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Dura Mater: The outermost of the three Meninges, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.

Ion Channels

JoVE 10722

Ion channels maintain the membrane potential of a cell. For most cells, especially excitable ones, the inside has a more negative charge than the outside of the cell, due to a greater number of negative ions than positive ions. For excitable cells, like firing neurons, contracting muscle cells, or sensory touch cells, the membrane potential must be able to change rapidly moving from a negative membrane potential to one that is more positive. To achieve this, cells rely on two types of ion channels: ligand-gated and voltage-gated. Ligand-gated ion channels, also called ionotropic receptors, are transmembrane proteins that form a channel but which also have a binding site. When a ligand binds to the surface, it opens the ion channel. Common ionotropic receptors include the NMDA, kainite, and AMPA glutamate receptors and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. When a ligand, like glutamate or acetylcholine, binds to its receptor it allows the influx of sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca++) ions into the cells. The positive ions, or cations, follow down their electrochemical gradient, moving from the more positive extracellular surface to the less positive (more negative) intracellular surface. This changes the membrane potential near the receptor, which can then activate nearby voltage gated ion channels to propagate the change in membrane potential throughout the cell

 Core: Cell Signaling

The Spinal Cord

JoVE 10872

The spinal cord is the body’s major nerve tract of the central nervous system, communicating afferent sensory information from the periphery to the brain and efferent motor information from the brain to the body. The human spinal cord extends from the hole at the base of the skull, or foramen magnum, to the level of the first or second lumbar vertebra.

The spinal cord is cylindrical and contains both white and grey matter. In the center is the central canal, which is the remnant of the lumen of the primitive neural tube and is part of the internal system of cerebrospinal fluid cavities. In cross-section, the grey matter surrounding the central canal appears butterfly-shaped. The wings of the butterfly are divided into dorsal and ventral horns. The dorsal horn contains sensory nuclei that relay sensory information, and the ventral horn contains motor neurons that give rise to the axons that innervate skeletal muscle. White matter surrounds the gray matter and contains large numbers of myelinated fibers. The white matter is arranged into longitudinal bundles called dorsal, lateral, and ventral columns. Three membranes surround the spinal cord: the pia adheres closely to the surface of the spinal cord, followed by the arachnoid, and the dura mater—the tough outermost sheath. The spinal cord is divided into four different r

 Core: Musculoskeletal System

Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly

1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto

JoVE 50887

 Medicine

Chronic Implantation of Multiple Flexible Polymer Electrode Arrays

1Medical Scientist Training Program and Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, 2Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience, Center for Integrative Neuroscience, and Department of Physiology, University of California San Francisco, 3Bioengineering Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, 4Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 5Neuralink Corp., 6Howard Hughes Medical Institute

JoVE 59957

 Neuroscience

Computed Tomography and Optical Imaging of Osteogenesis-angiogenesis Coupling to Assess Integration of Cranial Bone Autografts and Allografts

1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, The Hebrew University–Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

JoVE 53459

 Bioengineering

Comprehensive Autopsy Program for Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

1Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 3Mellen Center for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic

JoVE 59511

 Neuroscience

Use of a Piglet Model for the Study of Anesthetic-induced Developmental Neurotoxicity (AIDN): A Translational Neuroscience Approach

1Department of Anesthesiology, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 3Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Anatomic Pathology, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, 5Department of Pathology and Anatomy, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 6Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital

JoVE 55193

 Medicine

A Unified Methodological Framework for Vestibular Schwannoma Research

1Eaton Peabody Laboratories, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, 4Program in Speech and Hearing Bioscience and Technology, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 55827

 Cancer Research

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216

 Neuroscience

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki

JoVE 51869

 Behavior

Stereotaxic Surgery for Implantation of Microelectrode Arrays in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

1Edmond and Lily Safra International Institute of Neuroscience, Santos Dumont Institute, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 3Department of Physiological Sciences, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo

JoVE 60240

 Neuroscience

Tracking Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells using MRI after Intranasal Delivery in a Traumatic Brain Injury Murine Model

1Ph.D. Program for Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University and National Health Research Institutes, 2Center for Neurotrauma and Neuroregeneration, Taipei Medical University, 3TMU Neuroscience Research Center, Taipei Medical University, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 5Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60450

 JoVE In-Press

Use of In Vivo Single-fiber Recording and Intact Dorsal Root Ganglion with Attached Sciatic Nerve to Examine the Mechanism of Conduction Failure

1Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 2Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, ShanXi Medical University, 3Department of Psychology, Fourth Military Medical University, 4Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, Capital Medical University, 5Neuroscience Research Institute, Key Lab for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education/National Health Commission, Peking University, 6Department of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University

JoVE 59234

 Neuroscience

The Endoscope-Assisted Minimally Invasive Retro-Sigmoid Approach (EAMIRSA): A Combination of Techniques for Improving Middle Skull Base Surgery

1Permanent Temporal Bone Dissection Laboratory, University of Perugia, 2Otolaryngology Department, Meyer Children Hospital, 3Highland Instruments, 4Otolaryngology Department, Cochlear Implant Unit, Santobono Children Hospital, 5Otolaryngology Department, Ospedale Civile of Mantua

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58522

 JoVE In-Press

Rat Model of Widespread Cerebral Cortical Demyelination Induced by an Intracerebral Injection of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

1Research Unit of Experimental Neurotraumatology, Institute of Neurosurgery, Medical University Graz, 2Department of Neurology, Medical University Graz, 3Centre for Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 4Centre for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57879

 JoVE In-Press

Cannula Implantation into the Cisterna Magna of Rodents

1Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Division of Glial Therapeutics, University of Copenhagen, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, 3Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Division of Glial Therapeutics, University of Rochester Medical Center, 4Department of Experimental Medical Science, Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University

JoVE 57378

 Neuroscience

Adaptation of Microelectrode Array Technology for the Study of Anesthesia-induced Neurotoxicity in the Intact Piglet Brain

1Department of Anesthesiology, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 2Medical Student Research Program, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 4Department of Neuroscience, University of Kentucky Medical Center

JoVE 57391

 Neuroscience

A Tissue Displacement-based Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Model in Mice

1Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Group, Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Department of Neurological Surgery and Goodman and Campbell Brain and Spine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Norton Neuroscience Institute, Norton Healthcare, 3Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville

JoVE 54988

 Medicine

Fiber Connections of the Supplementary Motor Area Revisited: Methodology of Fiber Dissection, DTI, and Three Dimensional Documentation

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Josephs Hospital and Medical Center, 3Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, 5Department of Neurosurgery, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, University of Istanbul

JoVE 55681

 Neuroscience
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