RNA精製によってクロマチンの単離(チャープ)

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Summary

Chirpが長い非コードRNAのゲノム結合部位(lncRNAs)をマッピングするための新規かつ迅速な手法である。メソッドは、lncRNAバインドされたゲノムサイトの列挙を許可するアンチセンスタイルオリゴヌクレオチドの特異性を利用しています。

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Chu, C., Quinn, J., Chang, H. Y. Chromatin Isolation by RNA Purification (ChIRP). J. Vis. Exp. (61), e3912, doi:10.3791/3912 (2012).

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Abstract

長い非コードRNAは、そのような投与量補正、プリント、発達遺伝子発現1,2,3,4,5,6,7として重要な生物学的プロセスのためにクロマチン状態の重要な調節因子である。仲介ヒストンH3リジン27トリメチル(H3K27me3)は、遺伝子特異的にクロマチンの状態を管理するための多数のlncRNAsのための広範な役割を示唆しているようなポリコーム抑圧的な複合体2(PRC2)などの特定のクロマチン修飾複合体との関連でlncRNAs数千人の最近の発見ファッション8,9。いくつかのlncRNAsが隣接遺伝子のシスに働くと考えられているが、他のlncRNAsは遠くに位置する遺伝子を調節するためにトランスで働いています。例えば、男性の細胞のX染色体上に、 ショウジョウバエ lncRNAs roX1とroX2バインド多数の領域、および量補償10,11のために重要である。しかし、その結合部位の正確な場所は、高解像度で知られていません。同様に、ヒトlncRNAギョレメでは、hにPRC2占有に影響を与える可能性が遺伝子のゲノムワイド3,12,13のundredsが、どのように特異性が達成されるかは不明である。 LncRNAsまた、複数のタンパク質複合体のアセンブリーを採用するモジュラー足場として機能することができます。古典的なトランス作用RNA足場は14複雑なテロメラーゼのテンプレートと足場としてTERC RNAである、ギョレメもPRC2のための足場と13の複雑なH3K4脱メチル化酵素として機能することができます。

クロマチンでのRNAの占有率をマッピングする先行研究は、実質的な洞察力15,16を認めた 、一度に1つの遺伝子座でいます。最もlncRNAsの占有サイトが知られていない、とクロマチン調節におけるlncRNAsの役割は主にlncRNA摂動の間接的な影響から推測されています。マイクロアレイまたはディープシークエンシング(チップ·チップまたはチップ配列は、それぞれ)が続いてクロマチン免疫沈降が大きく、ゲノムスケールでのタンパク質-DNA相互作用の理解を向上させたように、ここではrecenを示していますTLY高解像度17で長いRNA占有ゲノムワイドにマッピングするための戦略を発表した。その後の数百塩基の解像度でゲノム結合部位のマップを生成するアンチセンスオリゴをタイルによってクロマチン複合体:このメソッドは、RNA精製(チャープ)( 図1)によるクロマチンの単離、ターゲットlncRNAの親和性のキャプチャに基づいています高感度、低バックグラウンド。アフィニティープローブの設計は、RNA配列の指定された簡単で、RNAの構造や機能ドメインの知識は必要ありませんので、チャープは多くのlncRNAsに適用されます。

Protocol

1。プローブ設計

デザインアンチセンスDNAは、チャープによる標的RNAの選択的検索のためのプローブをタイル。

  1. オンラインでプローブデザイナを使用して、設計、アンチセンスオリゴプローブsinglemoleculefish.com 18。
  2. これらのパラメータを使用します。プローブはRNAの長さ= 1のプローブ/ 100 bpの数、2)ターゲットのGC%= 45; 3)オリゴヌクレオチドの長さ= 20; 4)間隔の長さ= 60から80です。デザイナーのための長すぎる場合は、セグメントにRNAを破る。リピートや広範な相同性の領域を省略します。
  3. 3プライム端にBiotinTEGの注文アンチセンスDNAプローブ。
  4. RNAに沿った位置に応じて標識プローブ。 "偶数"プールが2の番号すべてのプローブ、4、6、等が含まれており、 "奇数"プールはプローブが含まれているようにした2つのプールにそれらを分離番号1、3、5、などが100μMの濃度へのプローブのプールを希釈し、 -20℃で保存
  5. すべての実験では、使用して実行しなければならないお互いのために、内部統制として、両方のプール、。プローブ固有のノイズが、各プールに固有のものだろうが、実際のRNA依存性信号は、両方のプールから存在しているでしょう。これは、チャープ定量PCRとChirp-seqの両方に適用されます。

2。収穫細胞

チャープ実験に使用される細胞を収集します。

  1. コンフルエントに組織培養プレートまたはフラスコ内の細胞を成長させる。リン酸リンスは、かつて緩衝生理食塩水(PBS)とトリプシン処理。メディアの> 2倍のボリュームでトリプシンの渇きを、単一細胞懸濁液に細胞を再懸濁しを取り除くために、ピペッティングします。 50ミリリットルのファルコンチューブにすべてのメディアと再懸濁した細胞を転送します。 2000万細胞は通常、1つのチャープサンプルで十分です。
  2. 4分間800RCFでセルを回しています。必要に応じてPBS 40mlにメディアを再懸濁し4000万細胞を吸引し、チューブを兼ね備えています。 4分間800RCFでセルを回しています。デカントPBSは、慎重に角度の残りの液体を吸引除去する。
  3. 3。クロスリンク細胞と細胞ペレットを収集します。

    架橋は、RNA-クロマチンの相互作用を維持し、細胞ペレットを準備するためにグルタルアルデヒドで細胞を採取した。

    1. 室温でのすべての手順を実行します。
    2. 室温でPBS中の1%グルタルアルデヒドを準備します。千万の細胞(0.4 mLの25%グルタルアルデヒドの在庫+ 9.6 mLのPBS)あたり10mlを準備します。グルタルアルデヒドは、新鮮なを使用する必要があります。
    3. ペレットを取り除くために、ファルコンチューブの底部をタップします。再懸濁し、細胞ペレットを1%グルタルアルデヒドでは、チャンクを避けるために小音量で始まるし、フルボリュームまで戻る。混在させる反転します。エンド·ツー·エンドのシェーカーまたはローテーター上で室温で10分間架橋。
    4. 5分間室温で1.25 Mグリシンの10分のボリュームと架橋反応をクエンチする。
    5. 5分間2000RCFでスピン。 20 mLの上清を吸引し、洗浄ペレットを5分間2000RCFで回転し、一度PBSを冷やして。
    6. wを吸引除去し、再懸濁灰化、架橋されたペレット20万個の細胞あたり1ml冷やしたPBSである。慎重にピペットチップでできるだけ多くのPBSを削除します。4℃で3分間2000RCFでエッペンドルフチュー​​ブやスピンに各MLを転送します。
    7. -80℃で液体窒素とストア内の細胞ペレットをフラッシュ凍結°C無期限に。

    4。細胞溶解

    細胞ライセートを調製するために架橋された細胞を溶解します。

    1. 室温で凍結細胞ペレットを解凍します。細胞ペレットを取り除くとミックスすることは困難をタップします。 4℃で3分間Cに対して2000RCFでペレットをスピンダウン残りのPBSを削除するには、シャープ10μlのピペットチップを使用しています。
    2. 電子天秤(1mgまで正確に)空のエッペンドルフチュー​​ブの風袋質量を(我々のチューブは非常に一貫して1.060グラムの重さ)。各ペレットを秤量し、その重量を記録します。架橋されたHeLa細胞の完全な15cmの皿は、通常、100 mgの重量を量る。
    3. FRESで溶解バッファー(ペレットの10倍質量、例えば、100mgの1 ml)を補完するHプロテアーゼインヒビター、PMSFとSuperaseイン(接続されたバッファのリストを参照してください)​​。よく混ぜる。
    4. 各チューブに10倍の体積を補充Lysis Bufferを追加し、ペレットを再懸濁します。小さなペレットを250μl補足溶解バッファーに再懸濁し<25 mgであった。サスペンションは滑らかでなければなりません。されていない場合は、500μlのアリコートに懸濁液を分割し、塊を分割する電動ペレットミキサーを使用しています。超音波処理にすぐに進んでください。

