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Diagnosis, Differential: Determination of which one of two or more diseases or conditions a patient is suffering from by systematically comparing and contrasting results of diagnostic measures.

Novel Diagnostics in Revision Arthroplasty: Implant Sonication and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

1Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, 2Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, 3Division of EU Cooperation/Microbiology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institute

JoVE 55147


 Medicine

Microarray-based Identification of Individual HERV Loci Expression: Application to Biomarker Discovery in Prostate Cancer

1Joint Unit Hospices de Lyon-bioMérieux, 2Medical Diagnostic Discovery Department, BioMérieux, 3Department of Pathology and Cytology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 4Medical Faculty, Lyon 1 University, 5Data and Knowledge Laboratory, BioMérieux, 6Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 7Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon

JoVE 50713


 Medicine

Hyperpolarized 13C Metabolic Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging

1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, 3GE Global Research, 4Zentralinstitut für Medizintechnik der Technischen Universität München (IMETUM), Technische Universität München, 5Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, 6IDG Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München

JoVE 54751


 Cancer Research

Isolation and Characterization of Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Endomyocardial Bioptic Samples of Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy Patients.

1Vascular Biology and Regenerative Medicine Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino-IRCCS, 2Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 3Heart Rhythm Center, Centro Cardiologico Monzino-IRCCS

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57263


 JoVE In-Press

Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University

JoVE 52061


 Behavior

Chemically-blocked Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed High-throughput Profiling of Specific Protein Glycosylation in Complex Samples

1Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, 3Drexel University College of Medicine, 4Van Andel Research Institute, 5Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research, Serome Biosciences Inc.

JoVE 3791


 Biology

Interictal High Frequency Oscillations Detected with Simultaneous Magnetoencephalography and Electroencephalography as Biomarker of Pediatric Epilepsy

1Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Division of Epilepsy Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 54883


 Medicine

Motor Exam I

JoVE 10052

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Abnormalities in the motor function are associated with a wide range of diseases, from movement disorders and myopathies to strokes. The motor assessment starts with observation of the patient. When the patient enters the examination area, the clinician observes the patient's ability to walk unassisted and the speed and coordination while moving. Taking the patient's history provides an additional opportunity to observe for evidence of tremors or other abnormal movements, such as chorea or tardive dyskinesia. Such simple but important observations can yield valuable clues to the diagnosis and help to focus the rest of the examination. The motor assessment continues in a systematic fashion, including inspection for muscle atrophy and abnormal movements, assessment of muscle tone, muscle strength testing, and finally the examination of the muscle reflexes and coordination. The careful systematic testing of the motor system and the integration of all the findings provide insight to the level at which the motor pathway is affected, and also help the clinician to formulate the differential diagnosis and determine the course of the subsequent evaluation and treatment.


 Physical Examinations III

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Protocols for Problematic Plant, Oomycete, and Fungal Samples

1Biodiversity and Conservation Department, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, 2Research Support Unit, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, 3Mycology Department, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, 4Division of Glycoscience, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

JoVE 55031


 Biology

Measurement of Differentially Methylated INS DNA Species in Human Serum Samples as a Biomarker of Islet β Cell Death

1Department of Pediatrics, IU Center for Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediartics, Omaha Children's Hospital and Medical Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 3Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medicine, and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, IU Center for Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, Indiana University School of Medicine, 4Indiana Biosciences Research Institute

JoVE 54838


 Genetics

An Improved Method for Collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Anesthetized Mice

1Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 4Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (SDC), 5Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Chongming Branch Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 6Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET-centre, Aarhus University Hospital

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56774


 JoVE In-Press

Non-invasive Imaging of Acute Allograft Rejection after Rat Renal Transplantation Using 18F-FDG PET

1Department of Internal Medicine D, Experimental Nephrology, University of Münster, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Münster, 3European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster

JoVE 4240


 Medicine

Abdominal Exam IV: Acute Abdominal Pain Assessment

JoVE 10120

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Abdominal pain is a frequent presenting concern in both the emergency department and the office setting. Acute abdominal pain is defined as pain lasting less than seven days, while an acute abdomen refers to the abrupt onset of severe abdominal pain with features suggesting a surgically intervenable process. The differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain is broad; thus, clinicians must have a systematic method of examination guided by a careful history, remembering that pathology outside of the abdomen can also cause abdominal pain, including pulmonary, cardiac, rectal, and genital disorders. Terminology for describing the location of abdominal tenderness includes the right and left upper and lower quadrants, and the epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric regions (Figures 1, 2). Thorough examination requires an organized approach involving inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation, with each maneuver performed purposefully and with a clear mental representation of the anatomy. Rather than palpating randomly across the abdomen, begin palpating remotely from the site of tenderness, moving systematically toward the tender region, and thi


 Physical Examinations II

Perturbations of Circulating miRNAs in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Detected Using a Multiplexed High-throughput Gene Expression Platform

1Digestive Disorders Unit, National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, 2National Institutes of Health Research Scholar, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 3Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Michigan

JoVE 54693


 Genetics

Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets

1Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Hypertension Research Group (CRIUCPQ), Laval University, 2Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 3Université Diderot Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 4Hôpital Lariboisière, Physiologie clinique Explorations Fonctionnelles, 5INSERM U 965, 6Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Tours

JoVE 52571


 Medicine

Executive Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder

JoVE 10268

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Attention, working-memory, planning, impulse control, inhibition, and mental flexibility are important components of human cognition that are often referred to as executive functions. Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. It is a disorder that lasts a lifetime, and is thought to affect 0.6% of the population. The symptoms of autism suggest a deficit in executive function, which may be assessed by specialized neuropsychological tests. By employing several tests that each emphasize different aspects of executive function, we can gain a more complete picture of the cognitive profile of the disorder. One such task, known as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), is a cognitively complex task used widely in research and clinical studies as a highly sensitive measure of deficits in executive function. It tests a person's ability to shift attention and tests their flexibility with changing rules and reinforcement.1 In the WCST, a participant is presented with four stimulus cards, incorporating three stimulus parameters: color, shape, and number. The participant is asked to sort


 Neuropsychology

MRI-guided dmPFC-rTMS as a Treatment for Treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder

1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 2MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, 4Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, 7Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

JoVE 53129


 Medicine

Operating Procedures of the Electrochemotherapy for Treatment of Tumor in Dogs and Cats

1Clinic for Surgery and Small Animals, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, 2Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, 4IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), CNRS, 5IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), Université de Toulouse

JoVE 54760


 Cancer Research

Induction of Invasive Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma in Immune Intact Human MUC1 Transgenic Mice: A Model for Immunotherapy Development

1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Davis, 2Comparative Pathology Laboratory, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 3Merck Serono Research, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany

JoVE 50868


 Medicine

A Syngeneic Mouse Model of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma for Quantitative and Longitudinal Assessment of Preclinical Therapies

1Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, 2Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, 3Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 5Simmons Cancer Institute

JoVE 55080


 Cancer Research

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