In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (51)

Articles by James McGinty in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Open Source High Content Analysis Utilizing Automated Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

1Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 2Institute for Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 3MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, 4Chemical Biology Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 5Retroscreen Virology Ltd, 6Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Limited, Sandwich, Kent, UK, 7Centre for Histopathology, Imperial College London

JoVE 55119

Other articles by James McGinty on PubMed

Time-domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Applied to Biological Tissue

Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences : Official Journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology. Aug, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15295637

Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a functional imaging methodology that can provide information, not only concerning the localisation of specific fluorophores, but also about the local fluorophore environment. It may be implemented in scanning confocal or multi-photon microscopes, or in wide-field microscopes and endoscopes. When applied to tissue autofluorescence, it reveals intrinsic excellent contrast between different types and states of tissue. This article aims to review our recent progress in developing time-domain FLIM technology for microscopy and endoscopy and applying it to biological tissue.

The LapSim: a Learning Environment for Both Experts and Novices

Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15718770

Simulated environments present challenges to both clinical experts and novices in laparoscopic surgery. Experts and novices may have different expectations when confronted with a novel simulated environment. The LapSim is a computer-based virtual reality laparoscopic trainer. Our aim was to analyze the performance of experienced basic laparoscopists and novices during their first exposure to the LapSim Basic Skill set and Dissection module.

A Novel Drill Set for the Enhancement and Assessment of Robotic Surgical Performance

Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15718771

There currently exist several training modules to improve performance during video-assisted surgery. The unique characteristics of robotic surgery make these platforms an inadequate environment for the development and assessment of robotic surgical performance.

Incretins, Diabetes, and Bariatric Surgery: a Review

Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases : Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Nov-Dec, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16925299

Time-resolved Fluorescence Imaging of Solvent Interactions in Microfluidic Devices

Optics Express. Aug, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 19498640

We present the application of wide-field time-resolved fluorescence imaging methods for the study of solvent interactions and mixing in microfluidic devices. Time-resolved imaging of fluorescence polarization anisotropy allows us to image the local viscosity of fluorescence in three dimensions in order to directly monitor solvent mixing within a microfluidic channel. This provides a viscosity image acquisition time of the order of minutes, and has been applied to a steady-state laminar flow configuration. To image dynamic fluid mixing in real-time, we demonstrate high-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging at 12.3 Hz applied to DASPI, which directly exhibits a solvent viscosity-dependant fluorescence lifetime. These two methods facilitate a high degree of quantification of microfluidic flow in 3-D and/or at high speed, providing a tool for studying fluid dynamics and for developing enhanced microfluidic assays.

Tissue Characterization Using Dimensionality Reduction and Fluorescence Imaging

Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention : MICCAI ... International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention. 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 17354820

Multidimensional fluorescence imaging is a powerful molecular imaging modality that is emerging as an important tool in the study of biological tissues. Due to the large volume of multi-spectral data associated with the technique, it is often difficult to find the best combination of parameters to maximize the contrast between different tissue types. This paper presents a novel framework for the characterization of tissue compositions based on the use of time resolved fluorescence imaging without the explicit modeling of the decays. The composition is characterized through soft clustering based on manifold embedding for reducing the dimensionality of the datasets and obtaining a consistent differentiation scheme for determining intrinsic constituents of the tissue. The proposed technique has the benefit of being fully automatic, which could have significant advantages for automated histopathology and increasing the speed of intraoperative decisions. Validation of the technique is carried out with both phantom data and tissue samples of the human pancreas.

Use of Polyflex Stents in Treatment of Acute Esophageal and Gastric Leaks After Bariatric Surgery

Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases : Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Jan-Feb, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17196440

This study examined the feasibility of using Polyflex stents in the treatment of enteric leaks after various bariatric operations. Chronic and acute leaks were treated.

Rapid Hyperspectral Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

Microscopy Research and Technique. May, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17366615

We report a rapid hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) instrument that exploits high-speed FLIM technology in a line-scanning microscope. We demonstrate the acquisition of whole-field optically sectioned hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime image stacks (with 32 spectral bins) in less than 40 s and illustrate its application to unstained biological tissue.

Incretin Levels and Effect Are Markedly Enhanced 1 Month After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Care. Jul, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17416796

Limited data on patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RY-GBP) suggest that an improvement in insulin secretion after surgery occurs rapidly and thus may not be wholly accounted for by weight loss. We hypothesized that in obese patients with type 2 diabetes the impaired levels and effect of incretins changed as a consequence of RY-GBP.