    5。超音波処理

    架橋された細胞ライセートを超音波処理によるせん断DNA。

    1. 15mlファルコンチューブに断片化で細胞溶解液を超音波洗浄します。各チューブに<1.5 mlのライセートを使用して、より高速な超音波処理のために、一度に2つ以下のチューブを超音波処理してください。
    2. パルス間隔OFF 45秒ON、30秒で最高の設定で4°Cの水浴中で超音波洗浄します。 30分ごとにライセートを確認してください。細胞ライセートが濁っなくなるまで超音波処理を続行します。これは、わずか30分、できるだけ多く4のような時間がかかる場合があります。数チューブ、サンプル量、浴温度、超音波処理時間の期間は、プロセスにかかる時間に影響します。チューブはおそらく異なる速度で超音波処理されるので、それらは均一性を確保するためにオリジナルのチューブに30分毎に再配布一緒にプール。注:グルタルアルデヒド架橋細胞はホルムアルデヒドと同等以上の超音波処理にかなり時間がかかります。
    3. ライセートが明確になると、新鮮なエッペンドルフチュー​​ブに5μLライセートを転送します。 90μLDNAプロテアーゼK(PK​​)バッファ(バッファ·リストを参照)、5μLPKを追加します。ボルテックスと簡単にスピンダウンします。 50℃で45分間インキュベートします。
    4. キアゲンPCR精製キットでDNAを抽出します。溶出は、30μLキアゲンのElution Buffer(EB)のDNAと1%アガロースゲル上のDNAのサイズを確認してください。 DNAのスメアの大部分は100から500 bpである場合には、超音波処理は完了です。されていない場合は、超音波処理を続行します。
    5. 4℃で10分間16100RCFで超音波処理したサンプルを遠心分離℃、液体nitrogeに1 mLのサンプルとフラッシュ·フリーズに上清のアリコートを組み合わせるN。 -80℃で保存

    6。 CHIRP

    バインドされたクロマチンをRNAおよび分離するために、ビオチン化DNAプローブをハイブリダイズする。

    1. 室温でクロマチンのチューブを解凍します。
    2. (クロマチンのmlあたり2 mlを準備し、バッファリストを参照してください)​​ハイブリダイゼーションバッファーを準備します。混在させる渦。
    3. ライセート1mlを使用する典型的なチャープサンプルについては、エッペンドルフチュー​​ブ内のDNAのINPUTと場所をRNAのINPUTと10μL、10μLを削除します。さらに使用するまで氷上で保管してください。
    4. 15mlファルコンチューブに1 mLのクロマチンを転送します。各チューブに2 mLのハイブリダイゼーションバッファーを追加します。合計ボリュームに対して、<1.5 mlを、エッペンドルフチュー​​ブを使用しています。
    5. 室温でプローブを解凍します。光度計のプローブは、(100μMプローブはスペック〜500から600 ng /μlに一本鎖DNAの設定を使用する必要があります)長い時間でそれを使用していない場合は、金額を確認する。特定の管(1mLのクロマチン、1 mLのクロマチン100ピコモル/μLのプローブの1μLあたり100 pmolのプローブ)をプローブの適切なボリュームを追加します。よく混ぜる。振盪しながら4時間37℃でインキュベートします。
    6. 20分は、ハイブリダイゼーションのために残っていると、C-1磁気ビーズ(4℃で保存)を作成します。プローブを100pmolの100μLを使用しています。バッファから別のビーズにDynaMag-2マグネットストリップを使用して、1 mLのunsupplemented溶解緩衝液で3回洗浄します。
    7. Lysis Bufferを元のボリュームの再懸濁し、ビーズ、新鮮なPMSF、PIとSuperaseインとサプリメント。 4時間のハイブリダイゼーション反応が完了した後、各チューブに100μLビーズを追加します。よく混ぜる。振とうしながら30分間37℃でインキュベートします。
    8. (サンプルあたり5 mL)をWash Bufferを準備します。混在させる渦。 37前のウォーム℃に使用前にPMSFを追加します。
    9. 1 mLの洗浄バッファーで5回ビーズを洗浄する。最初の洗浄では、1 mLの洗浄バッファーで別個のビーズ、デカントし、再懸濁しにDynaMag-15磁気ストライプを使用しています。 1.5mlのエッペンドルフチュー​​ブにボリュームを転送します。 5分間振とうしながら37℃でインキュベートします。
    10. その後の洗浄では、minicentrifuge上の各チューブをスピンダウン、1分間DynaMag-2磁気ストリップにサンプルを設定します。デカントのサンプルは、1 mLの洗浄バッファーで再懸濁しキムワイプ、で任意のしずくを拭いてください。 5分間振とうしながら37℃でインキュベートします。合計5回の洗浄のために繰り返します。
    11. 最後の洗浄では、よくビーズを再懸濁します。 100μLを除去し、RNA単離のために脇に置きます。 DNA画分に対する引当900μL。 DynaMag-2磁気ストライプ上のすべてのチューブをセットし、洗浄バッファーを削除します。一時的にダウンチューブを回転、磁石のストリップ上に置きます。シャープ10μlのピペットチップで完全に洗浄バッファーの最後のビットを削除します。

    7。 RNAの単離

    qRT-PCRにより定量するチャープサンプルからRNA画分を抽出します。

    1. 100μLビーズサンプルと10μLRNA入力サンプルを取る。 INPUTをRNAに85μLRNA PK緩衝液(pH7.0)を追加します。 95μLRNA PKバッファーpH 7.0に懸濁したビーズ。エンド·ツー·エンドの振とう45分間50°Cで5μLProteine​​ase Kとインキュベートする。
    2. 簡単にチューブをスピンダウンし、℃、95℃のヒートブロックで10分間サンプルを沸かす
    3. 10秒間激しくボルテックス、500μLTRIZOLを追加し、氷上でサンプルを冷やす。室温で10分間インキュベートします。 -80℃で保存または4に進みます。
    4. TRIZOL処理したサンプルに100μlのクロロホルムを追加します。 10秒間激しくボルテックス。 4℃で15分間ベンチトップ遠心機に16100RCFで回転
    5. 有機およびインターフェイスを避けて、〜400μL水性上清を取り除きます。
    6. 600μL(1.5容積)100%エタノールを加え、よく混ぜる。 MIRNeasyミニカラムを介して、サンプルをスピン。 RWT(MIRNeasyミニキット)は、メーカーのプロトコルごとにRPEの2倍と1倍を洗ってください。 30μLのヌクレアーゼフリーH 2 O(NFH 2 O)で溶出します。
    7. 製造業者のプロトコルごとにDNA- フリーでRNAの溶出液を扱います。反応が完了した後、65℃で15分間サンプルを加熱℃で完全に残っているDNaseを失活させる。
    8. 1μLRNAを使用して、lncRNAを確認するために、定量RT-PCR解析のためにウェルあたり分離検索。 GAPDHはしばしばネガティブコントロールとして使用されます。

    8。 DNA単離

    シーケンシングにより同定または定量PCRにより定量化するためにCHIRPサンプルからDNA画分を抽出します。

    1. DNAの溶出バッファー(バッファリストを参照)、DNAの入力を含むサンプルあたり150μlのを準備します。
    2. 10μLのRNase A(10 mg / ml)と混合するDNA溶出バッファーmlの、ボルテックスあたり10μlのRNase H(10 U /μl)を追加します。
    3. RNアーゼによるDNA溶出バッファー150μLのビーズの各サンプルを再懸濁します。 (140μLに再懸濁し、DNAのINPUT)は、振とうしながら30分間37℃でインキュベートします。
    4. DynaMag-2磁気ストライプ上の別のビーズと清。上清を除去し、標識したチューブに加えます。
    5. 10μlのRNase A(10 mg / ml)とRNaseH(10 U /μL)と全く同じ8.2で行われている)とDNA溶出バッファーの第二のアリコートを準備します。各サンプルに150μL(DNAの入力を含む)、インキュベートを追加し、上清を除去します。すべての上清を回収(shoulD)〜300μLである。
    6. 各サンプルに15μLPKを追加します。振とうしながら45分間50℃でインキュベートします。
    7. 黄色のフェーズロック·ゲルチューブ(5PRIME)を押しプレスピン。フェーズロック·ゲルチューブにDNAサンプルを転送し、300μLPhOH追加:クロロホルム:イソアミルサンプルあたります。 10分間激しく振り、4℃で5分間16100RCFで卓上遠心機でスピンダウン上部(〜300μL)から水を取る。 3μLGlycoBlue、30μLNaOAc、900μLの100%EtOHを追加します。よく混ぜ、-20℃保存で一晩。
    8. 4℃で30分間16100RCFでサンプルをスピン℃に
    9. 慎重に上清をデカント。 1 mLの70%エタノールと混在させる渦を追加します。 5分間16100RCFでスピン。ピペットで上清を除去します。 1分間乾燥した空気。 30μLEBで再懸濁します。
    10. DNAサンプルは、定量PCRまたはIlluminaのプロトコルごとに、ハイスループットシーケンシングライブラリーの調製によって分析のための準備が整いました。

    10。代表的な結果

    図1 図2 GAPDH上のHeLa細胞からヒトテロメラーゼRNA(TERC)、ネガティブコントロールとして豊富な細胞RNAの濃縮を示しています。 GAPDH RNAのわずか0.46パーセントを取得したのに対し、細胞内に存在するTERCのRNA(〜88%)の大半は、〜200倍の濃縮係数を示す、チャープを行うことによりプルダウンされました。そのような( 図2)は、哺乳動物細胞で発現されていませんLacZ遺伝子RNAを、標的プローブとして非特異的なプローブは、追加のネガティブコントロールとして使用することができます。

