Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Alveolar Periosteum and Effects of Vitamin D on Osteogenic Activity of Periosteum-Derived Cells

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are present in a variety of tissues and can be differentiated into numerous cell types, including osteoblasts. Among the dental sources of MSCs, the periosteum is an easily accessible tissue, which has been identified to contain MSCs in the cambium layer. However, this source has not yet been widely studied.

Vitamin D3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 have been demonstrated to stimulate in vitro differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. In addition, vitamin C facilitates collagen formation and bone cell growth. However, no study has yet investigated the effects of Vitamin D3 and Vitamin C on MSCs.

Here, we present a method of isolating MSCs from human alveolar periosteum and examine the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)2D3 may exert an osteoinductive effect on these cells. We also investigate the presence of MSCs in the human alveolar periosteum and assess stem cell adhesion and proliferation. To assess the ability of vitamin C (as a control) and various concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D3 (1010, 109, 108, and 107 M) to alter key mRNA biomarkers in isolated MSCs mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), core binding factor alpha-1 (CBFA1), collagen-1, and osteocalcin (OCN) are measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).