Fluorescence Lifetime Tomography of Live Cells Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein Embedded in a Scattering Medium Exhibiting Background Autofluorescence

Optics Letters. Jul, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17632634

We present a novel fluorescence lifetime tomography system applied to a highly scattering autofluorescent phantom containing live cells expressing the fluorophore enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The fluorescence signal was excited using a fiber-laser-pumped supercontinuum source and detected using wide-field time gating imaging. To facilitate rapid 3D reconstruction of the fluorescence lifetime distribution, the time-resolved data were Fourier-transformed in time to give complex functions that formed a data set for the Fourier domain reconstruction. Initially the presence of an unspecified background autofluorescence signal impeded reconstruction of the lifetime distribution, but we show that this problem can be addressed using a simple iterative technique.

Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging by Using Time-gated Data Acquisition

Applied Optics. Oct, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17952172

The use of the time gating technique for lifetime reconstruction in the Fourier domain is a novel technique. Time gating provides sufficient data points in the time domain for reliable application of the Fourier transform, which is essential for the time deconvolution of the system of the integral equations employed in the reconstruction. The Fourier domain telegraph equation is employed to model the light transport, which allows a sufficiently broad interval of frequencies to be covered. Reconstructed images contain enough information needed for recovering the lifetime distribution in a sample for any given frequency within the megahertz-gigahertz band. The use of this technique is essential for recovering time-dependent information in fluorescence imaging. This technique was applied in reconstruction of the lifetime distribution of four tubes filled with Rhodamine 6G embedded inside a highly scattering slab. Relatively accurate fluorescence lifetime reconstruction demonstrates the effectiveness and the potential of the proposed technique.

Effect of Weight Loss by Gastric Bypass Surgery Versus Hypocaloric Diet on Glucose and Incretin Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jul, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18430778

Gastric bypass surgery (GBP) results in rapid weight loss, improvement of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and increase in incretins levels. Diet-induced weight loss also improves T2DM and may increase incretin levels.

Fluorescence Lifetime Optical Projection Tomography

Journal of Biophotonics. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 19343662

We describe a quantitative fluorescence projection tomography technique which measures the 3-D fluorescence lifetime distribution in optically cleared specimens up 1 cm in diameter. This is achieved by acquiring a series of wide-field time-gated images at different relative time delays with respect to a train of excitation pulses, at a number of projection angles. For each time delay, the 3-D time-gated intensity distribution is reconstructed using a filtered back projection algorithm and the fluorescence lifetime subsequently determined for each reconstructed horizontal plane by iterative fitting to a mono-exponential decay. Due to its inherently ratiometric nature, fluorescence lifetime is robust against intensity based artefacts as well as producing a quantitative measure of the fluorescence signal. We present a 3-D fluorescence lifetime reconstruction of a mouse embryo labelled with an alexa-488 conjugated antibody targeted to the neurofilament, which clearly differentiates between the extrinsic label and the autofluorescence, particularly from the heart and dorsal aorta.

High Speed Unsupervised Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Confocal Multiwell Plate Reader for High Content Analysis

Journal of Biophotonics. Dec, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 19343677

We report an automated optically sectioning fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) multiwell plate reader for high content analysis (HCA) in drug discovery and accelerated research in cell biology. The system utilizes a Nipkow disc confocal microscope and performs unsupervised FLIM with autofocus, automatic setting of acquisition parameters and automated localisation of cells in the field of view. We demonstrate its applications to test dye solutions, fixed and live cells and FLIM-FRET.

Molecular Aspects of Mucoadhesive Carrier Development for Drug Delivery and Improved Absorption

Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition. 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19105897

Although the oral route remains the most favored route of drug administration, major scientific obstacles prevent the effective and efficient delivery of low-molecular-mass drugs, peptides and proteins that exhibit poor solubility and permeability. Mucoadhesive dosage forms and the associated drug carriers have the ability to interact at a molecular level with the mucus gel layer that lines the epithelial surfaces of the major absorptive regions of the body. This interaction provides an increased residence time of the therapeutic formulation while localizing the drug at the site of administration. Such local, non-specific targeting leads to an increase in both oral absorption and bioavailability. Fundamental understanding of the biological processes encountered along the gastrointestinal tract can provide a sufficient engineer of carriers that are capable to provide this increase in residence time. Here we discuss the theoretical framework for achieving mucoadhesive systems as related to biomaterials science and the structure of the biomaterials used.

