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Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.

Site-Directed Immobilization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 to Solid Surfaces by Click Chemistry

1Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (IGB), Translationszentrum Würzburg 'Regenerative Therapien für Krebs- und Muskuloskelettale Erkrankung', Institutsteil Würzburg, 2Lehrstuhl für Tissue Engineering und Regenerative Medizin, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, 3Lehrstuhl für Pharmazeutische Technologie und Biopharmazie, Universität Würzburg, 4Lehrstuhl für molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie und Biophysik, Julius-von-Sachs Institut für Biowissenschaften, Universität Würzburg

JoVE 56616

 Bioengineering

Computed Tomography and Optical Imaging of Osteogenesis-angiogenesis Coupling to Assess Integration of Cranial Bone Autografts and Allografts

1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, The Hebrew University–Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

JoVE 53459

 Bioengineering

Determination

JoVE 10912

During embryogenesis, cells become progressively committed to different fates through a two-step process: specification followed by determination. Specification is demonstrated by removing a segment of an early embryo, “neutrally” culturing the tissue in vitro—for example, in a petri dish with simple medium—and then observing the derivatives. If the cultured region gives rise to cell types that it would normally generate in the embryo, this means that it is specified. In contrast, determination occurs if a region of the embryo is removed and placed in a “non-neutral” environment—such as in a dish containing complex medium supplemented with a variety of proteins, or even a different area of the embryo itself—and it still generates the expected derivatives. Specification and determination are two sequential steps in the developmental pathway of a cell, which precede the final stage of differentiation, during which mature tissues with unique morphologies and functions are produced. To study specification, researchers must first understand the normal derivatives of different regions of an embryo. To accomplish this, fate maps are often used, which are generated by dyeing or labeling cells early in embryonic development, culturing whole embryos and monitoring where the marked cells end up. For example, such te

 Core: Reproduction and Development

Flow Cytometry-based Drug Screening System for the Identification of Small Molecules That Promote Cellular Differentiation of Glioblastoma Stem Cells

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University Hospital-Case Medical Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

JoVE 56176

 Cancer Research

Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Imaging of Aortic Calcification and Inflammation

1Anesthesia Center for Critical Care Research of the Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Cardiovascular Research Center and Cardiology Division of the Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 4Harvard Medical School, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, 6Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases and the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology of the Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 54017

 Medicine

Bone Conditioned Medium: Preparation and Bioassay

1Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, 2Laboratory of Oral Cell Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, 4Robert K. Schenk Laboratory of Oral Histology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, 5Department of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery, Inselspital, University of Bern, 6Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

JoVE 52707

 Biology
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