    ターゲットlncRNAをバインドすることが期待DNA領域は、通常は定量PCRで測定した負の領域の上に飾られています。 図3は、我々が同じセルラインでのChirp-seqを行うことにより決定した初代ヒト包皮線維芽細胞に4つのギョレメにバインドされたサイトの定量PCRの検証を示しており、一方、 TERCとGAPDH DNAのサイト自体負の制御領域としてRVE。両方とも "偶数"と "奇数"プローブが負の領域に、真のlncRNA結合部位の特徴上の期待ギョレメにバインドされたサイトの得られた同等の濃縮を設定します。

    CHIRP濃縮DNAのハイスループットシーケンシングはlncRNA結合部位のグローバルマップを生成します。 ショウジョウバエ lncRNA roX2は量補償のために必要とされる方法で、X染色体と相互作用することが知られています。 図4は、X染色体の節以上roX2結合プロファイルを示しています。両方とも "偶数"と "奇数"のサンプルが配列決定されていると、独自のノイズがオーバーラップ信号のトラックを生産するために排除されています。それぞれの "ピーク"はここroX2結合の強いサイトを示します。 roX2標的遺伝子の完全なトラックリストは、Chu に記載されている201117。

    図1。
    CHIRP proceの図1のフローチャートdure。クロマチンはlncRNAに架橋されています。in vivoでのタンパク質付加ビオチンタイルプローブはlncRNAをターゲットにハイブリダイズされ、クロマチン複合体は厳しい洗浄に続いて、磁性ストレプトアビジンビーズを用いて精製されています。我々は推定lncRNA結合配列がオレンジ色に図式化されたRNアーゼAとHのカクテルでlncRNA結合したDNAや蛋白質を溶出します。以前にChu に発表され201117

    図2。
    図2人間のTERC RNAのチャープを豊かに。 TERC-asDNAプローブは、細胞のTERC RNAおよびGAPDHの検出限界以下〜88%を取得します。 LacZを-asDNAプローブは陰性対照として使用し、どちらのRNAを取得しています。意味+ SDが表示されます。以前にChu に発表され201117

    図3。
    図3主なヒトのギョレメのChirp-定量PCRのためにエスキン線維芽細胞。NFKBIA、HOXD3-4、SERINC5とABCA2はギョレメと対話する領域です。TERCGAPDHは、ネガティブコントロールとして役立った。意味+ SDが表示されます。以前にChu に発表され201117

    図4。
    図4 SL2 ショウジョウバエの細胞内RNAのroX2のChirp-seqのデータ。 "たとえ"と "奇数"は別々に配列決定した、彼らのデータは、両方の唯一の共通のピークを反映してマージします。マージされたトラックが表示されます。以前にChu に発表され201117

Discussion

ここでは、チャープ配列は、in vivo lncRNA結合部位をゲノムワイドマッピングする方法を説明します。成功の鍵パラメータは、オリゴヌクレオチドプローブおよびグルタルアルデヒド架橋をタイルの分割プールです。アフィニティープローブの設計は、RNA配列与えられた簡単で、RNAの構造や機能ドメインの事前知識を必要としません。 roX2、TERCと、ギョレメの私たちの成功 - 2種の3ではなく別のRNAは - のChirp-seqは多くのlncRNAsに可能性が一般化であることを示唆している。すべての実験では、ケアと適切なコントロールと同様に結果を解釈する必要があります。異なるlncRNA条件の滴定、及び当該異なる親和性プローブ​​または架橋剤の選択などの条件の賢明な変更が必要になる場合があり、RNA-クロマチンの相互作用のさまざまな側面を強調することができます。 CHIP-seqのように、すべてのバインディングイベントは、必ずしも機能的であり、さらなる研究は、RNA oの生物学的影響を把握する必要がありませんクロマチン上でccupancy。それにもかかわらず、我々は何千人も8,9の現在数の他のクロマチン関連lncRNAsの研究者のためにこの技術の多くの興味深いアプリケーションを予見する。 CHIP-seqはDNA-タンパク質相互作用のゲノムワイドな探求のためにドアを開いたように、 "RNAインタラクトーム"のチャープseqの研究は、生物学の多くの新たな道を明らかにすることができます。

Disclosures

C. ChuさんとHYチャンは、この方法に基づいて特許出願に発明者として名前が付けられています。

Acknowledgments

我々はT.ハングアップ、MCに感謝します。ツァイ、O.マナー、E.シーガル、M.黒田、T. Swigut、および議論のためのI. Shestopalov。シンガポール(CC)、NIH R01-CA118750とR01-HG004361(HYC)、および再生医療(HYC)はカリフォルニア工科大学の科学技術研究庁によってサポートされています。 HYCは、ハワード·ヒューズ医学研究所の初期のキャリアの科学者です。

Materials

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Buffer List:
Dissolve a pellet of complete protease inhibitor in 1 ml water as 50x stock. Make 100 mM PMSF in isopropanol (100x stock). Superase-in is used as 200x stock. Store all at -20 °C.
Lysis Buffer:
50 mM Tris-Cl pH 7.0
10 mM EDTA
1% SDS
Always add PMSF, P.I. and Superase-in fresh before use except when washing beads
Proteinase K Buffer (for DNA)
100 mM NaCl
10 mM TrisCl pH 8.0 (For RNA use pH 7.0)
1 mM EDTA
0.5% SDS
Add 5% by volume Proteainse K (Ambion AM2546 20 mg/ml) fresh before use
Hybridization Buffer
750 mM NaCl
1% SDS
50 mM Tris-Cl pH 7.0
1 mM EDTA
15% formamide (store in the dark at 4 °C)
Always add PMSF, P.I. and Superase-in fresh before use
Wash Buffer
2x NaCl and Sodium citrate (SSC) (diluted from 20x SSC Invitrogen stock)
0.5% SDS
Always add PMSF fresh before use
DNA elution Buffer
50 mM NaHCO3
1% SDS
Table of specific reagents and equipment:
Glutaraldehyde (EM grade) Sigma-Aldrich G5882-10x10ml
Motorized pellet mixer VWR international V8185-904
Protease inhibitor Roche Group 11873580001
PMSF Sigma-Aldrich 78830
Superase-in Ambion AM2696
Bioruptor Diagenode UCD-200
Falcon tubes (for sonication) Corning 430790
Proteinase K Ambion AM2546
PCR purification kit Qiagen 28106
C-1 magnetic beads Invitrogen 65002
PMSF Sigma-Aldrich P7626-25G
DynaMag-15 magnet Invitrogen 123-01D
DynaMag-2 magnet Invitrogen 123-21D
MIRNeasy mini kit Qiagen 217004
Rnase H Epicentre Biotechnologies R0601K
Rnase A Sigma-Aldrich R4875-100MG
Phase Lock Gel Heavy 5 PRIME 2302810
Trizol Invitrogen 15596-018
Phenol:chloroform:Isoamyl Invitrogen 15593-031
Chloroform Ricca RSOC0020-1C
GlycoBlue Ambion AM9515
Glycine JT Baker 4057-06
PBS, pH 7.4 Invitrogen 10010-049
Elution Buffer (EB) Qiagen 19086
20x SSC Invitrogen 15557-036
10% SDS Invitrogen 15553-027
DNA-free Ambion AM1906
Buffer kit Ambion AM9010
Formamide Invitrogen 15515-026