Single-incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Using a Flexible Endoscope

Archives of Surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960). Aug, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19687377

To describe our experience with a single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) performed using a flexible endoscope as the means of visualization and surgical dissection. The use of flexible endoscopy in intra-abdominal surgery has never been described.

Three-dimensional Imaging of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in Heterogeneous Turbid Media by Tomographic Fluorescent Lifetime Imaging

Optics Letters. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19756100

We report a three-dimensional time-resolved tomographic imaging technique for localizing protein-protein interaction and protein conformational changes in turbid media based on Förster resonant energy-transfer read out using fluorescence lifetime. This application of "tomoFRET" employs an inverse scattering algorithm utilizing the diffusion approximation to the radiative-transfer equation applied to a large tomographic data set of time-gated images. The approach is demonstrated by imaging a highly scattering cylindrical phantom within which are two thin wells containing cytosol preparations of HEK293 cells expressing TN-L15, a cytosolic genetically encoded calcium Förster resonant energy-transfer sensor. A 10 mM calcium chloride solution was added to one of the wells, inducing a protein conformation change upon binding to TN-L15, resulting in Förster resonant energy transfer and a corresponding decrease in the donor fluorescence lifetime. We successfully reconstruct spatially resolved maps of the resulting fluorescence lifetime distribution as well as of the quantum efficiency, absorption, and scattering coefficients.

Laparoscopic Single-site Surgery for Placement of Adjustable Gastric Band--a Series of 22 Cases

Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases : Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Jan-Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19560980

We present a series of 22 patients who underwent laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery for placement of an adjustable gastric band at a U.S. university hospital.

Superior Appetite Hormone Profile After Equivalent Weight Loss by Gastric Bypass Compared to Gastric Banding

Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). Jun, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20057364

The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms of greater weight loss by gastric bypass (GBP) compared to gastric banding (GB) surgery. Obese weight- and age-matched subjects were studied before (T0), after a 12 kg weight loss (T1) by GBP (n = 11) or GB (n = 9), and at 1 year after surgery (T2). peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), leptin, and amylin were measured after an oral glucose challenge. At T1, glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and PYY levels increased significantly after GBP but not GB. Ghrelin levels did not change significantly after either surgery. In spite of equivalent weight loss, leptin and amylin decreased after GBP, but not after GB. At T2, weight loss was greater after GBP than GB (P = 0.003). GLP-1, PYY, and amylin levels did not significantly change from T1 to T2; leptin levels continued to decrease after GBP, but not after GB at T2. Surprisingly, ghrelin area under the curve (AUC) increased 1 year after GBP (P = 0.03). These data show that, at equivalent weight loss, favorable GLP-1 and PYY changes occur after GBP, but not GB, and could explain the difference in weight loss at 1 year. Mechanisms other than weight loss may explain changes of leptin and amylin after GBP.

LKB1 Deletion with the RIP2.Cre Transgene Modifies Pancreatic Beta-cell Morphology and Enhances Insulin Secretion in Vivo

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jun, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20354156

The tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1), also called STK11, is a protein kinase mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. LKB1 phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and several related protein kinases. Whereas deletion of both catalytic isoforms of AMPK from the pancreatic beta-cell and hypothalamic neurons using the rat insulin promoter (RIP2).Cre transgene (betaAMPKdKO) diminishes insulin secretion in vivo, deletion of LKB1 in the beta-cell with an inducible Pdx-1.CreER transgene enhances insulin secretion in mice. To determine whether the differences between these models reflect genuinely distinct roles for the two kinases in the beta-cell or simply differences in the timing and site(s) of deletion, we have therefore created mice deleted for LKB1 with the RIP2.Cre transgene. In marked contrast to betaAMPKdKO mice, betaLKB1KO mice showed diminished food intake and weight gain, enhanced insulin secretion, unchanged insulin sensitivity, and improved glucose tolerance. In line with the phenotype of Pdx1-CreER mice, total beta-cell mass and the size of individual islets and beta-cells were increased and islet architecture was markedly altered in betaLKB1KO islets. Signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to eIF4-binding protein-1 and ribosomal S6 kinase was also enhanced. In contrast to Pdx1-CreER-mediated deletion, the expression of Glut2, glucose-induced changes in membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) were sharply reduced in betaLKB1KO mouse islets and the stimulation of insulin secretion was modestly inhibited. We conclude that LKB1 and AMPK play distinct roles in the control of insulin secretion and that the timing of LKB1 deletion, and/or its loss from extrapancreatic sites, influences the final impact on beta-cell function.

