In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (13)

Articles by Emmanuelle Thinon in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Open Source High Content Analysis Utilizing Automated Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

1Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, 2Institute for Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 3MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, 4Chemical Biology Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 5Retroscreen Virology Ltd, 6Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Limited, Sandwich, Kent, UK, 7Centre for Histopathology, Imperial College London

JoVE 55119

Other articles by Emmanuelle Thinon on PubMed

A Fluorescence-based Assay for N-myristoyltransferase Activity

Analytical Biochemistry. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22051857

N-myristoylation is the irreversible attachment of a C(14) fatty acid, myristic acid, to the N-terminal glycine of a protein via formation of an amide bond. This modification is catalyzed by myristoyl-coenzyme A (CoA):protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), an enzyme ubiquitous in eukaryotes that is up-regulated in several cancers. Here we report a sensitive fluorescence-based assay to study the enzymatic activity of human NMT1 and NMT2 based on detection of CoA by 7-diethylamino-3-(4-maleimido-phenyl)-4-methylcoumarin. We also describe expression and characterization of NMT1 and NMT2 and assay validation with small molecule inhibitors. This assay should be broadly applicable to NMTs from a range of organisms.

Multifunctional Protein Labeling Via Enzymatic N-terminal Tagging and Elaboration by Click Chemistry

Nature Protocols. Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22193303

A protocol for selective and site-specific enzymatic labeling of proteins is described. The method exploits the protein co-/post-translational modification known as myristoylation, the transfer of myristic acid (a 14-carbon saturated fatty acid) to an N-terminal glycine catalyzed by the enzyme myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT). Escherichia coli, having no endogenous NMT, is used for the coexpression of both the transferase and the target protein to be labeled, which participate in the in vivo N-terminal attachment of synthetically derived tagged analogs of myristic acid bearing a 'clickable' tag. This tag is a functional group that can undergo bio-orthogonal ligation via 'click' chemistry, for example, an azide, and can be used as a handle for further site-specific labeling in vitro. Here we provide protocols for in vivo N-terminal tagging of recombinant protein, and the synthesis and application of multifunctional reagents that enable protein labeling via click chemistry for affinity purification and detection by fluorescence. In addition to general N-terminal protein labeling, the protocol would be of particular use in providing evidence for native myristoylation of proteins of interest, proof of activity/selectivity of NMTs and cross-species reactivity of NMTs without resorting to the use of radioactive isotopes.

Automated Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Plate Reader and Its Application to Förster Resonant Energy Transfer Readout of Gag Protein Aggregation

Journal of Biophotonics. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23184449

Fluorescence lifetime measurements can provide quantitative readouts of local fluorophore environment and can be applied to biomolecular interactions via Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) can therefore provide a high content analysis (HCA) modality to map protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with applications in drug discovery, systems biology and basic research. We present here an automated multiwell plate reader able to perform rapid unsupervised optically sectioned FLIM of fixed and live biological samples and illustrate its potential to assay PPIs through application to Gag protein aggregation during the HIV life cycle. We demonstrate both hetero-FRET and homo-FRET readouts of protein aggregation and report the first quantitative evaluation of a FLIM HCA assay by generating dose response curves through addition of an inhibitor of Gag myristoylation. Z' factors exceeding 0.6 are realised for this FLIM FRET assay.

Global Profiling of Co- and Post-translationally N-myristoylated Proteomes in Human Cells

Nature Communications. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25255805

Protein N-myristoylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification that has been implicated in the development and progression of a range of human diseases. Here, we report the global N-myristoylated proteome in human cells determined using quantitative chemical proteomics combined with potent and specific human N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) inhibition. Global quantification of N-myristoylation during normal growth or apoptosis allowed the identification of >100 N-myristoylated proteins, >95% of which are identified for the first time at endogenous levels. Furthermore, quantitative dose response for inhibition of N-myristoylation is determined for >70 substrates simultaneously across the proteome. Small-molecule inhibition through a conserved substrate-binding pocket is also demonstrated by solving the crystal structures of inhibitor-bound NMT1 and NMT2. The presented data substantially expand the known repertoire of co- and post-translational N-myristoylation in addition to validating tools for the pharmacological inhibition of NMT in living cells.

