In mares, endometrial cysts are associated with endometriosis and can cause maternal recognition failure or compromise and delay pregnancy diagnoses. Historical treatments were invasive and had adverse effects on the endometrium. Hysteroscopically guided laser therapy is easy and effective for endometrial cysts resection, with no deleterious effects for the endometrium.
A 110 cm long and 1.0 cm wide endoscope is sterilely introduced in the uterus through the open cervix of an estrous mare after vulvar cleaning. The uterus is slowly infused with less than 1 L of physiologic solution and the laser fiber is inserted in the biopsy canal of the endoscope. Cysts are then cauterized with the 980 nm diode laser with a contact fiber set at 20‒2 5W in continuous mode. Each cyst is punctured until complete voiding of the cyst and shrinking of the cyst wall around the fiber. Uterine lavages with sterile saline solution are performed directly after the surgery and for one or two days as non-inflammatory fluid can be observed.
This procedure is easy and quickly performed, with no obvious deleterious effects. Cysts resection makes ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis easier and, in some cases, could restore proper embryo migration in the uterine horns between day 6.5 and 17. However, this treatment does not improve the underlying histological lesions related to endometriosis. These considerations should be clearly expressed to the breeder before this procedure.