Rise of Oxyntomodulin in Response to Oral Glucose After Gastric Bypass Surgery in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Aug, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20501690

The mechanisms by which Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (GBP) results in sustained weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes are not fully understood.

Health Workforce Australia

Collegian (Royal College of Nursing, Australia). 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 21046962

Wide-field Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Cancer

Biomedical Optics Express. Aug, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 21258496

Optical imaging of tissue autofluorescence has the potential to provide rapid label-free screening and detection of surface tumors for clinical applications, including when combined with endoscopy. Quantitative imaging of intensity-based contrast is notoriously difficult and spectrally resolved imaging does not always provide sufficient contrast. We demonstrate that fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) applied to intrinsic tissue autofluorescence can directly contrast a range of surface tissue tumors, including in gastrointestinal tissues, using compact, clinically deployable instrumentation achieving wide-field fluorescence lifetime images of unprecedented clarity. Statistically significant contrast is observed between cancerous and healthy colon tissue for FLIM with excitation at 355 nm. To illustrate the clinical potential, wide-field fluorescence lifetime images of unstained ex vivo tissue have been acquired at near video rate, which is an important step towards real-time FLIM for diagnostic and interoperative imaging, including for screening and image-guided biopsy applications.

FLIM FRET Technology for Drug Discovery: Automated Multiwell-plate High-content Analysis, Multiplexed Readouts and Application in Situ

Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21337485

A fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) technology platform intended to read out changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency is presented for the study of protein interactions across the drug-discovery pipeline. FLIM provides a robust, inherently ratiometric imaging modality for drug discovery that could allow the same sensor constructs to be translated from automated cell-based assays through small transparent organisms such as zebrafish to mammals. To this end, an automated FLIM multiwell-plate reader is described for high content analysis of fixed and live cells, tomographic FLIM in zebrafish and FLIM FRET of live cells via confocal endomicroscopy. For cell-based assays, an exemplar application reading out protein aggregation using FLIM FRET is presented, and the potential for multiple simultaneous FLIM (FRET) readouts in microscopy is illustrated.

Ileocecal Fold of Treves: a Rare Cause of Small Bowel Obstruction

The American Surgeon. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21337889

In Vivo Fluorescence Lifetime Optical Projection Tomography

Biomedical Optics Express. Apr, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21559145

We demonstrate the application of fluorescence lifetime optical projection tomography (FLIM-OPT) to in vivo imaging of lysC:GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). This method has been applied to unambiguously distinguish between the fluorescent protein (GFP) signal in myeloid cells from background autofluorescence based on the fluorescence lifetime. The combination of FLIM, an inherently ratiometric method, in conjunction with OPT results in a quantitative 3-D tomographic technique that could be used as a robust method for in vivo biological and pharmaceutical research, for example as a readout of Förster resonance energy transfer based interactions.

In Vivo Fluorescence Lifetime Tomography of a FRET Probe Expressed in Mouse

Biomedical Optics Express. Jul, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21750768

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful biological tool for reading out cell signaling processes. In vivo use of FRET is challenging because of the scattering properties of bulk tissue. By combining diffuse fluorescence tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), implemented using wide-field time-gated detection of fluorescence excited by ultrashort laser pulses in a tomographic imaging system and applying inverse scattering algorithms, we can reconstruct the three dimensional spatial localization of fluorescence quantum efficiency and lifetime. We demonstrate in vivo spatial mapping of FRET between genetically expressed fluorescent proteins in live mice read out using FLIM. Following transfection by electroporation, mouse hind leg muscles were imaged in vivo and the emission of free donor (eGFP) in the presence of free acceptor (mCherry) could be clearly distinguished from the fluorescence of the donor when directly linked to the acceptor in a tandem (eGFP-mCherry) FRET construct.

Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Imaging in Vivo with Approximated Radiative Transfer Equation

Applied Optics. Dec, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22193187

We describe a new light transport model, which was applied to three-dimensional lifetime imaging of Förster resonance energy transfer in mice in vivo. The model is an approximation to the radiative transfer equation and combines light diffusion and ray optics. This approximation is well adopted to wide-field time-gated intensity-based data acquisition. Reconstructed image data are presented and compared with results obtained by using the telegraph equation approximation. The new approach provides improved recovery of absorption and scattering parameters while returning similar values for the fluorescence parameters.