DOWNLOAD MATERIALS LIST

References

  1. Koziol, M. J., Rinn, J. L. RNA traffic control of chromatin complexes. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 20, 142-148 (2010).
  2. Mercer, T. R., Dinger, M. E., Mattick, J. S. Long non-coding RNAs: insights into functions. Nat. Rev. Genet. 10, 155-159 (2009).
  3. Rinn, J. L. Functional demarcation of active and silent chromatin domains in human HOX loci by noncoding RNAs. Cell. 129, 1311-1323 (2007).
  4. Zhao, J., Sun, B. K., Erwin, J. A., Song, J. J., Lee, J. T. Polycomb proteins targeted by a short repeat RNA to the mouse X chromosome. Science. 322, 750-756 (2008).
  5. Kelley, R. L. Epigenetic spreading of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex from roX RNA genes into flanking chromatin. Cell. 98, 513-522 (1999).
  6. Pandey, R. R. Kcnq1ot1 antisense noncoding RNA mediates lineage-specific transcriptional silencing through chromatin-level regulation. Mol. Cell. 32, 232-246 (2008).
  7. Wang, K. C. A long noncoding RNA maintains active chromatin to coordinate homeotic gene expression. Nature. 472, 120-124 (2011).
  8. Khalil, A. M. Many human large intergenic noncoding RNAs associate with chromatin-modifying complexes and affect gene expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 11667-11672 (2009).
  9. Zhao, J. Genome-wide identification of polycomb-associated RNAs by RIP-seq. Mol. Cell. 40, 939-953 (2010).
  10. Meller, V. H., Wu, K. H., Roman, G., Kuroda, M. I., Davis, R. L. roX1 RNA paints the X chromosome of male Drosophila and is regulated by the dosage compensation system. Cell. 88, 445-457 (1997).
  11. Franke, A., Baker, B. S. The rox1 and rox2 RNAs are essential components of the compensasome, which mediates dosage compensation in Drosophila. Mol. Cell. 4, 117-122 (1999).
  12. Gupta, R. A. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer metastasis. Nature. 464, 1071-1076 (2010).
  13. Tsai, M. C. Long noncoding RNA as modular scaffold of histone modification complexes. Science. 329, 689-693 (2010).
  14. Zappulla, D. C., Cech, T. R. RNA as a flexible scaffold for proteins: yeast telomerase and beyond. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol.. 71, 217-224 (2006).
  15. Nagano, T. The Air noncoding RNA epigenetically silences transcription by targeting G9a to chromatin. Science. 322, 1717-1720 (2008).
  16. Carter, D., Chakalova, L., Osborne, C. S., Dai, Y. F., Fraser, P. Long-range chromatin regulatory interactions in vivo. Nature. 32, 623-626 (2002).
  17. Chu, C., Qu, K., Zhong, F. L., Artandi, S. E., Chang, H. Y. Genomic Maps of Long Noncoding RNA Occupancy Reveal Principles of RNA-Chromatin Interactions. Mol. Cell. (2011).
  18. Raj, A., van den Bogaard, P., Rifkin, S. A., van Oudenaarden, A., Tyagi, S. Imaging individual mRNA molecules using multiple singly labeled probes. Nat. Methods. 5, 877-879 (2008).

Comments

84 Comments

  1. hi,i has a great interest on CHIRP and your works are highly appreciated,but i want to know that where can i find the buffer list?thank you

    Reply
    Posted by: tang n.
    May 5, 2012 - 4:16 AM
  2. Hi there, thanks for the interest in our paper. As you pointed out the original article lacked the buffer list, which we have uploaded a while ago. Hope it helps!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    December 18, 2012 - 5:20 PM
  3. Hello, I'm trying to perform ChIRP experiments and your protocol is very helpful to me.

    However, I have a question about the final concentration of biotinylated probes and the volume of the beads.
    My probes are 100µM so 1µL corresponds to 100pmol. I have 50 probes and my question is : should I use 100µL of magnetic C1 beads per 100pmol of probe, so in my case, 50 probes x 100µL = 5mL of beads ?

    Thanks a lot for the answer ?

    Reply
    Posted by: Sylvain F.
    October 31, 2012 - 4:47 AM
  4. I also have this question!

    Reply
    Posted by: Guihai f.
    November 28, 2012 - 7:51 AM
  5. Hi guys, thanks for the interest in our paper. That's indeed a common question I get, so apologize for not explaining that more clearly in the paper. The 100uM concentration refers to all probes, so if you have ² probes in the pool the individual concentration is 50uM per probe, and if you have 50 probes it's ²uM per probe. It follows that as you scale up number of probes in the pool you do not have to scale up the amount of beads to add. As a caution though, we have noticed that when I use too many probes the concentration of each probe drops too much and it actually adversely affects yield. Try not to use more than 50 probes if possible.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    December 18, 2012 - 5:23 PM
  6. what is the fucntion of the Buffer kit ? I can not find it in the protocol.

    Thanks for your time!

    Reply
    Posted by: Guihai f.
    November 1, 2012 - 12:50 AM
  7. The buffer kit is simply a convenient collection of buffers provided by Ambion that includes 5M NaCl, 1M Tris, 0.5M EDTA, etc..

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    December 18, 2012 - 5:25 PM
  8. Hi, I refer to your paper in HOTAIR ChIRP. You used 48 oligo probes for this ncRNA. I am trying to do a HOTAIR ChIRP. I am wondering if the number of probes can be smaller to reduce cost without a huge compromise on specificity. Furthermore, I am not doing sequencing but a specific check on a genomic region of interest, so I supposed the background noise may be lower? Thank you!

    Reply
    Posted by: Yi Fang L.
    November 8, 2012 - 5:11 AM
  9. We share your desire to reduce number of probes used. In preliminary testing I've found that you can use as few as 1 probe per ²00 nucleotide of RNA target RNA. But that number has to be doubled considering if you need both "even" and "odd" set, so effectively tiling density is 1 probe / 100nt.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    December 18, 2012 - 5:28 PM
  10. Hello,
    I enjoyed your paper very much.

    At the end of the video, and in the figure, you mention that in this process you can isolate RNA binding proteins that were associated with the RNA. My questions are: have you had success in doing this? What is the protocol for isolating the proteins? Do you just isolate the protein fraction from the Trizol, or is there a more specialized method? Is there a paper that may lay out use of this method?

    Thank you for your help.

    Reply
    Posted by: Gavin J.
    January 18, 2013 - 12:09 PM
  11. Hi,
    Great protocol. Just one question. You mention that all ChIRP steps have to be performed at 37C. I can imagine this is important for the hybridisation steps, but I was wondering why this was needed for the washing steps as well?

    Many thanks

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastian V.
    March 15, 2013 - 10:21 AM
  12. The washing should be performed at 37C just like you would wash a northern blot at elevated temperatures. If this is logistically difficult for you, just warming up the buffer to 37C and washing on a room temp. shaker works well too.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    March 15, 2013 - 1:47 PM
  13. Hello,
    Thanks for the detailed and very helpful protocol. Can you tell me what kind of DNA yields to expect from the pull down per input cell amount? I know it will depend on the lncRNA targeted, but I need an idea of what kind of amounts to expect. Could you tell me what you got for your HOTAIR hybridizations? My own hybs only result in a few nanograms of DNA, and I don't know how to determine whether that is nonspecific DNA binding to my beads or whether it is actual lncRNA-bound DNA? How do you control for this? Thank you for your help in advance.

    Reply
    Posted by: blake e.
    March 20, 2013 - 5:44 AM
  14. Hi,

    Congrats for setting up such a protocol. It might have been discussed already but I would like to have an idea about the typical amounts of DNA and RNA that one might expect from 20 x 10 ^6 cells. This of course is transcript specific, but should we expect nanograms, picograms for either DNA and RNA?

    Also have you tried FA instead of glutaraldehyde for x-linking? Many thanks for your time

    Reply
    Posted by: Antonis A.
    November 26, 2013 - 12:15 PM
  15. Hi,

    Thanks for the detailed protocol. I am about to embark on it over the next week or so and had a question regarding the sonication. You advise a Bioruptor for this step however we only have a Covaris available. Would that provide acceptable sonication and do you have any advice regarding appropriate settings?

    Thank you

    Joshua

    Reply
    Posted by: joshua b.
    March 2, 2014 - 12:24 AM
  16. Yes Covaris works, we've found that it generally reduces sonication time by 30-50% compared with Diagenode. Actual time and intensity needs to be optimized for each machine and cell line.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    March 3, 2014 - 5:51 PM
  17. Hi,

    Thanks for the detailed protocol. I am about to embark on it over the next week or so and had a question regarding the sonication. You advise a Bioruptor for this step however we only have a Covaris available. Would that provide acceptable sonication and do you have any advice regarding appropriate settings?

    Thank you

    Joshua

    Reply
    Posted by: joshua b.
    March 2, 2014 - 6:32 AM
  18. To all interested ChIRPers, hybridization can be performed overnight instead of 4hours. Doing so greatly reduces hands-on time. Happy ChIRPing!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    March 3, 2014 - 8:14 PM
  19. Hi Ci,

    I have one more issue to resolve regarding ChIRPseq that I would appreciate your input on please (or other ChIRPers that have had similar problems).

    We have been unable to produce lysates using glutaraldehyde despite following the protocol to the letter and getting the Sigma brand that is recommended. Even before sonication, the DNA is degraded to a thick band below 200bp. When we try exactly the same process but substitute 1% formaldehyde (which we normally use for ChIP and 3C) or even plain PBS, the DNA is fine. We have even tried doing everything on ice and reducing the centrifuge steps to only 500g but to no avail.

    My questions therefore are:

    1/ Has your team had similar issues with glutaraldehyde in the past or found it to behave quite differently to formaldehyde (apart from needed longer sonication and harder centrifuging)?
    2/ Though you have shown glutaraldehyde to give a better signal to noise ratio, could we still expect to get usable data using 1% formaldehyde or is it not worth the time and effort?