Global Profiling of Protein Lipidation Using Chemical Proteomic Technologies

Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. Feb, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25461723

Protein lipidation is unique amongst post-translational modifications (PTMs) in enabling direct interaction with cell membranes, and is found in every form of life. Lipidation is important in normal function and in disease, but its intricate interplay with disease context presents a challenging for drug development. Global whole-proteome profiling of protein lipidation lies beyond the range of standard methods, but is well-suited to metabolic tagging with small 'clickable' chemical reporters that do not disrupt metabolism and function; chemoselective reactions are then used to add multifunctional labels exclusively to tagged-lipidated proteins. This chemical proteomic technology has opened up the first quantitative whole-proteome studies of the known major classes of protein lipidation, and the first insights into their full scope in vivo.

Isosteric Substitutions of Urea to Thiourea and Selenourea in Aliphatic Oligourea Foldamers: Site-specific Perturbation of the Helix Geometry

Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany). Feb, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25529793

Nearly isosteric oxo to thioxo substitution was employed to interrogate the structure of foldamers with a urea backbone and explore the relationship between helical folding and hydrogen-bonding interactions. A series of oligomers with urea bonds substituted by thiourea bonds at discrete or all positions in the sequence have been prepared and their folding propensity was studied by using a combination of spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction. The outcome of oxo to thioxo replacements on the helical folding was found to depend on whether central or terminal ureas were modified. The canonical helix geometry was not affected upon insertion of thioureas close to the negative end of the helix dipole, whereas thioureas close to the positive pole were found to increase the terminal flexibility and cause helix fraying. Perturbation was amplified when a selenourea was incorporated instead, leading to a structure that is only partly folded.

Chemical Reporters for Exploring Protein Acylation

Biochemical Society Transactions. Apr, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25849926

Proteins are acylated by a variety of metabolites that regulates many important cellular pathways in all kingdoms of life. Acyl groups in cells can vary in structure from the smallest unit, acetate, to modified long-chain fatty acids, all of which can be activated and covalently attached to diverse amino acid side chains and consequently modulate protein function. For example, acetylation of Lys residues can alter the charge state of proteins and generate new recognition elements for protein-protein interactions. Alternatively, long-chain fatty-acylation targets proteins to membranes and enables spatial control of cell signalling. To facilitate the analysis of protein acylation in biology, acyl analogues bearing alkyne or azide tags have been developed that enable fluorescent imaging and proteomic profiling of modified proteins using bioorthogonal ligation methods. Herein, we summarize the currently available acylation chemical reporters and highlight their utility to discover and quantify the roles of protein acylation in biology.

Click Chemistry Armed Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay to Measure Palmitoylation by Hedgehog Acyltransferase

Analytical Biochemistry. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26334609

Hedgehog signaling is critical for correct embryogenesis and tissue development. However, on maturation, signaling is also found to be aberrantly activated in many cancers. Palmitoylation of the secreted signaling protein sonic hedgehog (Shh) by the enzyme hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) is required for functional signaling. To quantify this important posttranslational modification, many in vitro Shh palmitoylation assays employ radiolabeled fatty acids, which have limitations in terms of cost and safety. Here we present a click chemistry armed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (click-ELISA) for assessment of Hhat activity through acylation of biotinylated Shh peptide with an alkyne-tagged palmitoyl-CoA (coenzyme A) analogue. Click chemistry functionalization of the alkyne tag with azido-FLAG peptide allows analysis through an ELISA protocol and colorimetric readout. This assay format identified the detergent n-dodecyl β-d-maltopyranoside as an improved solubilizing agent for Hhat activity. Quantification of the potency of RU-SKI small molecule Hhat inhibitors by click-ELISA indicated IC50 values in the low- or sub-micromolar range. A stopped assay format was also employed that allows measurement of Hhat kinetic parameters where saturating substrate concentrations exceed the binding capacity of the streptavidin-coated plate. Therefore, click-ELISA represents a nonradioactive method for assessing protein palmitoylation in vitro that is readily expandable to other classes of protein lipidation.