Single Port Sleeve Gastrectomy: Strategic Use of Technology to Re-establish Fundamental Tenets of Multiport Laparoscopy

Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases : Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Jul-Aug, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21955748

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is commonly performed using multiple ports. The quest to minimize surgical trauma has led to the development of single port laparoscopy, which has been shown to be a safe, less-invasive method of performing a variety of abdominal surgeries. We describe the feasibility and safety of single port sleeve gastrectomy (SPSG) for morbid obesity at an academic affiliate of a university hospital.

The Bariatric Surgery Patient: Lost to Follow-up; from Morbid Obesity to Severe Malnutrition

Endocrine Practice : Official Journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Mar-Apr, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22138075

To describe the potential long-term risk of malnutrition after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) through an uncommon occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) postoperatively, which posed a serious threat to the nutritional status and the life of the patient.

Incorporation of an Experimentally Determined MTF for Spatial Frequency Filtering and Deconvolution During Optical Projection Tomography Reconstruction

Optics Express. Mar, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22453413

We demonstrate two techniques to improve the quality of reconstructed optical projection tomography (OPT) images using the modulation transfer function (MTF) as a function of defocus experimentally determined from tilted knife-edge measurements. The first employs a 2-D binary filter based on the MTF frequency cut-off as an additional filter during back-projection reconstruction that restricts the high frequency information to the region around the focal plane and progressively decreases the spatial frequency bandwidth with defocus. This helps to suppress "streak" artifacts in OPT data acquired at reduced angular sampling, thereby facilitating faster OPT acquisitions. This method is shown to reduce the average background by approximately 72% for an NA of 0.09 and by approximately 38% for an NA of 0.07 compared to standard filtered back-projection. As a biological illustration, a Fli:GFP transgenic zebrafish embryo (3 days post-fertilisation) was imaged to demonstrate the improved imaging speed (a quarter of the acquisition time). The second method uses the MTF to produce an appropriate deconvolution filter that can be used to correct for the spatial frequency modulation applied by the imaging system.

Accelerated Gastric Emptying but No Carbohydrate Malabsorption 1 Year After Gastric Bypass Surgery (GBP)

Obesity Surgery. Aug, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22527599

Following gastric bypass surgery (GBP), there is a post-prandial rise of incretin and satiety gut peptides. The mechanisms of enhanced incretin release in response to nutrients after GBP is not elucidated and may be in relation to altered nutrient transit time and/or malabsorption.

Outcomes of Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Versus Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding in Adolescents

Obesity Surgery. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22923312

The goal of this study is to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in obese adolescents.

Surgical Residents' Perception of the 16-hour Work Day Restriction: Concern for Negative Impact on Resident Education and Patient Care

Journal of the American College of Surgeons. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23040454

Effective July 1, 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) instituted a 16-hour duty period limitation for postgraduate year I (PGY I) residents. Our aim was to assess the attitudes and perception of general surgery residents regarding the new duty hour limitation as well as the transfer of care process under the new guidelines.

The Incidence of Trocar-site Hernia in Minimally Invasive Bariatric Surgery: a Comparison of Multi Versus Single-port Laparoscopy

Surgical Endoscopy. Apr, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23232997

Single-port laparoscopy (SPL) employs a 1.5- to 2.5-cm incision at the umbilicus for the placement of a single working port. We hypothesized that the longer incision created by SPL compared with multiport laparoscopy may increase the incidence of trocar-site hernias. We examined our experience with SPL in bariatric operations.

Simultaneous Angular Multiplexing Optical Projection Tomography at Shifted Focal Planes

Optics Letters. Mar, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23503237

We describe an angular multiplexing technique for optical projection tomography that improves resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and imaging speed by ameliorating the trade-off between spatial resolution and depth of field and improving the light collection efficiency. Here we demonstrate that imaging at two orthogonal angular projections simultaneously, focused on shifted planes in the sample, improves the average spatial resolution by ~20% and the light collection efficiency by a factor of ~4, thereby enabling increased acquisition speed and reduced light dose.

Effects of Gastrogastric Fistula Repair on Weight Loss and Gut Hormone Levels

Obesity Surgery. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23549962

Weight regain after gastric bypass (GBP) can be associated with a gastrogastric fistula (GGF), in which a channel forms between the gastric pouch and gastric remnant, allowing nutrients to pass through the "old route" rather than bypassing the duodenum. To further understand the mechanisms by which GGF may lead to weight regain, we investigated gut hormone levels in GBP patients with a GGF, before and after repair.