    Thank you for your time

    Joshua Betts

    Reply
    Posted by: joshua b.
    April 16, 2014 - 8:07 AM
  20. Dear Joshua,

    Thanks for your interest in our protocol. It's unfortunate to hear that you're experiencing DNA degradation. We've never experienced this issue, nor have we heard similar problems from our collaborators who successfully did ChIRP. Usually we're more concerned with RNA integrity, naturally, and if you're careful that's not a problem either.

    Could you tell me how you're extracting DNA, especially prior to sonication?

    Regarding alternative crosslinking methods, for certain lncRNAs we've found that strong formaldehyde crosslinking also works (3% for 30min is a good starting point). 1% formaldehyde usually does not work.

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 16, 2014 - 1:55 PM
  21. Dear Chu,

    Thank you for your advice - I will try the protocol again but substitute 3% formaldehyde for the glutaraldehyde. Does that require any other adjustments apart from slower centrifuge spins and shorter sonication times?

    In regards to my DNA isolation, I lysed the cells as per the protocol and then treated with proteinase K for 45mins (at 50deg or 65deg - either seemed ok). I then RNAse treated the sample and either phenol chloroform extracted the DNA or instead used the Qiagen PCR columns before running the product on a 1% agarose gel. The columns gave more of a smear on the gel, whilst the phenol chloroform extraction just had a broad band below 100bp.

    When I performed exactly the same procedures on formaldehyde treated cells, I obtained a bright band of gDNA at the top of the gel as well as a more faint diffuse band below 100bp. This is what we normally see when working with formaldehyde. Am I right to expect a strong band of genomic DNA on the gel when using glutaraldehyde before sonication, or does the glutaraldehyde break the gDNA down during the fixation process? Does your glutaraldehyde fixed sample normally start as a broad smear even prior to sonication?

    Our group has a lot of experience with ChIPseq, 3C and 4Cseq library preparation but we have never dealt with glutaraldehyde before so are unsure what to expect.

    Any further suggestions would be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks

    Joshua

    Reply
    Posted by: joshua b.
    April 24, 2014 - 9:26 AM
  22. Before preparing your ChIRP library for sequencing, do you check your DNA size distribution (for example using Agilent Bioanalyzer). If so, do you see a similar distribution to that seen for a typical ChIP sample (200-800 bp range)?

    Reply
    Posted by: Eric S.
    August 29, 2014 - 2:43 PM
  23. Dear Chu
    I have two questions:
    1.In designing your chirp oligos have you tried to reduce the spacer between biotin-oligonucleotides. Is there any steric reason for choosing 1 probe / 100nt?
    2. Did you tried to crosslink adherent cells directly on plate? we have problem in properly resuspend our differentiated murine myoblasts in PBS+glutaraldehyde.

    thanks in advance
    regards

    Mariangela

    Reply
    Posted by: Mariangela M.
    October 16, 2014 - 9:56 AM
  24. Dear Mariangela,

    1. It's both a cost consideration (fewer probes are cheaper) and also a biochemical noise consideration (more probes introduce higher chances for probe:DNA direct hybridization).

    2. Yes we've found no difference fixing on plate vs. in suspension. Feel free to pick and choose what works best for you.

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    October 17, 2014 - 10:43 PM
  25. Dear ChIRP community,

    We are having problems getting ChiRP peaks with our transcripts. We have tried ChiRPing against 4 different transcripts and for all of them we were able to get very good fold enrichments in the genomic locus of each transcript (on average 50 to 200 x over background) capturing native transcription but we cannot find other binding sites in the genome for any of them. We have good reasons to believe that some or all of our transcripts are chromatin localized and we also know that the signal in the genomic loci is RNA dependent because it is dramatically reduced when we ChiRP after knocking down our transcripts of interest.

    Our transcripts are low in expression, on average 3 to 10 copies per cell. Any ideas as to how can we improve/solve the issue? Is it abundance that is limiting the system? Has anyone experienced/solved something similar?
    We tried the normal protocol, and now we are trying with 3 % FA in parallel to glut. Any suggestions would be very welcomed!

    Antonis

    Reply
    Posted by: Antonis A.
    November 13, 2014 - 5:18 AM
  26. Hi Antonis, I'm afraid the copy number is simply too low. In all of the ChIRP paper published so far I don't think anyone went that low.

    Your enrichment of the genomic loci could be complicated by ChIRP probes pulling down the DNA directly. Do an RNase-control to see if the signal is still there.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    November 13, 2014 - 8:52 AM
  27. Dear Chu,

    Thank you for the prompt reply-yes I know that with such expression levels, ChIRP is challenging. I can try the RNase control but as mentioned I am confident about the RNA-dependence of the signal, because it falls back to LacZ levels when I knock down the transcripts. I guess we will have to try increasing the sensitivity of the experiment. Could an increase in x-linking time help here, have you guys tried 20 min of glut x-linking?

    Reply
    Posted by: Antonis A.
    November 18, 2014 - 3:28 AM
  28. Hello,
    I enjoyed your paper very much.

    At the end of the video, and in the figure, you mention that in this process you can isolate RNA binding proteins that were associated with the RNA. My questions are: have you had success in doing this? What is the protocol for isolating the proteins? Do you just isolate the protein fraction from the Trizol, or is there a more specialized method? Is there a paper that may lay out use of this method?

    Thank you for your help.

    Reply
    Posted by: jason h.
    November 26, 2014 - 10:15 PM
  29. Dear ChIRPers, we're happy to announce that you can now officially design and order ChIRP from Biosearch Technologies (Single molecule fish). Scientists developing ChIRP probes using the Stellaris probe designer and following the guidelines from our publication can now email Sheila Semaan at Biosearch Technologies, Inc. for help with ordering the probes in the proper format. Sheila’s contact info is as follows:

    Sheila J. Semaan, Ph.D., Associate Product Manager
    Biosearch Technologies, Inc.
    Email: ssemaan@biosearchtech.com

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    December 17, 2014 - 9:33 AM
  30. Dear ChIRP community,

    You can soon study RNA-protein interactions in vivo using ChIRP-mass spec. The story is coming out in Cell on April 2nd. Stay tuned!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    March 25, 2015 - 5:42 AM
  31. Hello, thank you for the protocol! I also want to perform a RNA pulldown using your protocol and i am very excited for your RNA-protein interaction protocol! I have one question regarding the biotin oligos. Do they need to be 3' biotinylated or can they also be 5' biotinylated. Have you tested this? And you say nothing about (salt, HPLC) purification of the oligos. Thanks for answering my questions.

    Reply
    Posted by: Christine C.
    March 30, 2015 - 10:01 AM
  32. and is it necessary to order Biotin-TEG oligos or is "standard" biotin sufficient?

    Reply
    Posted by: Christine C.
    March 30, 2015 - 11:33 AM
  33. Hi Christine, thanks for your interest in our technique. Regarding your questions:

    1) 3' biotinylation is preferred, because oligos are synthesized 3' to 5'. This way, we ensure all oligos start with a biotin tag. 5' biotin tags are usually added to a synthesized oligo, and that increases the chance of untagged probes, which is less than ideal. However if you can ensure high tagging efficiency on 5' end, and the cost is advantageous, I don't see why it won't work!

    2) We use a disposable reverse phase column called "Glen-Pak DNA purification cartridge," which is a very efficient and cost-effective system. These are really short DNA probes and HPLC or PAGE would be necessary (also probably can't tell tag from untag probes).

    3) TEG ensures no steric hindrance, I don't have hard evidence on this but I think it's necessary.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    March 30, 2015 - 10:03 PM
  34. Thank you for your answers! As I am performing your protocol with the aim of an RNA-protein pulldown, i have some other questions regarding the protocol, if you don't mind.

    - in the protocol before washed your magnetic beads in unsupplemented lysis buffer and you blocked the magnetic beads using BSA and yeast RNA- in the latest protocol you don't block. Why is that?

    - ChIRP-MS requires 100 Mio cells, ChIRP-seq 20 Mio cells. If i want to perform ChIRP-MS (or western blot) do i need 100 pmol of probe for each 20 Mio cells --> 500 pmol of probe for ChIRP-MS? --> 500 µl beads(??)

    Reply
    Posted by: Christine C.
    April 8, 2015 - 8:12 AM
  35. Hi Christine,

    - We no longer block as there's no difference in results, and we prefer a more streamlined protocol. BSA would also potentially contaminate ms results.

    - yes scale up beads accordingly. We do 1ml beads per experiment routinely. It gets expensive, but hopefully you'd only have to do it once or twice, and validate with western in a smaller scale later. For western of more abundant chirp hits, I do from 1/5 of cell pellets, but for less abundant ones I still use full amount.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 8, 2015 - 11:36 PM
  36. Dear ChIRPers,

    ChIRP mass spec has just come online today at Cell. We're very pleased to introduce a very robust and straight-forward method that's optimized to study lncRNA:protein interactions. Check out the story at:

    http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(15)00312-8

    Happy ChIRPing!