Proteomic Analysis of Fatty-acylated Proteins

Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. Feb, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26656971

Protein fatty-acylation in eukaryotes has been associated with many fundamental biological processes. However, the diversity, abundance and regulatory mechanisms of protein fatty-acylation in vivo remain to be explored. Herein, we review the proteomic analysis of fatty-acylated proteins, with a focus on N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation. We then highlight major challenges and emerging methods for direct site identification, quantitation, and lipid structure characterization to understand the functions and regulatory mechanisms of fatty-acylated proteins in physiology and disease.

Mass-tag Labeling Reveals Site-specific and Endogenous Levels of Protein S-fatty Acylation

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27044110

Fatty acylation of cysteine residues provides spatial and temporal control of protein function in cells and regulates important biological pathways in eukaryotes. Although recent methods have improved the detection and proteomic analysis of cysteine fatty (S-fatty) acylated proteins, understanding how specific sites and quantitative levels of this posttranslational modification modulate cellular pathways are still challenging. To analyze the endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation in cells, we developed a mass-tag labeling method based on hydroxylamine-sensitivity of thioesters and selective maleimide-modification of cysteines, termed acyl-PEG exchange (APE). We demonstrate that APE enables sensitive detection of protein S-acylation levels and is broadly applicable to different classes of S-palmitoylated membrane proteins. Using APE, we show that endogenous interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 is S-fatty acylated on three cysteine residues and site-specific modification of highly conserved cysteines are crucial for the antiviral activity of this IFN-stimulated immune effector. APE therefore provides a general and sensitive method for analyzing the endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation and should facilitate quantitative studies of this regulated and dynamic lipid modification in biological systems.

Synthesis and Characterisation of 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine Inhibitors of Hedgehog Acyltransferase

Data in Brief. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27077078

In this data article we describe synthetic and characterisation data for four members of the 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine (termed "RU-SKI") class of inhibitors of Hedgehog acyltransferase, including associated NMR spectra for final compounds. RU-SKI compounds were selected for synthesis based on their published high potencies against the enzyme target. RU-SKI 41 (9a), RU-SKI 43 (9b), RU-SKI 101 (9c), and RU-SKI 201 (9d) were profiled for activity in the related article "Click chemistry armed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to measure palmitoylation by Hedgehog acyltransferase" (Lanyon-Hogg et al., 2015) [1]. (1)H NMR spectral data indicate different amide conformational ratios between the RU-SKI inhibitors, as has been observed in other 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridines. The synthetic and characterisation data supplied in the current article provide validated access to the class of RU-SKI inhibitors.

N-Myristoyltransferase Inhibition Induces ER-Stress, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

ACS Chemical Biology. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27267252

N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) covalently attaches a C14 fatty acid to the N-terminal glycine of proteins and has been proposed as a therapeutic target in cancer. We have recently shown that selective NMT inhibition leads to dose-responsive loss of N-myristoylation on more than 100 protein targets in cells, and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. N-myristoylation lies upstream of multiple pro-proliferative and oncogenic pathways, but to date the complex substrate specificity of NMT has limited determination of which diseases are most likely to respond to a selective NMT inhibitor. We describe here the phenotype of NMT inhibition in HeLa cells and show that cells die through apoptosis following or concurrent with accumulation in the G1 phase. We used quantitative proteomics to map protein expression changes for more than 2700 proteins in response to treatment with an NMT inhibitor in HeLa cells and observed down-regulation of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and up-regulation of proteins involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response, with similar results in breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and colon (HCT116) cancer cell lines. This study describes the cellular response to NMT inhibition at the proteome level and provides a starting point for selective targeting of specific diseases with NMT inhibitors, potentially in combination with other targeted agents.

Bioorthogonal Chemical Reporters for Monitoring Unsaturated Fatty-Acylated Proteins

Chembiochem : a European Journal of Chemical Biology. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27350074

Dietary unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, have been shown to be covalently incorporated into a small subset of proteins, but the generality and diversity of this protein modification has not been studied. We synthesized unsaturated fatty-acid chemical reporters and determined their protein targets in mammalian cells. The reporters can induce the formation of lipid droplets and be incorporated site-specifically onto known fatty-acylated proteins and label many proteins in mammalian cells. Quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that unsaturated fatty acids modify similar protein targets to saturated fatty acids, including several immunity-associated proteins. This demonstrates that unsaturated fatty acids can directly modify many proteins to exert their unique and often beneficial physiological effects in vivo.

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