Animal Models of GWAS-identified Type 2 Diabetes Genes

Journal of Diabetes Research. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23710470

More than 65 loci, encoding up to 500 different genes, have been implicated by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as conferring an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whilst mouse models have in the past been central to understanding the mechanisms through which more penetrant risk genes for T2D, for example, those responsible for neonatal or maturity-onset diabetes of the young, only a few of those identified by GWAS, notably TCF7L2 and ZnT8/SLC30A8, have to date been examined in mouse models. We discuss here the animal models available for the latter genes and provide perspectives for future, higher throughput approaches towards efficiently mining the information provided by human genetics.

Limited Recovery of β-cell Function After Gastric Bypass Despite Clinical Diabetes Remission

Diabetes. Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24296713

The mechanisms responsible for the remarkable remission of type 2 diabetes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) are still puzzling. To elucidate the role of the gut, we compared β-cell function assessed during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an isoglycemic intravenous glucose clamp (iso-IVGC) in: 1) 16 severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes, up to 3 years post-RYGBP; 2) 11 severely obese normal glucose-tolerant control subjects; and 3) 7 lean control subjects. Diabetes remission was observed after RYGBP. β-Cell function during the OGTT, significantly blunted prior to RYGBP, normalized to levels of both control groups after RYGBP. In contrast, during the iso-IVGC, β-cell function improved minimally and remained significantly impaired compared with lean control subjects up to 3 years post-RYGBP. Presurgery, β-cell function, weight loss, and glucagon-like peptide 1 response were all predictors of postsurgery β-cell function, although weight loss appeared to be the strongest predictor. These data show that β-cell dysfunction persists after RYGBP, even in patients in clinical diabetes remission. This impairment can be rescued by oral glucose stimulation, suggesting that RYGBP leads to an important gastrointestinal effect, critical for improved β-cell function after surgery.

Response to Comment on Dutia Et Al. Limited Recovery of β-cell Function After Gastric Bypass Despite Clinical Diabetes Remission. Diabetes 2014;63:1214-1223

Diabetes. Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24651813

LKB1 and AMPK Differentially Regulate Pancreatic β-cell Identity

FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Nov, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25070369

Fully differentiated pancreatic β cells are essential for normal glucose homeostasis in mammals. Dedifferentiation of these cells has been suggested to occur in type 2 diabetes, impairing insulin production. Since chronic fuel excess ("glucotoxicity") is implicated in this process, we sought here to identify the potential roles in β-cell identity of the tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1/STK11) and the downstream fuel-sensitive kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Highly β-cell-restricted deletion of each kinase in mice, using an Ins1-controlled Cre, was therefore followed by physiological, morphometric, and massive parallel sequencing analysis. Loss of LKB1 strikingly (2.0-12-fold, E<0.01) increased the expression of subsets of hepatic (Alb, Iyd, Elovl2) and neuronal (Nptx2, Dlgap2, Cartpt, Pdyn) genes, enhancing glutamate signaling. These changes were partially recapitulated by the loss of AMPK, which also up-regulated β-cell "disallowed" genes (Slc16a1, Ldha, Mgst1, Pdgfra) 1.8- to 3.4-fold (E < 0.01). Correspondingly, targeted promoters were enriched for neuronal (Zfp206; P = 1.3 × 10(-33)) and hypoxia-regulated (HIF1; P = 2.5 × 10(-16)) transcription factors. In summary, LKB1 and AMPK, through only partly overlapping mechanisms, maintain β-cell identity by suppressing alternate pathways leading to neuronal, hepatic, and other characteristics. Selective targeting of these enzymes may provide a new approach to maintaining β-cell function in some forms of diabetes.

Remote Focal Scanning Optical Projection Tomography with an Electrically Tunable Lens

Biomedical Optics Express. Oct, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25360356

We describe a remote focal scanning technique for optical projection tomography (OPT) implemented with an electrically tunable lens (ETL) that removes the need to scan the specimen or objective lens. Using a 4× objective lens the average spatial resolution is improved by ∼46% and the light collection efficiency by a factor of ∼6.76, thereby enabling increased acquisition speed and reduced light dose. This convenient implementation is particularly appropriate for lower magnifications and larger sample diameters where axial objective scanning would encounter problems with speed and stability.

