Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Test, Measurement of Lung Function, and Fixation of the Lung to Study the Impact of Obesity and Impaired Metabolism on Pulmonary Outcomes

This article has been accepted and is currently in production

Abstract

Obesity and respiratory disorders are major health problems. Obesity is becoming an emerging epidemic with an expected number of over 1 billion obese individuals worldwide by 2030, thus representing a growing socioeconomic burden. Simultaneously, obesity-related comorbidities, including diabetes as well as heart and chronic lung diseases, are continuously on the rise. Although obesity has been associated with increased risk for asthma exacerbations, worsening of respiratory symptoms, and poor control, the functional role of obesity and perturbed metabolism in the pathogenesis of chronic lung disease is often underestimated, and underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. This article aims to present methods to assess the effect of obesity on metabolism, as well as lung structure and function. Here, we describe three techniques for mice studies: (1) assessment of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance (ipGTT) to analyze the effect of obesity on glucose metabolism; (2) measurement of airway resistance (Res) and respiratory system compliance (Cdyn) to analyze the effect of obesity on lung function; and (3) preparation and fixation of the lung for subsequent quantitative histological assessment. Obesity-related lung diseases are probably multifactorial, stemming from systemic inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation that potentially adversely influence lung function and the response to therapy. Therefore, a standardized methodology to study molecular mechanisms and the effect of novel treatments is essential.