Using En Face Immunofluorescence Staining to Observe Vascular Endothelial Cells Directly

* These authors contributed equally
This article has been accepted and is currently in production


Aberrant changes in endothelial phenotype and morphology are considered to be initial events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Direct observation of the intact endothelium will provide valuable information for understanding the cellular and molecular events in the dysfunctional endothelial cells. Here, we describe a modified en face immunofluorescence staining technique which enables scientists to obtain clear images of the intact endothelial surface and analyze the molecule expression patterns in situ. The method is simple and reliable for observing the entire endothelial monolayer at different sites of the aorta. This technique may be a promising tool for understanding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, especially at an early stage.