Selective Disruption of Tcf7l2 in the Pancreatic β Cell Impairs Secretory Function and Lowers β Cell Mass

Human Molecular Genetics. Mar, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25355422

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by β cell dysfunction and loss. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the T-cell factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene, associated with T2D by genome-wide association studies, lead to impaired β cell function. While deletion of the homologous murine Tcf7l2 gene throughout the developing pancreas leads to impaired glucose tolerance, deletion in the β cell in adult mice reportedly has more modest effects. To inactivate Tcf7l2 highly selectively in β cells from the earliest expression of the Ins1 gene (∼E11.5) we have therefore used a Cre recombinase introduced at the Ins1 locus. Tcfl2(fl/fl)::Ins1Cre mice display impaired oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance by 8 and 16 weeks, respectively, and defective responses to the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide at 8 weeks. Tcfl2(fl/fl)::Ins1Cre islets displayed defective glucose- and GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion and the expression of both the Ins2 (∼20%) and Glp1r (∼40%) genes were significantly reduced. Glucose- and GLP-1-induced intracellular free Ca(2+) increases, and connectivity between individual β cells, were both lowered by Tcf7l2 deletion in islets from mice maintained on a high (60%) fat diet. Finally, analysis by optical projection tomography revealed ∼30% decrease in β cell mass in pancreata from Tcfl2(fl/fl)::Ins1Cre mice. These data demonstrate that Tcf7l2 plays a cell autonomous role in the control of β cell function and mass, serving as an important regulator of gene expression and islet cell coordination. The possible relevance of these findings for the action of TCF7L2 polymorphisms associated with Type 2 diabetes in man is discussed.

Mesoscopic in Vivo 3-D Tracking of Sparse Cell Populations Using Angular Multiplexed Optical Projection Tomography

Biomedical Optics Express. Apr, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25909009

We describe an angular multiplexed imaging technique for 3-D in vivo cell tracking of sparse cell distributions and optical projection tomography (OPT) with superior time-lapse resolution and a significantly reduced light dose compared to volumetric time-lapse techniques. We demonstrate that using dual axis OPT, where two images are acquired simultaneously at different projection angles, can enable localization and tracking of features in 3-D with a time resolution equal to the camera frame rate. This is achieved with a 200x reduction in light dose compared to an equivalent volumetric time-lapse single camera OPT acquisition with 200 projection angles. We demonstrate the application of this technique to mapping the 3-D neutrophil migration pattern observed over ~25.5 minutes in a live 2 day post-fertilisation transgenic LysC:GFP zebrafish embryo following a tail wound.

Accelerated Optical Projection Tomography Applied to In Vivo Imaging of Zebrafish

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26308086

Optical projection tomography (OPT) provides a non-invasive 3-D imaging modality that can be applied to longitudinal studies of live disease models, including in zebrafish. Current limitations include the requirement of a minimum number of angular projections for reconstruction of reasonable OPT images using filtered back projection (FBP), which is typically several hundred, leading to acquisition times of several minutes. It is highly desirable to decrease the number of required angular projections to decrease both the total acquisition time and the light dose to the sample. This is particularly important to enable longitudinal studies, which involve measurements of the same fish at different time points. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of an iterative algorithm to reconstruct sparsely sampled OPT data sets can provide useful 3-D images with 50 or fewer projections, thereby significantly decreasing the minimum acquisition time and light dose while maintaining image quality. A transgenic zebrafish embryo with fluorescent labelling of the vasculature was imaged to acquire densely sampled (800 projections) and under-sampled data sets of transmitted and fluorescence projection images. The under-sampled OPT data sets were reconstructed using an iterative total variation-based image reconstruction algorithm and compared against FBP reconstructions of the densely sampled data sets. To illustrate the potential for quantitative analysis following rapid OPT data acquisition, a Hessian-based method was applied to automatically segment the reconstructed images to select the vasculature network. Results showed that 3-D images of the zebrafish embryo and its vasculature of sufficient visual quality for quantitative analysis can be reconstructed using the iterative algorithm from only 32 projections-achieving up to 28 times improvement in imaging speed and leading to total acquisition times of a few seconds.