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 2, 2015 - 9:00 PM
  37. Dear ChIRPers,

    Now you can easily design and order ChIRP probes with the latest optimization from Biosearch Technologies, the company that invented Single Molecule FISH.

    https://www.biosearchtech.com/chirpdesigner/

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 2, 2015 - 10:24 PM
  38. Hi, i'm trying to perform ChIRP-western and i have some questions concerning the methods.

    1) for a control, i also want to see if my RNA is present: how can i get a small aliquot of post-ChIRP beads to perform RNA elution with this aliquot
    2) for the protein biotin elution buffer: resuspend beads in what volume?
    3) for ChIRP-MS lysates are incubated with 30µl beads - can i reuse them?

    thank you in advance!

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    April 14, 2015 - 7:18 AM
  39. Hi Carolin,

    thank you for your interested in our method.

    1) yes that's what we we as well. Simply take a 1% or 10% aliquot of your post-wash beads, and extract RNA.

    2) that's dependent on your starting beads volume. But there's a practical constraint, you don't want to have so much volume that after addition of TCA will exceed the capacity of an eppendorf tube.

    3) I'm not sure if I understand your question. Reuse lysate or beads?

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 15, 2015 - 12:20 AM
  40. thank you for the answers!
    to 2) again: if my beads are 100µl starting volume - so i resuspend 2x in biotin elution buffer and pool. Is 2x100µl then enough? and then add 25% of 100%TCA (50µl)?
    to 3) my question is, if i reuse the beads in the hybridization step. and just add another 70 µl beads (=100µl beads)

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    April 24, 2015 - 11:23 AM
  41. so what do you recommend for my previous questions 2) and 3)

    another question: how do you calculate the amount of RNA retrieved? I retrieve only 10% of my RNA of interest calculated as % of Input. Furthermore,when i took a sample of what hasn't bound (after hybridization and capture of the beads) i get only 15% (fraction of washing doesn't include much RNA). so where has my RNA gone? i repeated several times… degradation?

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    May 20, 2015 - 5:13 AM
  42. Hi, Carolin
    I am also, using ChiRP. Can you tell me the equation you used to calculate the % of your retrieval

    thanks

    Reply
    Posted by: u.
    June 28, 2016 - 1:22 AM
  43. Hi Carolin, May I ask in the end with your 10-20% retrieval rate of RNA, can you identify new proteins by MS via UV crosslink? Thanks.

    Reply
    Posted by: Zhenqiu H.
    May 17, 2018 - 6:20 PM
  44. Dear ChIRPers, we're glad to introduce the Magna ChIRP kit from Millipore. It's a simple pre-made reagent set for scientists who prefer the reliability and user-friendliness of a reputable brand.

    https://www.emdmillipore.com/US/en/product/EZ--Magna-ChIRP-RNA-Interactome-Kit---Isolation-and-characterization-of-non-coding-RNA%3Achromatin-complexes,MM_NF-17-10495

    Happy ChIRPing!

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 15, 2015 - 12:35 AM
  45. Hi Chu

    Thanks for sharing this information.
    Did anyone try this kit already and how good is it? Kits are easy to use and save time for reagents.

    Reply
    Posted by: Liu Z.
    April 16, 2015 - 5:17 PM
  46. Dear Chu,

    Many thanks for your excellent protocol. I'm designing a probe set and have been looking at the probes you designed for HOTAIR and XIST for inspiration. I noticed that some of the probes designed for XIST target the sequence at multiple loci (e.g. Probe 10), albeit ocassionally with a single base mismatch. Either way, I assume this may reduce the number of probes needed. Could I ask whether this was a deliberate design strategy and, if so, does the Biosearchtech ChIRP designer incorporate this strategy?

    Thanks

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastian V.
    April 16, 2015 - 11:31 AM
  47. Dear Chu

    I feel exciting when I am reading your chirp paper in molecular cell. I have 2 questions that need your input.

    1) Have you or others you know tried in vivo tissue samples and if so how it works? I realized that your molecular cell and the latest cell paper used cell lines primarily.

    2) If I have a non-coding RNA which is 400 bp alone, and cannot generate more than 8 probes based on the parameters provided by https://www.biosearchtech.com/chirpdesigner/ ? What should I do ? Could I just reduce the spacer length between odd and even probes ? do you think it will increase background due to the increased probe density?

    Thanks

    Zhiyong

    Reply
    Posted by: Liu Z.
    April 16, 2015 - 4:49 PM
  48. Hi Zhiyong,

    Thank you for your kind words about our paper. Regarding your questions:

    1) Yes we have ChIRPed in drosophila tissues with great success. The key is probably to have small enough chunks of tissue that can be crosslinked effectively and thoroughly.

    2) Email the Biosearchtech team and they can help you manually reduce the number of probes.

    Good luck!

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    May 22, 2015 - 11:15 PM
  49. hey there, i was able to retrieve RNA with your method, but i'm not retrieving RNA bound protein (even though i did see a milky pellet after TCA and acetone treatment). i cross link with UV but the other steps i perform are just the same you are doing.
    i'm not so sure about this competetive elution method by using free d-biotin - and do you no longer add protease inhibitors in your buffer? the beads are simply eluted by using biotin buffer, rotate sample for 20 min,RT and 10 min mixing at 65°C (x2). This is it? then everything should be in my buffer and i continue with TCA precipitation ON.
    sorry if i this sounds stupid to you. i'm just looking for mistakes i could have made...

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    June 10, 2015 - 10:32 AM
  50. Hi Carolin, I'm glad you're able to get RNA yield, that's a very good sign. The reason that you're not getting proteins could be: 1) mass spec instrument not sensitive enough. The quality of your results varies A LOT with who runs your mass spec. We've had amazing experience with Bill Lane at Harvard. 2) UV cross linking is known to be super low yield. Unless your lncRNA is very abundant or you're prepared to start with a huge amount of material, I would suggest formaldehyde as your first step. 3) TCA and cold acetone with give you a tiny pellet no matter what (the detergent acts as a carrier that will precipitate by itself even in the absence of proteins). So unless you see a sizable pellet, the presence of a pellet itself doesn't mean anything. d-biotin elution is complete, assuming you're using the C1 beads and biotin from invitrogen. Protease inhibitors are absent at the elution step, because your solution should be quite pure and free of contaminating proteases at that point assuming good lab practice. Hope this helps!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    June 10, 2015 - 5:45 PM
  51. hey ci! thank you for your answers!
    1) i'm doing western blot as a start, later on i will do mass spec - so thank you for your tip&hint! as i already know a 100% candidate to get retrieved with my (cytoplasmic) mRNA, i stained for this candidate and got no result.
    2) you also mentioned uv-crosslinking in your first protocol, do you have a comment or any experience on the time of cross linking or amount of joules? so far i cross linked 150mj/cm^2 but I'm thinking to increase that. also i need to scale up my cells/beads/probe as you're saying. i do not know if formaldehyde cross linking works in my case, as i have cytosolic mrna.
    3) yes I'm using c1 dynabeads and d-biotin from invitrogen! thanks for the explanation, that helps!

    thank you very much for your quick answers, tips and hints!

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    June 11, 2015 - 8:43 AM
  52. hey there, repeated the experiment - this time i used 200 Mio MEF cells - 10 ml lysate and 1 ml beads, 10µl probe. i also increased cross linking to 300 mj/cm^2 - still no proteins (known RNA binding protein) detectable via western blot. i confirmed RNA pulldown via qPCR after cross linking from a small fraction of beads.
    is sonication necessary?
    any troubleshooting ideas?

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    June 17, 2015 - 11:38 AM
  53. I would start with formaldehyde first. UV is known to cross link very inefficiently, and certain residues of contact may not be amenable to photocrosslinking at all. Yes sonication is necessary to soluble the cell lysate.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    June 19, 2015 - 2:37 PM
  54. i'm using your 25%TCA / Aceton precipitation method to precipitate my proteins. Have you also experienced a pH change (when adding laemmli it turns green/yellow) due to rest TCA? And i think i don't get my pellet resuspended - even after mixing and resuspending. Isn't boiling for 30 min, 95°C destroying the proteins?

    Posted by: Carolin C.
    July 10, 2015 - 7:30 AM
  55. Yes I have had similar experiences before: pH change usually can be prevented by more careful and thorough acetone washes (although need to care not to disturb pellet), and over drying will cause difficulty in resuspension. I never air dry for over a minute. Boiling is completely fine. Try using the LDS samples buffer / Bis-tris gel system from invitrogen, these work great on chirp samples. If you are still having issues with pH, you can manually adjust a little with a moderate alkaline buffer.

    Posted by: Ci C.
    July 10, 2015 - 10:59 PM
  56. Hi Carolin,

    I've the same problem as you had. I could only retrieve 10-15% of RNA when compare to input RNA. Could you please share how you sort this problem?

