, we observe that infection induces a clear and pronounced stimulation of cellular DNA replication in remote uninfected cells. This induced DNA synthesis was observed in hundreds of uninfected cells at the extended border, outside the perimeter of the progressing infection. Moreover, using pulse-chase analysis, we show that this activation is maintained, resulting in a propagating wave of host DNA synthesis continually in advance of infection. As the virus reaches and infects these activated cells, host DNA synthesis is then shut off and replaced with virus DNA synthesis. Using nonpropagating viruses or conditioned medium, we demonstrate a paracrine effector of uninfected cell DNA synthesis in remote cells continually in advance of infection. These findings have significant implications, likely with broad applicability, for our understanding of the ways in which virus infection manipulates cell processes not only in the infected cell itself but also now in remote uninfected cells, as well as of mechanisms governing host DNA synthesis.

Global Profiling of Huntingtin-associated Protein E (HYPE)-Mediated AMPylation Through a Chemical Proteomic Approach

Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP. Feb, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26604261

AMPylation of mammalian small GTPases by bacterial virulence factors can be a key step in bacterial infection of host cells, and constitutes a potential drug target. This posttranslational modification also exists in eukaryotes, and AMP transferase activity was recently assigned to HYPE Filamentation induced by cyclic AMP domain containing protein (FICD) protein, which is conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. In contrast to bacterial AMP transferases, only a small number of HYPE substrates have been identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry approaches, and the full range of targets is yet to be determined in mammalian cells. We describe here the first example of global chemoproteomic screening and substrate validation for HYPE-mediated AMPylation in mammalian cell lysate. Through quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomics coupled with novel chemoproteomic tools providing MS/MS evidence of AMP modification, we identified a total of 25 AMPylated proteins, including the previously validated substrate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone BiP (HSPA5), and also novel substrates involved in pathways of gene expression, ATP biosynthesis, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. This dataset represents the largest library of AMPylated human proteins reported to date and a foundation for substrate-specific investigations that can ultimately decipher the complex biological networks involved in eukaryotic AMPylation.

Spatial and Temporal Resolution of Global Protein Synthesis During HSV Infection Using Bioorthogonal Precursors and Click Chemistry

PLoS Pathogens. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27706239

We used pulse-labeling with the methionine analogue homopropargylglycine (HPG) to investigate spatiotemporal aspects of protein synthesis during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. In vivo incorporation of HPG enables subsequent selective coupling of fluorochrome-capture reagents to newly synthesised proteins. We demonstrate that HPG labeling had no effect on cell viability, on accumulation of test early or late viral proteins, or on overall virus yields. HPG pulse-labeling followed by SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed incorporation into newly synthesised proteins, while parallel processing by in situ cycloaddition revealed new insight into spatiotemporal aspects of protein localisation during infection. A striking feature was the rapid accumulation of newly synthesised proteins not only in a general nuclear pattern but additionally in newly forming sub-compartments represented by small discrete foci. These newly synthesised protein domains (NPDs) were similar in size and morphology to PML domains but were more numerous, and whereas PML domains were progressively disrupted, NPDs were progressively induced and persisted. Immediate-early proteins ICP4 and ICP0 were excluded from NPDs, but using an ICP0 mutant defective in PML disruption, we show a clear spatial relationship between NPDs and PML domains with NPDs frequently forming immediately adjacent and co-joining persisting PML domains. Further analysis of location of the chaperone Hsc70 demonstrated that while NPDs formed early in infection without overt Hsc70 recruitment, later in infection Hsc70 showed pronounced recruitment frequently in a coat-like fashion around NPDs. Moreover, while ICP4 and ICP0 were excluded from NPDs, ICP22 showed selective recruitment. Our data indicate that NPDs represent early recruitment of host and viral de novo translated protein to distinct structural entities which are precursors to the previously described VICE domains involved in protein quality control in the nucleus, and reveal new features from which we propose spatially linked platforms of newly synthesised protein processing after nuclear import.

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