Visualising Apoptosis in Live Zebrafish Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging with Optical Projection Tomography to Map FRET Biosensor Activity in Space and Time

Journal of Biophotonics. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26753623

Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) combined with optical projection tomography (OPT) has the potential to map Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) readouts in space and time in intact transparent or near transparent live organisms such as zebrafish larvae, thereby providing a means to visualise cell signalling processes in their physiological context. Here the first application of FLIM OPT to read out biological function in live transgenic zebrafish larvae using a genetically expressed FRET biosensor is reported. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is mapped in 3-D by imaging the activity of a FRET biosensor that is cleaved by Caspase 3, which is a key effector of apoptosis. Although apoptosis is a naturally occurring process during development, it can also be triggered in a variety of ways, including through gamma irradiation. FLIM OPT is shown here to enable apoptosis to be monitored over time, in live zebrafish larvae via changes in Caspase 3 activation following gamma irradiation at 24 hours post fertilisation. Significant apoptosis was observed at 3.5 hours post irradiation, predominantly in the head region.

Quantitative in Vivo Optical Tomography of Cancer Progression & Vasculature Development in Adult Zebrafish

Oncotarget. Jul, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27259259

We describe a novel approach to study tumour progression and vasculature development in vivo via global 3-D fluorescence imaging of live non-pigmented adult zebrafish utilising angularly multiplexed optical projection tomography with compressive sensing (CS-OPT). This "mesoscopic" imaging method bridges a gap between established ~μm resolution 3-D fluorescence microscopy techniques and ~mm-resolved whole body planar imaging and diffuse tomography. Implementing angular multiplexing with CS-OPT, we demonstrate the in vivo global imaging of an inducible fluorescently labelled genetic model of liver cancer in adult non-pigmented zebrafish that also present fluorescently labelled vasculature. In this disease model, addition of a chemical inducer (doxycycline) drives expression of eGFP tagged oncogenic K-RASV12 in the liver of immune competent animals. We show that our novel in vivo global imaging methodology enables non-invasive quantitative imaging of the development of tumour and vasculature throughout the progression of the disease, which we have validated against established methods of pathology including immunohistochemistry. We have also demonstrated its potential for longitudinal imaging through a study of vascular development in the same zebrafish from early embryo to adulthood. We believe that this instrument, together with its associated analysis and data management tools, constitute a new platform for in vivo cancer studies and drug discovery in zebrafish disease models.

Cell Type-specific Deletion in Mice Reveals Roles for PAS Kinase in Insulin and Glucagon Production

Diabetologia. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27338626

Per-Arnt-Sim kinase (PASK) is a nutrient-regulated domain-containing protein kinase previously implicated in the control of insulin gene expression and glucagon secretion. Here, we explore the roles of PASK in the control of islet hormone release, by generating mice with selective deletion of the Pask gene in pancreatic beta or alpha cells.

Characterising the Effects of in Vitro Mechanical Stimulation on Morphogenesis of Developing Limb Explants

Journal of Biomechanics. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27743631

Mechanical forces due to fetal movements play an important role in joint shape morphogenesis, and abnormalities of the joints relating to abnormal fetal movements can have long-term health implications. While mechanical stimulation during development has been shown to be important for joint shape, the relationship between the quantity of mechanical stimulation and the growth and shape change of developing cartilage has not been quantified. In this study, we culture embryonic chick limb explants in vitro in order to reveal how the magnitude of applied movement affects key aspects of the developing joint shape. We hypothesise that joint shape is affected by movement magnitude in a dose-dependent manner, and that a movement regime most representative of physiological fetal movements will promote characteristics of normal shape development. Chick hindlimbs harvested at seven days of incubation were cultured for six days, under either static conditions or one of three different dynamic movement regimes, then assessed for joint shape, cell survival and proliferation. We demonstrate that a physiological magnitude of movement in vitro promotes the most normal progression of joint morphogenesis, and that either under-stimulation or over-stimulation has detrimental effects. Providing insight into the optimal level of mechanical stimulation for cartilage growth and morphogenesis is pertinent to gaining a greater understanding of the etiology of conditions such as developmental dysplasia of the hip, and is also valuable for cartilage tissue engineering.

Predictors of Attrition Before and After Bariatric Surgery

Obesity Surgery. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27987138

Glucose Metabolism After Gastric Banding and Gastric Bypass in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: Weight Loss Effect

Diabetes Care. Jan, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27999001

The superior effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on glucose control compared with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is confounded by the greater weight loss after RYGB. We therefore examined the effect of these two surgeries on metabolic parameters matched on small and large amounts of weight loss.

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