    Thank you in advance!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ganeshkumar A.
    July 23, 2015 - 4:25 AM
  57. Hi Ganeshkumar, unfortunately i didn't solve the problem… but i found more RNA of interest in my beads when i directly resuspended them in trizol (leaving out proteinase K treatment) - since i'm interested in my proteins bound to the RNA the proteinase K treatment step is of no importance to me. But so far i still couldn't retrieve my RNA bound proteins.

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    July 23, 2015 - 5:19 AM
  58. Hi Carolin,

    Thanks for your immediate reply. I'll also avoid Proteinase K step and try again.
    I've one more question. We always do two step RT-qPCR. So, the amount of RNA that I retrieve isn't enough to perform a RT reaction. How do you do your RT-qPCR? This question maybe a bit stupid, but i really wanna sort out all the issues as early as possible.

    Thanks in advance.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ganeshkumar A.
    July 23, 2015 - 5:27 AM
  59. Hello,
    my RNA amount is also quite low, measured by Nanodrop (Once i measured with qubit and could't get anything). I'm using max. volume possible for RT reaction and adapt for input, not bound… Then i perform qPCR with my cDNA

    But i suppose you cannot skip proteinase K step when your lysate is formaldehyde treated, or you need to boil it first to reverse the crosslink. i diluted my beads in trizol when i had non-crosslinked samples to check for retrieval percentage

    Posted by: Carolin C.
    July 23, 2015 - 7:12 AM
  60. We always do a one-step qRT-PCR (i.e. each qPCR well runs it's own RT). This in my hands is much more sensitive and convenient as well (you don't have to measure RNA or cDNA, just load equal portions of each sample). We use Strategene Brilliant II SYBR reagents and Roche 480 machine. Let me know if this helps with yield detected.

    Posted by: Ci C.
    August 4, 2015 - 8:32 AM
  61. Hi Ci,

    I did gene specific cDNA synthesis with 10ng of RNA from all conditions and treated with RNase H and A (in excess) and then proceeded to qPCR. This worked good for me and I'm getting around 14-25 fold enrichment in my odd and even probe samples when compared to input.

    Thank you and Carolin for your suggestions.

    Posted by: Ganeshkumar A.
    August 4, 2015 - 10:43 AM
  62. Hello,
    i have not yet retrieved any RNA bound protein, so i'm thinking about what issues to sort out. i have to say i can retrieve my RNA of interest (but only max. 20% of input)

    i'm wondering about the protein amount in your formaldehyde cross linked, sonicated and hypotone lysed cell lysats. I experienced the protein amount (measured with Bradford) to be 5-8 fold lower compared to uncross linked or Uv cross linked cells treated with a NP40 lysis buffer.
    Why is that, and will it affect my experiments? Any ideas why the protein amount is so low?
    Thank you in advance!

    Reply
    Posted by: Christine C.
    July 23, 2015 - 5:47 AM
  63. Hi Christine, off the top of my head the two main reason for less protein detected upon cross linking is 1) insufficient sonication, and 2) insufficient reverse cross linking (i.e. boiling). Regarding 1), you have to titrate sonication time of your lysate, and pick the minimum sonication required to release all proteins and RNA of interest. To test this, precipitate the lysate post sonication for 10 min at max speed, and run qRTPCR against your RNA of interest and western against the protein on both the supernatant and pellet, the latter resuspended in appropriate buffer. This way you'll know if there's anything left to be solubilized. 3% cross linked lysates can take significantly longer to solublized than your typical ChIP cross linking.

    Regarding 2), do no less than 30min boiling in sample buffer. I've titrate that also, and 10min or 20min recovers much less protein.

    Let me know if these help and let's start from here. Good luck!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    August 4, 2015 - 8:29 AM
  64. Hello,
    Many thanks again for this superb protocol. I'm currently trying to optimise this for mRNA pull-down from fixed cells. I've tried various fixing conditions in parallel and dot-blotted for my RBP of interest vs a non-binding protein (GAPDH) after performing ChIRP. I found that 1% glutaraldehyde (10 min) samples blotted strongly for my RBP, but produced an equally strong signal for GAPDH. The latter was also the case for 3% formaldehyde (10 min), but blots of both GAPDH and my RBP weren't as strong. The only sample that showed a slightly stronger signal of the RBP vs GAPDH was 1% formaldehyde (10 min), but both signals were quite weak. All samples were sonicated for several 30 sec ON and 45 OFF cycles at maximum intensity before foaming to produce sheared RNA of <500 bp in optically clear samples.

    I tested the expression of mRNA of interest in samples pulled down with my tiling oligo set compared with a run using non-targeting scrabled oligos. A capture on unfixed cells produced a very high target yield in the tiling oligo sample and no mRNA in the scrambled control sample. However, performing the same pull down in the 1% formaldehyde-fixed+sonicated samples dramatically increased background (GAPDH mRNA) compared to the scrambled control. I'm curious if you found anything similar during the development of ChIRP and ChIRP-MS and if you might have any solutions? Would extra sonication perhaps help?

    Many thanks

    Sebastian Vencken PhD
    Post-Doctoral Researcher

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastian V.
    September 13, 2015 - 8:06 PM
  65. Hi Sebastian,

    Have you had any luck adapting this technique to mRNA capture?

    Best,
    Mike

    Reply
    Posted by: Michael K.
    December 7, 2016 - 4:48 PM
  66. Mixed results to be honest. We went forward with 1% formaldehyde and tried different forms of sonication (incl. covaris which didn't give us effective fragmentation). Biased background was still an issue and the copurification of our RBP (Ago+miRNA) was much lower than expected. This has apparently successfully been performed before (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23325846) but we didn't manage to reproduce these results for our target.

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastian V.
    December 8, 2016 - 4:15 AM
  67. Thanks for the feedback. Does your miR-CATCH work well/better? Similar idea, no sonication, and probes attached to beads first. Have you ever tried to use this to look for bound proteins?

    I also ran across this mRNA pulldown from yeast (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27641505). They also attached the oligos to the beads first, but the buffers look more like ChIRP.

    Reply
    Posted by: Michael K.
    December 8, 2016 - 11:44 AM
  68. We've had some pretty good results (and publications) from miR-CATCH, but have also discovered that the performance can be very dependent on both the target and oligo design.
    With thorough optimisation we managed to reduce background in miR-CATCH, but each target was a new challenge in this respect.

    We hoped that ChIRP would significantly reduce the issue of background, but we have found balancing fragmentation and signal to be difficult. Dot blots for Ago2 gave us very high background signal in scrambled controls when using gluteraldehyde, while 1% formaldehyde gave some better signal differentiation, but at reduced strength. If I'd take ChIRP further for mRNA:RBP(:miRNA) capture, I'd look at the sonication and fixing steps again as there may be further room for improvement. Unfortunately, I've moved to other things for now.

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastian V.
    December 9, 2016 - 10:42 AM
  69. Hello!

    Many thanks for the detailed protocol, however i am having trouble at crosslinking and sonication steps! I am sorry if it sounds silly but I just want to identifiy what I am missing/doing wrong.

    In the near future, I want to scale up for ChIRP MS, however first want to get these steps right as CHIRP MS would consume 10 times the beads.

    Crosslinking - When I add Glycine to quench formaldehyde, it doesnt change color?

    Sonication - As used by your team, I am using Bioruptor to sonicate the Hela S3 lysate (20 Mi. cells/1ml supplemeted lysis buffer) in 15 ml falcon (Corning) with a probe attached to the cap. I cant seem to get a clear lysate as shown in your video. I have tried sonicating starting from 30 cycles to 300 cycles and it just froths towards the end. After centrifugation to remove cell debris, the lysate is still considerably cloudy.

    I see that a lot of people are working on optimising this method and would appreciate any tips / tricks that might help me get going.

    Looking forward to some suggestions.

    Best regards,
    Minakshi
    PhD Student

    Reply
    Posted by: Minakshi G.
    September 30, 2015 - 5:06 AM
  70. Hi Minakshi, thanks for your interest in our protocol. Re your questions:

    - glycine doesn't change the color of formaldehyde, just glutaraldehyde.
    - check our bioruptor to make sure power is normal and probes are centered correctly. It shouldn't take more than a couple hours even for hardy cell lines. Frosting is strange and indicates to me that you may not be centering the probe correctly and thus losing efficiency.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    November 2, 2015 - 2:46 PM
  71. Hi,
    I would have a question regarding the usage of formamide. My concern is that once the bottle is opened and the
    formamide is exposed to oxygen, it will begin to oxidize to formic acid. Do you take any precautions to prevent oxidation? How do you store formamide for further use? Sigma suggests to purge formamide with nitrogen and store it frozen to prevent oxidation.

    Thanks a lot for your help.

    Best wishes,
    matjaz

    Reply
    Posted by: Matjaz B.
    November 2, 2015 - 4:53 AM
  72. Hi Matjaz, thank you for your interest in our technique. formamide is indeed subject to oxidation and ionization. Re-deionization is laborious, so we tried our best to protect the reagents by parafilming around the bottle cap after each use and store it at 4C. I usually run through a 1 liter bottle in a year with repeated opening and closing, and have not observed any effect on results over time. Hope this helps.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    November 2, 2015 - 2:44 PM
  73. Hello,

    I have another technical question. Even though our probes are very specific (we detect target RNA using different probes with high specificity), we have problem with high DNA background signal. Have you also had a similar problem? One way to resolve the issue would be to pre-clear lysates with beads before the hybridisation step. Have you ever implemented this step? If yes, have you done the pre-clearing in lysis buffer with or without hybridisation buffer?

    Many thanks,

    - matjaz

    Reply
    Posted by: Matjaz B.
    November 3, 2015 - 7:36 AM
  74. Hi Ci,

    Thanks for providing such an excellent protocol. I have a question about probe design. The 3' half of lncRNA I interested in (5kb in length) was fully cover by repeat elements. Because ChIRP probe Designer ignored the repeat sequence when designing probe, I found almost no probe target to the 3' half of this lncRNA. I'm afraid that I will miss all proteins bind to the 3' end of lncRNA if I only use the probe target to the 5' end of lncRNA. I wonder how do you handle lncRNA contains large number of repeat sequence?

    Thanks for any help.

    Sincerely,
    Jian-You

    Reply
    Posted by: Jian-You L.
    December 3, 2015 - 9:48 PM
  75. Hi all!

    Thank you for sharing this protocol!
    I have just analysed the RT-qPCR results coming from the RNA samples in order to analyse the lncRNA retrieval and I have retrieved a very small percentage of the lncRNA. From the input and the ChIRP samples I have used the same volume of sample (for the qPCR, around 36ng for the input and 21g for the ChIRP) and I have obtained a Ct of 30 for the input and 37 for the ChIRP measuring my lncRNA of interest. How do you normalise the results? Do you use the same volume or ng of the different RNA samples? Do you use a normalisation method similar to the ChIP one? https://www.thermofisher.com/uk/en/home/life-science/epigenetics-noncoding-rna-research/chromatin-remodeling/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-chip/chip-analysis.html

    Thank you in advance

    Isabel

    Reply
    Posted by: Isabel R.
    December 17, 2015 - 9:30 AM
  76. Hi, Isabel
    we experience along time to optimize the protocol in our lab around 9 month for lncRNA and we found the result unstable for different lncRNAs but for your normalization we usually use a normalized methods like Chip experiment for both GAPDH and our target,
    Hope that helps
    for more contact amr@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    Reply
    Posted by: u.
    December 8, 2016 - 7:17 PM
  77. Dear Chu:
    Recently I'm trying to perform ChIRP experiments and your detailed protocol is very helpful. However, I have some questions about cell lysis and sonication.
    1. I find that the supplemented lysis buffer cannot lyse the crosslinked cells. The crosslinked cells are only resuspended, after a few minutes they will sink to the bottom of the tube, is it normal?
    2. You emphasize that lysis buffer should be added fresh Protease Inhibitor, PMSF and Superase-in then proceed immediately to sonication after resuspended smooth, however, a sample will be added appropriate supplemented lysis buffer in proportion then devided into several parts to sonicate by limiting ultrasound equipment, and will it be affected?
    3. I only have a Covaris available for sonication in lab, I tried many times but could not find an appropriate setting. My DNA size distribution is normally a bright band of gDNA at the top, a bright band above 2000bp and a diffuse band from 2000bp to 100bp, if I continued to sonicate, the diffuse band would below 100bp, and there were considerably cloudy after centrifuged the sonicated samples. I want to know what and how much influence if DNA smear is less than 100bp or more than 500 bp? Do you have any advice regarding it?
    Looking forward to some suggestions, thank you in advance!
    Best regards
    mixue
    Ph.D. Student

    Reply
    Posted by: he j.
    July 17, 2016 - 3:37 AM
  78. Dear Dr CHU.
    First of all, sorry for my english, but I'm french.
    I work on lncRNA and I really appreciate your two articles on ChIRP and Chirp-MS, and since some months I try to set it up, but unfortunately without result until now.
    => I designed the probes as you know but my lncRNA is about 2.3kb so i was able to design only 26 probes. I also ordered your Positive and Negative Control.
    => I amplified the cells until 200 to 300 million and I cross linked them with 3% formaldehyde 30min and stop it with Glycine 0.125M 5 to 10 min, as you mention.
    => My sonication was tested in order to have a smear of DNA between 100 and 600bp and it took between 120 and 140min. I use a Bioruptore in cold room and I have to change water and ice every 15min in order to maintain the low temperature. Samples are centrifuged and debris are removed.
    => I use 2 to 3 aliquots of 1mL of lysed cells for each test, and the indicated quantity of probes. Of course before incubation, samples are pre-incubated with prewashed beads.
    => First incubation is done at 37 ° C in a shaking system, overnight. Second incubation (after addition of the prewashed beads) is done at 37 ° C for 1 hour.
    => Wash is done 5 times with wash buffer, then samples are eluted (using elution buffer freshly prepared with Sigma-Aldrich Biotine) and precipitated with TCA and Aceton. Pellet are directly dissolved in Laemmli, incubated 30min at 95°C and loaded with 12% acrylamide gel. After 1h at 200V the gel is stained with Coomassie Blue and destained 3 times 45min.
    I found NO BANDS even with Positive and negative controls, but after elution, when I checked the presence of my lncRNA in the sample selected with my probes, the result is positive.

    Could you tell me what are the possible mistakes that I could do ....?
    Thanks a lot.

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastien C.
    January 3, 2017 - 5:02 AM
  79. Dear Dr. Chu,

    Good day! I am Anchilie, a PhD student, and I am really interested in applying your discovered technique in plants. I am currently doing the ChiRP-MS in Arabidopsis but I don't seem to get any RNA-bound proteins in my sample.

    I would just like to briefly tell you how I do the ChiRP-MS in plants. First, I harvest 3g of 14-day old seedlings and crosslinked it with 1% formaldehyde. From these, I then do nuclear extraction and do sonication. From the 1mL sonicated chromatin, I dilute it with 2mL of hybridization buffer, add 1ul probe and 100ul of beads and incubated then in 37C for O/N or 4 hours at 37C. From then I wash the beads 5x and precipitated the proteins using the biotin elution buffer and TCA method. The samples in 1x Laemmli buffer were submitted to LC/MS. I also check the enrichment in the qPCR and are enriched by 500-fold. However, upon analyzing my samples, the mass spec results only detected mitochondrial and chloroplastic proteins in the control and non-coding RNA

    I also tried many things like using 3% formaldehyde and UV crosslinking. I also did direct boiling of beads in Laemmli buffer. I also tried increasing the amount of material 10x accompanied with increasing the probe and the beads.
    But it doesn't really help.

    I would really appreciate to receive some feedback from you and your group with this matter.

    Best regards,
    Anchilie

    Reply
    Posted by: Anchilie M.
    February 27, 2017 - 4:49 AM
  80. Dear Anchilie,

    I am doing CHIRP in arabidopsis, you are the only only doing CHIRP as far as I know. I met some problems. I couldn't enrich my non coding RNA. So I want to know how did you do your CHIRP? Could you please share your protocol with me? Thanks!

    Reply
    Posted by: Zhi-Hong L.
    June 19, 2017 - 7:56 AM
  81. Hi guys, can anyone help me how the percentage calculation for lncRNA retrieval is done.

    Thank you

    Reply
    Posted by: Sunil B.
    June 22, 2017 - 3:58 PM
  82. Hi,

    Thank you for sharing this protocol, I have a question. If I want to study the potential interaction between a protein and a long non coding RNA in rDNA locus (or eventually with the rDNA directly), do you think that your kit will work ?
    Thank you for your answer

    Reply
    Posted by: Burette M.
    April 12, 2018 - 3:27 AM
  83. Dear professor,
    Thank you for sharing this protocol! It helps me a lot. I have a question to ask. Since ultrasound may break the hydrogen bond, I want to ask whether it is necessary to perform sonication when I study weak RNA-RNA interaction, for example: lncRNA-miRNA interaction?

    Reply
    Posted by: Zihao L.
    May 26, 2018 - 10:52 PM
  84. Dear professor,

    Any idea if using a probe-based sonication (like the Branson sonifier) would work? Anyone has tried it ?
    in the previous lab, we were using the bioruptor however we don't have it where I am now unfortunately and needed help to optimize it on the Branson or probe-based sonifiers?

    Thanks

    Reply
    Posted by: Anonymous
    March 1, 2020 - 4:26 AM

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